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Neuropsychological disorders

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					 Neuropsychological disorders
• Disorders of the nervous system
• 2 main causes
  – Progressive neurological illness
  – Head injury
    • Closed vs. open
• In most cases damage is permanent
Testing for neurological damage
•   Neuropsyche tests
     – Test for functional ability
•   Psychomotor tests
     – Fingertapping, pegboard
•   Memory tests
     – WMS
     – California Verbal Learning Test
•   Visual/Spatial Tests
     – Bender-Gestalt
•   Executive Functioning
     – Stroop
     – Wisconsin Card Sort Test
     – Trailmaking A&B
•   Language
     – Boston Naming Test
    Stroop
•
Uses of neuropsychological testing
• Comparison with norm
• Comparison with general cognitive ability
  – Memory vs. IQ
• Comparison with self across time
  – Base rate…see progression of illness
    Common problem symptoms
• Memory loss (particularly anterograde)
• Speech disturbances
    – Aphasia
• Motor symptoms
    – Ataxia/apraxia
    – dyskinesia
•   Hemispheral neglect
•   Planning/executive functioning disturbances
•   Agnosia/prosopagnosia
•   Mood disturbances
•   Paranoia in some cases
          Closed head injuries
•   Blunt force trauma injury
•   Coup/contra coup injuries
•   Hematoma
•   Microshear
•   Mixed with alcohol
 Open (Piercing) Head Injuries
• More immediate structural damage
  – Partial ablation of brain
• Less risk of hematoma
              Toxin Exposure
• EtOH
  – Karsikoff’s syndrome
    •   Anterograde anmesia/confabulation
    •   Fine motor tremors/apraxia
    •   Dyskinesia
    •   Confusion
• Lead, mercury, other heavy metals, some
  pesticides linked with dementia
                 Dementia
• Progressive cognitive decline
  – Memory deficit
  – Aphasia
  – Apraxia
  – Paranoia
  – Loss of executive functioning
  – Progressive drop in IQ
Alzheimer’s Disease
• May be cluster of
  related illnesses
  – Causes progressive
    brain tissue damage
  – Most common cause
    of dementia
  – 5-10 year illness span
  – Neurofibrillary tangles
  – Amyloid plaques
  – Cell death in cortex
    and hippocampus
       Parkinson’s Disease
• Progressive decline of dopamineurgic
  centers
  – Gait problems
  – Initiation of movement
  – Dementia in some cases
  – L-Dopa
            Multiple Sclerosis
• Cluster of illnesses…all involve demyelization
  – Genetic, autoimmune, toxin exposure
  – Measles, herpes, chlamydia
• Symptoms: weakness, confusion, memory loss,
  numbness, pain, dizziness, fatigue
  – Relapsing-remitting type
• Treatment: no sure. Common treatments
  include interferon-based agents (Avonex,
  Betaserone)
  – Viral replication interference agents
  – Can cause depression, anemia, liver damage, heart
    problems, thyroid damage

				
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posted:7/19/2013
language:English
pages:12