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SIXTEEN Methods of Persuasion CHAPTER Introduction • When is the last time you used persuasion? • When is the last time someone tried to persuade you? • What is persuasion? • What does persuasion have to do with “power”? Scholars generally agree that listeners are persuaded because: 1. They see speaker as having high credibility. 2. They are won over by evidence. 3. They are convinced by reasoning. 4. Their emotions are touched by the speaker’s ideas or language. Objective 1 Explain the role of speaker credibility in persuasive speaking. Credibility (Ethos) The audience’s perception of how believable a speaker is. Two major factors influencing a speaker’s credibility: • competence • character Objective 2 Define the differences among initial, derived, and terminal credibility. Types of Credibility • Initial – credibility of speaker before she or he starts to speak • Derived – credibility of speaker produced by everything she or he says & does during speech • Terminal – credibility of speaker at the end of speech. Objective 3 Discuss three ways a speaker can enhance credibility during a persuasive speech. Tips for Enhancing Credibility 1. Explain your competence. 2. Establish common ground. 3. Deliver speeches fluently and with conviction. Objective 4 Explain the importance of evidence in persuasive speeches. Evidence and Reasoning (Logos) The name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. Two major elements of logos: • evidence • reasoning Evidence Supporting materials used to prove or disprove something. Tips for Using Evidence • Use specific evidence • Use novel evidence The York New Star • Use evidence from Times credible sources • Clarify point of your evidence • Use current evidence Reasoning The process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence. Four Types of Reasoning • Reasoning from specific instances • Reasoning from principle • Causal reasoning • Analogical reasoning Objective 6 Define reasoning from specific instances and explain the guidelines for using it. Reasoning from Specific Instances Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion. Spaniels Penny, Spot, and Freckles are good family pets. Therefore, spaniels are good family pets. Objective 7 Define reasoning from principle and explain the guidelines for using it. Reasoning from Principle Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion. Spaniels are good family pets. Therefore, Curly, a spaniel, is probably going to make a good family pet. Objective 8 Define causal reasoning and explain the guidelines for using it. Causal Reasoning Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects. effects Larry is an intelligent student who reads his assignments, listens in class, takes good notes, and studies. Therefore, Larry should get good grades. Objective 9 Define analogical reasoning and explain the guidelines for using it. Analogical Reasoning Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second. second Teachers are gardeners, sowing and nurturing seeds of learning. Analogical Reasoning Legalized gambling has produced increased funding for schools in Nevada. It could produce additional funding for Oklahoma. Oklahoma Objective 10 Identify eight logical fallacies discussed in your text and recognize examples of each. Fallacies • Hasty • Red Herring Generalization • Ad Hominem • False Cause • Either-Or (Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc) • Bandwagon • Faulty Analogy • Slippery Slope Hasty Generalization An error in reasoning from specific instances, in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence. False Cause An error in causal reasoning in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second. (post hoc, ergo propter hoc = “after this, therefore because of this.” Invalid Analogy An analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike. to Red Herring A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion. Ad Hominem A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute. Either-Or A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist. During the Vietnam conflict, people were often classified as hawks or doves. or Bandwagon A fallacy which assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable. Slippery Slope A fallacy which assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented. Pathos The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal. Objective 11 Identify three methosds a speaker can use to generate emotional appleal when speaking to persuade. Tips for Generating Emotional Appeal • Use emotional language • Develop vivid examples • Speak with sincerity and conviction The End Exercise for Chap. 16 • See page 458-459 of text. Do exercises 1 and 2.
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