Methods of Persuasion

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          Methods of Persuasion

• When is the last time you used
• When is the last time someone
  tried to persuade you?
• What is persuasion?
• What does persuasion have to
  do with “power”?
        Scholars generally agree that
        listeners are persuaded because:
1. They see speaker as having high
2. They are won over by evidence.
3. They are convinced by reasoning.
4. Their emotions are touched by the
   speaker’s ideas or language.
      Objective 1

 Explain the role of
speaker credibility in
persuasive speaking.
      Credibility (Ethos)
The audience’s perception of
how believable a speaker is.
Two major factors influencing a
speaker’s credibility:
• competence
• character
       Objective 2

Define the differences
 among initial, derived,
and terminal credibility.
          Types of Credibility
• Initial – credibility of speaker
  before she or he starts to speak
• Derived – credibility of speaker
  produced by everything she or he
  says & does during speech
• Terminal – credibility of speaker at
  the end of speech.
      Objective 3

Discuss three ways a
speaker can enhance
 credibility during a
 persuasive speech.
 Tips for Enhancing Credibility

1. Explain your competence.
2. Establish common
3. Deliver speeches fluently
   and with conviction.
        Objective 4

Explain the importance of
 evidence in persuasive
Evidence and Reasoning (Logos)

 The name used by Aristotle for
 the logical appeal of a speaker.

 Two major elements of logos:
 • evidence
 • reasoning

Supporting materials used to
prove or disprove something.
       Tips for Using Evidence
• Use specific evidence
• Use novel evidence
                            The York
                            New Star
• Use evidence from          Times
 credible sources
• Clarify point of your evidence
• Use current evidence
The process of drawing a
conclusion on the basis of
Four Types of Reasoning

• Reasoning from specific
• Reasoning from principle
• Causal reasoning
• Analogical reasoning
      Objective 6

Define reasoning from
specific instances and
explain the guidelines
      for using it.
 Reasoning from Specific Instances

Reasoning that moves
from particular facts to
a general conclusion.

  Spaniels Penny, Spot, and Freckles
  are good family pets. Therefore,
    spaniels are good family pets.
        Objective 7

Define reasoning from
principle and explain the
 guidelines for using it.
     Reasoning from Principle

Reasoning that moves
from a general principle
to a specific conclusion.

    Spaniels are good family pets.
Therefore, Curly, a spaniel, is probably
   going to make a good family pet.
        Objective 8

Define causal reasoning
     and explain the
 guidelines for using it.
          Causal Reasoning
Reasoning that seeks to
establish the relationship
between causes and
Larry is an intelligent student who reads
 his assignments, listens in class, takes
  good notes, and studies. Therefore,
      Larry should get good grades.
        Objective 9

    Define analogical
reasoning and explain the
  guidelines for using it.
         Analogical Reasoning
Reasoning in which a speaker compares
two similar cases and infers that what is
true for the first case is also true for the
     Teachers are gardeners, sowing
     and nurturing seeds of learning.
    Analogical Reasoning
Legalized gambling has produced
  increased funding for schools
   in Nevada. It could produce
       additional funding for

      Objective 10

 Identify eight logical
 fallacies discussed in
your text and recognize
   examples of each.
• Hasty             • Red Herring
  Generalization    • Ad Hominem
• False Cause
                    • Either-Or
  (Post Hoc, Ergo
  Propter Hoc)      • Bandwagon

• Faulty Analogy    • Slippery Slope
   Hasty Generalization

An error in
reasoning from
specific instances,
in which a speaker
jumps to a general
conclusion on the
basis of insufficient
            False Cause
An error in causal reasoning in which
a speaker mistakenly assumes that
because one event follows another,
the first event is the cause of the
second. (post hoc, ergo propter hoc =
“after this, therefore because of this.”
     Invalid Analogy

An analogy in which the
two cases being compared
are not essentially alike.

          Red Herring
A fallacy that
introduces an
irrelevant issue to
divert attention
from the subject
under discussion.
         Ad Hominem
A fallacy that attacks
the person rather than
dealing with the real
issue in dispute.
A fallacy that forces listeners to
choose between two alternatives when
more than two alternatives exist.
During the Vietnam conflict, people were
often classified as hawks or doves.


A fallacy which
assumes that
because something
is popular, it is
therefore good,
correct, or desirable.
         Slippery Slope

A fallacy which
assumes that taking a
first step will lead to
subsequent steps that
cannot be prevented.
The name used by Aristotle
for what modern students of
communication refer to as
emotional appeal.
       Objective 11

Identify three methosds
  a speaker can use to
   generate emotional
 appleal when speaking
       to persuade.
    Tips for Generating
     Emotional Appeal

• Use emotional language

• Develop vivid examples

• Speak with sincerity and
The End
      Exercise for Chap. 16

• See page 458-459 of text. Do
  exercises 1 and 2.

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