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ES Chapter 27 Test Reveiw Guide

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ES Chapter 27 Test Reveiw Guide Powered By Docstoc
					•   List the inner planets.
         Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
2. List the outer planets.
    Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune & Pluto
3. a. Which planets are terrestrial?
         Inner planets
    b. What does terrestrial mean?
         Made of rock or land.
4. What planets are Jovian? Why?
         Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
         All are made of gas.
5. Which planet is neither terrestrial or Jovian?
       Pluto
6. How does Mercury’s period of rotation compare to its
   period of revolution?
       It takes less time for Mercury to pass through a year
       than it does to go through 2 days.
       1 year = 88 Earth days; 1 day = 59 Earth days
7. Why is it difficult to observe Mercury’s surface from Earth?
       Because it is too close to the sun (sun too bright).
8. Which body in the solar system is Mercury’s surface and
   atmosphere similar to?
       Earth’s moon
9. Why do scientists believe that Venus has tectonic activity?
      Because of radar images of Venus’s surface.
10. Describe what happens to Venus as a result of its thick
   carbon dioxide layer.
               The Greenhouse Effect
11. When is Mercury visible?
      As the morning star at sunrise or the evening star at
  sunset.
12. When Venus is visible as the morning star, where is it located
       in relationship to the sun?
               West of the Sun
13. How are Earth and Mars alike?
  They both have a similarly tilted axis, seasons and polar ice
                                caps.
14. Why do scientists think Mars once had water?
       The Valles Marineris (canyon) looks like it was created by
                          water erosion.
15. What type of structure are Jovian planets thought to have?
     Three-layered (rock core, liquid mantle, and outer layer of
                      hydrogen & helium gas)
16. What do all Jovian planets have in common?
                      Made of H and He
                      Larger than terrestrial
                      Gas Planets
17. What characteristic do the Jovian ring systems have?
       Particles orbit independently.
       They are closer to the planets than any major moons.
       They are centered over the planets equator.
18. How much heat does Jupiter radiate?
            More than it absorbs from the sun.
19. What causes Jupiter’s auroras?
  The interaction between its magnetic field and the solar
                           wind.
20. How are Saturn’s colored bands oriented?
           They are parallel to Saturn’s equator.
21. Compare Jupiter and Saturn by the following traits:

              Traits       Jupiter      Saturn
          Magnetic Field   Stronger     Weaker

          Winds Speeds     Weaker      Stronger

          Light received    More          Less

          Colored Bands     More          Less
22. How do the daytime and nighttime temperatures
compare on Uranus?
                  They are about the same.
23. How is Uranus’s axis oriented?
  The axis is horizontal so south pole points toward Sun.
24. Why can scientists accurately measure the rotation rate
of Uranus?
   Its magnetic field & rotational axis points in different
                         directions.
25. Describe Pluto’s orbit.
   The distance from the sun varies more than any other
                          planet.
26. What are satellites?
 Any object (natural or artificial) that orbits another body.
27. List and describe the moons of Mars.
                Phobos and Deimos are irregularly
             shaped and marked with impact craters.
28. Which planets lack satellites?
                        Mercury and Venus.
29. What do geologists believe caused the grooves
    on the lighter areas of Jupiter’s moon, Ganymede?
                 Movement of crystal plates of ice.
30. Describe Jupiter’s moon, Io.
      The surface varies in color from yellow to orange-red;
           The atmosphere contains sulfur dioxide (SO2)
                    Io has erupting volcanoes.
31. What is the most abundant gas in Titan’s
       atmosphere?
                   90 to 100% nitrogen
32. How is Saturn’s moon, Titan, different from all other
moons in our solar system?
                 Titan has an atmosphere.
33. Which of Uranus’s moons has huge, faulted valleys?
                          Titania
34. Which of Uranus’s moons has an unusual dark
surface?
                          Umbriel
35. Uranus’s moon with the partly flooded craters.
                          Oberon
36. Which of Uranus’s moons has a cratered surface with
   crisscrossed with valleys and faults?
                              Ariel
37. The moon of Uranus with the V-shaped grooves and parallel
   ridges over the surface.
                            Miranda
38. What is the name of Pluto’s moon?
                             Charon
39. How did Fred Whipple describe the nucleus of a comet after
   observing Comet Halley in 1986?
     A dirty snowdrift (prior to this described them as dirty
                             snowballs).
40. Why was a comet named after
Edmund Halley?
He correctly predicted its return.
41. When does a comet develop
a tail?
When it comes close to the sun.
42. Where is a comet’s tail relative to the sun?
It always points away from the sun.
The solar wind blows it away from the sun.
42. Where is the densest part of a comet?
                          At the center.
43. What is Ceres? When was Ceres discovered?
The largest asteroid. This spherical asteroid was discovered in
                             1801.
45. In what way are asteroids like planets?
 They are similar in their direction of revolution around the sun.
46. Why does Earth regularly experience meteor showers?
  In the Earth’s path around the sun, it regularly enters meteor
                            swarms.
47. Put the following terms in the correct order of development:
Meteor, meteorite, meteoroid.
                  Meteoroid, meteor, meteorite.
48. List the meteorite types in order from most common to least
common.
                   Stones, irons, stony-irons.
49. On which continent have most meteorites
been found since 1969?
                                       Antarctica
50. How was the Barringer Meteorite crater believed to have
formed?
             The Earth was struck by an iron meteorite.
51. Why are impact craters common surface features on
Mercury and many moons in the solar system?
 Mercury and most moons have little or no atmosphere and
       are geologically inactive (no volcanoes, etc.)
                                           The Barringer Meteorite Crater (also known as
                                           "Meteor Crater") is a gigantic hole in the
                                           middle of the arid sandstone of the Arizona
                                           desert. A rim of smashed and jumbled
                                           boulders, some of them the size of small
                                           houses, rises 150 feet above the level of the
                                           surrounding plain. The crater itself is nearly a
 http://www.barringercrater.com/science/   mile wide, and 570 feet deep.

				
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posted:7/18/2013
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