COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTRISTICS OF 4-CYLINDER 4- STROKE by iaemedu

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									INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
  International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
  6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME
                         AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)                                                    IJMET
Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), pp. 367-372
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI)               ©IAEME
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           COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION
        CHARACTRISTICS OF 4-CYLINDER 4- STROKE CI ENGINE
          FUELED WITH COCONUT OIL-DIESEL FUEL BLEND

                                        Mohsin M Jujara
                             Government engineering college, Godhra


   ABSTRACT

           The objective of the present study is to reveal the effects of pure diesel fuel and
   coconut oil-diesel fuel blends with indirectly heating of coconut-oil at 60 before blending
   with diesel on the performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine. Operation of
   the test engine with pure diesel fuel and coconut oil-diesel fuel blends for a wide range of
   engine speed and 50%load conditions will be shown to be successful even without engine
   modifications. It will be also shown that increasing the amount of coconut oil-diesel fuel
   blend resulted in lower CO, CO2, and NOx emissions and increasing the specific fuel
   consumption of the engine.

   Keywords: Diesel engine; Engine performance; Exhaust emissions; Coconut oil-diesel fuel
   blend.

   INTRODUCTION

           The idea of using biomass-based fuels specifically, vegetable oil fuels as diesel fuel
   alternatives, is not new. Rudolf Diesel demonstrated that his engine would run on peanut oil
   fuel. Since then, various vegetable oils have been tested as diesel fuel alternatives with the
   increased availability of petroleum-based fuels, studies on vegetable fuels decreased. During
   the oil shock period of the 1970s, interest in vegetable oils as alternative fuels again
   resurfaced.
           Recently, the non-oil producing countries increasing concern over their energy
   security coupled with their growing awareness of the environmental problems has led to the
   renewed interest on biomass-based fuels. Why vegetable oil? The reasons can be enumerated

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME

in terms of the environmental impact and the economic benefits of using vegetable oils. It is
known that petroleum or fossil-based fuels are not infinite, although how long the world's oil
supply lasts is still debatable. Vegetable oils are non-toxic, renewable sources of energy,
which do not contribute to the global CO2 buildup. In terms of the economic benefits,
vegetable fuels could be used as an emergency energy source in the event of another
petroleum fuel shortage. For countries like the Philippines, which heavily rely on imported
oil for their energy needs, but which have an abundant supply of vegetable oil (the Philip-
pines is a major coconut oil producing country), the use of vegetable oils could save much
needed foreign reserves. Their use could also revitalize the rural and farming economies,
since a growing demand for vegetable oils will certainly result in their increased production.
With these incentives, the need for further research on the engine performance and exhaust
emissions of coconut oil-based fuels exists. In the present study, the use of vegetable oils as
diesel fuel alternatives is approached in two ways, first in its pure form of diesel, and second,
as blends with diesel fuel. Future work will involve tests on the esteried form of coconut oil.

ENGINE SELECTION

        There is no difference of opinion that India is going to face a severe fuel crisis in
future because fuel consumption has increased in all the vital sectors specially transportation
and agricultural sector. As diesel engines plays an indispensable role in transportation and
agriculture sector and as such diesel consumption will increase multifold in time to come.
The diesel engine continues to dominate the agriculture sector in our country in comparison
to spark ignition engine and have always been preferred widely because of power developed,
specific fuel consumption and durability. A through description of combustion mechanism in
diesel engine is beyond the scope of this study. However, it would be worthwhile to inform
that the fuel is burnt in diesel engine by self ignition at higher temperature and pressure
conditions of the order of 600°C and 40 bar, respectively. Diesel as a fuel is injected into the
combustion chamber at the end of compression stroke and after certain ignition delay; it
burns to give the motive power. In India, almost all irrigation pump sets, tractors, mechanized
farm machinery and heavy transportation vehicle are powered by direct injection diesel
engines. Keeping the specific features of diesel engine in mind, a typical engine system, This
is actually used widely in mahindra automobile engine

                          Table .1 Technical Specification of Engine

                        Engine              Four Cylinder 4- Stroke Engine,
                                                    Water Cooled

                       Bore                             90.9 mm
                      Stroke                           `92.4 mm
                      Power                             40 B.H.P
                      Speed                            3000 Rpm
                  Compression ratio                       16:1




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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME

                Table.2 Comparative properties of diesel fuel and coconut oil

                    Properties                diesel              Coconut oil
             Density(kg/m3)                    828                   890
             Viscosity(pa.s)                 0.00361                0.0365
             Flashpoint(c˚)                     55                   210
             Calorific value(KJ/kg)           43200                 37800
             Molecular weight                 148.6                  198



EXPERIMENTAL SETUP




                 1. Four Cylinder Four Stroke 5.Exhaust Manifold
                 Engine
                 2.Dynamometer                     6.Fuel Tank
                 3. Resistant Load                 7.Inlet Manifold
                 4.Gas Analyser                    8.Air Drum


MEASUREMENT METHODS

        The main components of the experimental setup are fuel tanks (Diesel and Coconut-
oil), Fuel consumption measuring unit, loading arrangement, rpm meter, Temperature
indicator and emissions measurement equipments. The engine is started with diesel for at
least 30 minutes and once the engine warms up, it is switched over to coconut oil. For
switching the engine from diesel to coconut oil, a two way valve is provided on the control
panel. Both the fuels from the tanks can be feed to the engine through this valve
continuously. The fuel from the valve enters into the engine through this fuel measuring unit.
With the help of this fuel measuring unit, the volumetric flow of the fuel can be easily
measured. The fuel from the fuel measuring unit than enters in to the fuel filter before
entering to the engine. In case of indirect heating of the coconut oil flows into the fuel pump
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME

and injectors to minimize their resistance to flow and for good atomization. The desired level
of fuel inlet temperature of coconut- oil can be obtained by controlling the amount of exhaust
gases passing through the bypass arrangement.
        Significant improvement in the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel
engine fueled with coconut oil-diesel fuel blend in four cylinder four stroke engine with
indirectly heating of coconut oil for reducing the viscosity of coconut oil and better
atomization quality for improving the combustion engine. Finally, the result obtained by pure
diesel fuel result and blending of coconut oil –diesel are compared in difference speed &50%
load of the engine. The blends tested were 0-100, 10-90, 20-80, 30-70and 40-60 coconut oil-
diesel fuel volume ratios




Fig. 1. Effect of the amount of brake power         Fig.2 Effect of the amount of brake power
        vs. brake thermal efficiency                      vs. specific fuel consumption




 Fig. 3 Effect of the amount of brake power            Fig. 4 Effect of the amount of Brake
    in Kw Vs. Exaust temperature in c                               Power Vs.CO2




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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME




      Fig. 5 Effect of the amount of Brake            Fig. 6 Effect of the amount of Brake
                Power Vs.CO                                      Power vs. NOx


CONCLUSION

        In this study, it was shown that coconut oil as alter-native diesel engine fuels can be
used successfully to operate a direct injection diesel engine without modifications to the
engine or the injector system. Coconut oil engine operation resulted in better emissions, and
lower NOx emissions compared with standard diesel fuel. increasing the amount of diesel
fuel blend increasing the value of bsfc, and decreasing break thermal efficiency.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

       Permission to use the Hydraulic Dynamometer, Mahindra engine and all testing
equipments at Department of Mechanical Engineering (DME) for our measurements by Prof.
D.S. kanetkar and the extensive efforts of the staff of DME are highly appreciated. The
support offered by Institute of anand Agriculture University by providing knowledge of
produce ester for the research is also greatly cherished.

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6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME

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