Gold Collars for All_ Assessment of the Curriculum of by hcj


									   gold collars for all?
     assessment of the
       curriculum of
entrepreneurial education
  programme in nigerian

           Fayomi Abimbola Olugbenga (PhD)
        Centre for Industrial Research and Development,
           Simeon-Fayomi Bolanle Clara (PhD)
    Department of Continuing Education, Faculty of Education,
          Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
                 FACTS AND FIGURES
   Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, the seventh most
    populous country in the world, and the most populous country in
    the world in which the majority of the population is black.
   It is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies, and is a member of
    the Commonwealth of Nations. The IMF projects a 8% growth in the
    Nigerian economy in 2011
   Nigeria re-achieved democracy in 1999 when it elected Olusegun
    Obasanjo, the former military head of state, as the new President of
    Nigeria ending almost 33 years of military rule (from 1966 until
    Nigeria is ranked 37th in the world in terms of GDP as of 2007.
    Nigeria is the United States' largest trading partner in sub-Saharan
    Africa and supplies a fifth of its oil (11% of oil imports).
   It has the seventh-largest trade surplus with the U.S. of any country
    worldwide. Nigeria is currently the 50th-largest export market for
    U.S. goods and the 14th-largest exporter of goods to the U.S.
             FACTS AND FIGURES
   Nigeria is the 12th largest producer of petroleum in
    the world and the 8th largest exporter, and has the
    10th largest proven reserves.

   2006 estimates claimed that 42.3% of the
  population is between 0–14 years of age, while
  54.6% is between 15–65;
 Nigeria has more than 250 ethnic groups, with
  varying languages and customs, creating a country
  of rich ethnic diversity.
        the chAllenge
  According to the official statistics
  of the federal office of statistics
  (F.O.S) less than ten percent of
  graduates of formal educational
  system get absorbed into the
  labour market annually.
 Today , about ten million graduates
  of tertiary institutions roam the
  streets of Nigeria unemployed
 entrepreneurship educAtion to the rescue
 In line with the global thinking, the Nigerian
  University Commission mandated all Nigerian
  Tertiary institutions to introduce entrepreneurship
  education into their curriculum in 2006
 Though Entrepreneurship education has been
  introduced for about five years, the problem of
  graduate unemployment in Nigeria still persist.
 Itis against this background that this study is
  conceived to assess the entrepreneurship
  education programme of selected universities in
  Southwestern Nigeria with the aim of making
  useful recommendation towards curriculum re-
  engineering and better delivery of the EE
            Objectives of the study
   The overall objective of the study is to assess the
    entrepreneurial education programme of tertiary
    institutions in southwestern Nigeria
   The specific objectives of the study are to
   (a) examine the nature and operation of EE in tertiary
    institutions in Southwestern Nigeria;
   (b) appraise the effectiveness of EE in the study area;
   (c) determine the influence of selected demographic and
    socio-economic characteristics on the entrepreneurial
    performance of the study sample.
   (d) compare the outcomes of EE in the selected
    institutions in southwestern Nigeria.
 Kirkpatrick evaluation model was adopted for the study. The population
  consisted of undergraduate students in selected universities in
  Southwestern Nigeria. Three universities, namely: Obafemi Awolowo
  University (OAU), Lagos State University (LASU), and Covenant University
  (CU) were purposively sampled to represent Federal, state and private
  universities where the two prominent models of EE in Nigeria has been
  run for a substantial period of time in southwestern Nigeria. A total of
  1,080 final year students, comprising those who have offered EE courses
  and those who have not were proportionately sampled from the selected
  universities. Ninety percent of lecturers teaching EE courses in the three
  Universities were involved in the study. Two questionnaires labelled
  Entrepreneurial Education Assessment Questionnaire (EEAQ) and
  Entrepreneurial Education Methodology Assessment Questionnaire
  (EEMAQ) were used to collect relevant information for the study. EEAQ
  elicited information on students’ socio-economic and demographic
  characteristics, as well as students’ entrepreneurial behavior and inclination.
  EEDEQ gathered information on the personal data and entrepreneurial
  inclination of lecturers handling EE. A desk research was conducted to
  collect secondary data from programme blueprint and synopsis. Data were
  analyzed using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics.
Examination of the nature of Entrepreneurship Education in the study area.
 Assessment of nature EE was done according to the framework developed by Paschka
and Welsh (1990) Robinson and Haynes (1991)namely: Depth of entrepreneurship
education programme;, Breadth of entrepreneurship education ; Content development
procedure and Delivery of entrepreneurship education.


Criterion                                             Institutions
                                        OAU           LASU          COVENANT
Integration with entrepreneurs           N/A            N/A            Applicable

Integration with other faculties        Applicable      N/A             N/A

International support                   Applicable       N/A             N/A

Complementary activities                 Applicable      N/A         Applicable
          Breadth of entrepreneurship education programme
    EE Programme                          Institutions
                             OAU                 LASU      COVENANT

Undergraduate elective       Applicable          N/A       Applicable

Undergraduate core courses      N/A           Applicable   Applicable

Postgraduate Diploma         Applicable          N/A          N/A

M.Sc.                          N/A              N/A           N/A

Ph.D                           N/A               N/A          N/A

Source: Field Survey,
Table 30: Delivery of entrepreneurship education programme
EE delivery approach                           Institutions
                                 OAU            LASU         COVENANT
Lectures                          Applicable     Applicable   Applicable

Old war story                       N/A            N/A         Applicable

Case study                          N/A            N/A         Applicable

Planning                          Applicable    Applicable    Applicable

Generic action(experiential)         N/A            N/A       Applicable

   Source: Field Survey, 2010.
             Content development of entrepreneurship education programme

Content development procedure                        Institutions
                                                OAU      LASU
From the perspective and
expertise of educators                           Applicable    Applicable
    Based on students’ needs
    and requirement                                   N/A           N/A      N/A
    From the view point of programme designers    Applicable    Applicable
                 effectiveness of EE in the study area
This section presents the analysis of the effectiveness of EE in the study area using the
perception of respondents and Kirkpatrick model of evaluation (table 63)
Perception statement                                    Response
                                              Yes                            No
                                          N         %                    N        %

EE has enhanced my skill in
entrepreneurship and business                 537             68       253            32
EE has really changed my
attitude positively towards                   310              39      480            61
starting my own business after
The EE curriculum of my
institution has great prospect
for developing many successful
entrepreneurs among graduates
Kirkpatrick model of evaluation
Evaluation          Findings
Students’            → majority of the respondents (68%) felt that EE has enhanced their
perception of EE   knowledge in entrepreneurship and business management
outcome              → majority of the respondents (61%) felt that EE has not changed their
                   attitude positively towards starting their own businesses after graduation
                     → majority of the respondents (71%) felt that EE programme in the
                   current form can not develop graduate that would create businesses at the
                   current pace of graduate unemployment in Nigeria

Learning outcome
                    → EE has significantly influenced the personal entrepreneurial
of EE
                   Competency of the respondents (t = 3.029; df = 273; P<0.01)

Behavioral          → EE did not influence significantly the entrepreneurial inclination of the respondents
outcome of EE      (Pearson chi-square = 0.473; P>0.05)

Results of EE       → EE was effective in developing the entrepreneurial competency of the respondents
                    → EE was ineffective in changing the attitude of respondents towards self
    Objective 3: Determination of the influence of selected demographic and socio-economic
    characteristics on the entrepreneurial performance of the study sample.
    Mother’s occupation and entrepreneurial inclination: The study revealed that
     respondent’s mother’s occupation has significant effect on the entrepreneurial intention
     of the study respondents (Pearson chi-square = 17.029; P < 0.05).
     Current involvement in entrepreneurial activity and entrepreneurial
     inclination: The study revealed that current involvement in entrepreneurial activity ha
     a significant influence on the entrepreneurial inclination of the respondents (Pearson ch
     -square =23.401; P< 0.01).
    Individual perception of employment prospect of his/her discipline and
     entrepreneurial inclination: The study revealed that how individual perceived the
     employment prospect of his/her discipline has significant influence on his/her
     entrepreneurial behaviour. (Pearson chi-square = 157.5; P< 0.01).
    Parents’ financial status entrepreneurial inclination: The result of the analysis
     showed that parent’s financial status have significant effect on the entrepreneurial
     inclination of the study sample (Pearson chi-square = 21.015; P< 0.01).
    Gender and personal entrepreneurial competencies of the respondents: The
     study found a significant difference between male and female students in opportunity
     seeking (t=1.972; p<0.05); However, no significant difference existed in the overall PEC
     performance of male and female students (t=1.003; p>0.05).
            Comparison of outcome of model:
 The results of the study showed that a significant difference exist ( t = 2.753; df = 235; P< 0.01)
between the two models. Furthermore, the mean entrepreneurial performance from model A
differs significantly from that of model B; model A proved to produce better results than model B.

Intention to start own         %                       N                         Expected N


Yes                           77.9                    219                           140.5

No                            22.1                     62                           140.5

Total                        100.0                     281                          281.0

Intention to start own        %                         N                        Expected N


Yes                          69.1                      163                           118.0

No                           30.9                       73                           118.0

Total                       100.0                      236                           236.0
             FOLLOW UP ACTION
       Curriculum re-engineering
      Training and retraining of entrepreneurship education Teachers
      in the Universities.
        Catching them young: This involved an intensive campaign for
      introduction of entrepreneurship education into the Nigerian
      educational curriculum at the elementary and high school level
      Promotion of entrepreneurship clubs in elementary and high
       schools in our catchment areas
       Providing business support services to existing entrepreneurs
       for enhanced performance
      Introducing mentoring and apprenticeship into the curriculum

      Sourcing for grants and aids to support outstanding business

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