RHETORICAL STRATEGIES by MichaelSanders46

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									RHETORICAL
STRATEGIES

  REVIEW
RHETORICAL
STRATEGIES

I. DESCRIPTION
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I. DESCRIPTION
o Relies upon SENSE DETAILS
  n Sights
  n Sounds
  n Smells
  n Tastes
  n Touches (tactile impressions)
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I. DESCRIPTION
o And FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
  n Describing the unknown by way of the known
  n Similes
       n   Using “like” or “as”
  n   Metaphors
       n Using or implying “is”

o She had black wires for hair.
o Her eyes were as black as a shark’s.
o Her nose was a ski slope.
o She had a mouth like a trash compactor.
                                                          5




I. DESCRIPTION
o And PROPER DICTION
  n Keen, discriminating word choice
  n The “right” words (descriptive)
      n   adjectives, adverbs
           § to modify ordinary, plain words
      n   nouns, verbs
           § the exact word, technical term, vocabulary
  n Sometimes a heart just “beats”
  n But often, more descriptive words can be
    utilized to help you make your point -
      n   Beats quickly, very fast, irregularly
      n   Pounds, throbs, drums, flutters, dances
                                                  6




I. DESCRIPTION
o To support a DOMINANT IMPRESSION
  n The atmosphere, setting
  n A unifying impression or controlling aspect
  n Links all of your sense details
  n The first adjective that comes to mind when
    you think about a particular place, object,
    person, or event
                                                         7




I. DESCRIPTION
o Details are arranged SPATIALLY
  n   By space
      n   (as opposed to chronology, reason, logic, or
          emphasis)
  n Left to right or right to left
  n Top to bottom or bottom to top
  n To “pan,” as with a camera
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I. DESCRIPTION
On the Job:
o Reports of all kinds
  n Medical reports
  n Police reports
  n Accident reports
  n Business reports
o Journalist’s or Reporter’s article
o Product description
o Construction site details
o Chemistry or Biology labs
                                                              9




I. DESCRIPTION
In Argument:
o To help prove your claim
o To help persuade or convince
o Topic = abortion
  n   “for”
       n   Describe the living conditions of the unwanted
           child of a drug-addicted mother
  n   “against”
       n   Describe the surgical procedure
       n   “Suction Aspiration” or “Dilation and Curettage”
RHETORICAL
STRATEGIES

II. NARRATION
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II. NARRATION
o Relies upon STORY ELEMENTS
  n Plot
  n Characterization
  n Theme
  n Setting
                                             12




II. NARRATION
o And DESCRIPTIVE ELEMENTS
  n Sense Details
  n Figurative Language
  n Diction
  n Dominant Impression (related to theme)
                         13




II. NARRATION
o To relate a STORY
  n Narrative
  n Account, chronicle
  n Tale, myth, legend
                 14




II. NARRATION
o With a MORAL
  n Message
  n Point
  n Meaning
  n   Theme
                                                    15




II. NARRATION
o Details are arranged CHRONOLOGICALLY
  n   By TIME
      n   (as opposed to space, reason, logic, or
          emphasis)
  n Beginning, Middle, End
  n Linear progression
  n No flashbacks, no circling, no juxtaposition
                                            16




II. NARRATION
On the Job:
o Recording witness testimony
o Lab reports
o Experiment notes
o Journalistic accounts
o Workman’s Compensation Accident reports
o Meeting minutes
o Troubleshooting explanation
                                              17




II. NARRATION
In Argument:
o To help prove your claim
o To help persuade or convince
o Narration as evidence
  n Eye-witness or expert testimony
  n Lab reports
  n Journalistic accounts
  n Historic accounts
o Topic = Depression
   n Case studies
   n Your personal account with the disease
 RHETORICAL
 STRATEGIES

III. ILLUSTRATION
                                                             19




III. ILLUSTRATION
o Employs various means of EVIDENCE
  n   EXAMPLES
      n   Clear, unambiguous, unequivocal
      n   Relevant, topical, warranted, applicable
  n concrete and specific details
  n statistics, facts, figures
  n specific people, places, objects
  n anecdotes
      n   brief informative stories to help develop ideas;
      n   like instances or occurrences
                                20




III. ILLUSTRATION
o To support a SPECIFIC CLAIM
  n Argument
  n Point
  n Issue
  n   Thesis
                                             21




III. ILLUSTRATION
o That is clearly stated in the
  THESIS STATEMENT
  n Clear, emphatic
  n Argumentative
  n Topic + Main Idea + Support
  n Located at the end of the Introduction
                                                  22




III. ILLUSTRATION
o Evidence arranged EMPHATICALLY
  n   Save the “best” for last
       n   Most common, important, significant,
           demonstrative
  n   By reason, logic, or emphasis
       n   (as opposed to chronology, space)
  n Build “emphasis”
  n Move toward climax
                             23




III. ILLUSTRATION
o Persuasive
  n When done correctly
  n Not overtly persuasive
                                           24




III. ILLUSTRATION
On the Job:
o Case studies
o Demographic statistics
o Graphs, charts, tables, figures
o Product specifications
o Crime scene details
o Legal precedents, case law
o Recommendations from past customers or
  employers
                                                     25




III. ILLUSTRATION
In Argument:
o To help prove your claim
o To help persuade or convince
o Illustration as evidence
  n   EXAMPLES
      n   Clear, unambiguous, unequivocal
      n   Relevant, topical, warranted, applicable
  n Illustrative narrative (anecdote)
  n concrete and specific details
  n statistics, facts, figures
  n specific people, places, objects
RHETORICAL
STRATEGIES

IV. DIVISION and
CLASSIFICATION
                                    27




IV. DIVISION-CLASSIFICATION
o DIVISION “divides” a topic into
  n Roles
  n Subgroups
  n Subdivisions
  n “1 into many”
                               28




IV. DIVISION-CLASSIFICATION
o CLASSIFICATION groups into
  n Types
  n Groups
  n Classifications
  n Classes
  n Categories
  n “many into 1”
                                                   29




IV. DIVISION-CLASSIFICATION
o Each uses EXAMPLES to support the
 division or classification:
  n Specific people
  n Specific instances or events
  n Uses clear, relevant, effective/telling, and
    specific examples/instances (“for example”),
    details, and anecdotes to illustrate the
    characteristics of each type/part
                                             30




IV. DIVISION-CLASSIFICATION
o Sets up each example with an appropriate
 TRANSITIONS:
  n “For instance”
  n “For example”
                                                  31




IV. DIVISION-CLASSIFICATION
o Paragraph topics are arranged
 EMPHATICALLY
  n   Save the “best” for last
       n   Most common, important, significant,
           demonstrative
  n   By reason, logic, or emphasis
       n   (as opposed to chronology, space)
  n   Build “emphasis”
o Move toward climax
                                             32




IV. DIVISION-CLASSIFICATION
On the Job:
o King Philip Came Over For Good Spaghetti
o Customer analysis (personality types)
o Sales floor organization
o Video store classification
o Understanding the functions of various parts
  of complex systems
  n Computers
  n Transmissions
o Resume, Job Search
                                              33




IV. DIVISION-CLASSIFICATION
In Argument:
o To help prove your claim
o To help persuade or convince
o To help understand the problem, issue,
  situation
o D/C as evidence
  n Types and sub-groups, roles
  n Each supported with specific examples
o Types of slavery, abortions, stem cells
o Crucial roles played by immigrant workers
RHETORICAL
STRATEGIES

V. COMPARISON
and CONTRAST
                                                     35




V. COMPARISON & CONTRAST
o Employs various means of EVIDENCE
  n   EXAMPLES
      n   Clear, unambiguous, unequivocal
      n   Relevant, topical, warranted, applicable
  n concrete and specific details
  n statistics, facts, figures
  n specific people, places, objects
  n anecdotes (brief informative stories to help
    develop ideas; like instances or occurrences)
                                                    36




V. COMPARISON & CONTRAST
o To compare OR contrast TWO subjects:
  n Only 2 subjects
  n 2 subjects from the same class or category
  n 2 subjects clearly identified in the Introduction
  n 2 subjects compared or contrasted – not both
                                                 37




V. COMPARISON & CONTRAST
o Points of comparison or contrast are clearly
  stated in the THESIS STATEMENT:
  n Topic + Main Idea + Support
  n “support” = similarities or differences
  n Located at the end of the Introduction
                                                 38




V. COMPARISON & CONTRAST
o Writer effectively and strategically employs
  one of two ORGANIZATIONAL METHODS:
o point-by-point-by-point method**
o subject-by-subject method*
                                                  39




V. COMPARISON & CONTRAST
o Writer uses appropriate TRANSITIONS to
  guide the reader through the text:
o (comparison)
  n   also, like, as, furthermore, additionally
o (contrast)
  n   on the other hand, on the contrary,
      conversely, however
                                                  40




V. COMPARISON & CONTRAST
o Writer EMPHATICALLY arranges evidence:
  n   Save the “best” for last
       n   Most common, important, significant,
           demonstrative
  n   By reason, logic, or emphasis
       n   (as opposed to chronology, space)
  n Build “emphasis”
  n Move toward climax
                                        41




V. COMPARISON & CONTRAST
On the Job:
o Job searches
o Hiring, Firing, or Promoting
o Product choices
  n Software, hardware
  n Tools, equipment
  n Storage, disposal, recycling
o Experiments
o Medications
o Treatment regimens
   n Exercise, therapeutic, medicinal
                                                42




V. COMPARISON & CONTRAST
In Argument:
o To help prove your claim
o To help persuade or convince
o Topic = Stem Cell Research
  n Compare cloned liver to “natural” one
  n Contrast embryonic to adult SCR
o Topic = Global Warming
  n Compare current Global Warming fad to past
    Global Cooling vogue
  n Contrast current conditions with 50 years ago
RHETORICAL
STRATEGIES

VI. DEFINITION
                                                             44




VI. DEFINITION
o Employs various means of EVIDENCE
  n   EXAMPLES
      n   Clear, unambiguous, unequivocal
      n   Relevant, topical, warranted, applicable
  n concrete and specific details
  n statistics, facts, figures
  n specific people, places, objects
  n anecdotes
      n   brief informative stories to help develop ideas;
      n   like instances or occurrences
                                                  45




VI. DEFINITION
o To support a PERSONAL UNDERSTANDING
  of a TERM:
  n Not a text book definition
  n Not a dictionary or encyclopedia definition
o But a personal definition
                                              46




VI. DEFINITION
o That is clearly stated in the
  THESIS STATEMENT:
  n Thesis = Definition
  n Clear, emphatic
  n Located at the end of the Introduction
  n Topic + Main Idea + Support
  n Term + Class + Traits (characteristics,
    attributes)
                                                  47




VI. DEFINITION
o Evidence arranged EMPHATICALLY:
  n   Save the “best” for last
       n   Most common, important, significant,
           demonstrative
  n   By reason, logic, or emphasis
       n   (as opposed to chronology, space)
  n Build “emphasis”
  n Move toward climax
                                             48




VI. DEFINITION
On the Job:
o Job definitions, postings, searches
o Technical terms
o Movements, genres, techniques
o Medical conditions, diseases, treatments
o Tools, parts, functions
o Ideas, ideologies, philosophies
o Laws, legal terms
                                                   49




VI. DEFINITION
In Argument:
o To help prove your claim
o To help persuade or convince
o Topic = Racism (attitudes, language)
  n   See Langston Hughes’ “Black”
o Topic = Same-Sex Marriage
  n Define “marriage”
  n How it’s defined = side of the issue
  n “for” = couple based on love, commitment
  n “against” = 1 man + 1 woman, for procreation
 RHETORICAL
 STRATEGIES

VII. ARGUMENT and
    PERSUASION
                                              51




VII. ARGUMENT-PERSUASION
PERSUASION:
o “Persuasion is the communication of a
  particular message to a targeted audience for
  a specific occasion to effect a change in the
  reader(s)” (Memering 216, emphasis mine).
o its purpose is to persuade reader to think,
  act, feel, certain way
o it appeals to reason, emotion, and ethics
                                                    52




VII. ARGUMENT-PERSUASION
ARGUMENT:
o it appeals to logic/reason primarily
o it uses emotion & ethics as support
o More objective than subjective persuasion
  n More of a report than a dispute
  n Less about trying to change the reader
  n More about trying to inform the reader
o * this is the type of essay you will be writing
                                                             53




VII. ARGUMENT-PERSUASION
o Employs various means of EVIDENCE
  n   EXAMPLES
      n   Clear, unambiguous, unequivocal
      n   Relevant, topical, warranted, applicable
  n concrete and specific details
  n statistics, facts, figures
  n specific people, places, objects
  n anecdotes
      n   brief informative stories to help develop ideas;
      n   like instances or occurrences
                                                  54




VII. ARGUMENT-PERSUASION
o Evidence arranged EMPHATICALLY:
  n   Save the “best” for last
       n   Most common, important, significant,
           demonstrative
  n   By reason, logic, or emphasis
       n   (as opposed to chronology, space)
  n Build “emphasis”
  n Move toward climax
                                                  55




VII. ARGUMENT-PERSUASION
PURSUASIVE APPEALS:
o LOGOS
  n Logic
  n Examples, stats, facts, reports, expert
    testimony
o PATHOS
  n Emotional
  n Fear, guilt, sympathy, (emotional evidence)
o ETHOS
  n Writer’s Credibility
  n Tone, proper use of Logos & Pathos
                                          56




VII. ARGUMENT-PERSUASION
On the Job:
o Job searches
o Hiring, Firing, or Promoting
o Product choices
o Policy recommendations
o Suggesting changes
o Buying, selling, advertising
o Conclusions, recommendations, suggestions
o Proposals, bids, applications, pitches
                                                         57




VII. ARGUMENT-PERSUASION
In Argument:
o To help prove your claim
o To help persuade or convince
o Any Rhetorical Strategy can be employed to achieve
   your goals, objectives
o Topic = Smoking in Public Places
   n   D: describe the stench, stains, coughs, lungs
   n   N: relate personal instance at a restaurant
   n   EX: stats, anecdotes of secondhand smoke
   n   D/C: types of smokers, cancers, customers
   n   C/C: before & after smoking ban
   n   DFN: smoking, public places, rights, privileges
 RHETORICAL
 STRATEGIES

END of the REVIEW

								
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