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The History of Environmental Assessment _amp; USAIDs Regulation 216

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The History of Environmental Assessment _amp; USAIDs Regulation 216 Powered By Docstoc
					What If I Have to Go Beyond an
            IEE?
      How Do I Prepare an EA, PEA
                and SEA


³ Do an EA if the action is a specific project to be
  implemented in one area.
³ Do a PEA for a class of similar actions, e.g., dams,
  irrigation projects and related water resource
  development, to be implemented in many areas.
³ Do an SEA if the EA focuses on development policies,
  plans and programs.


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                         Initial Steps

³ Assemble an interdisciplinary team -
  You’ll likely need to hire a consulting firm
³ Prepare Terms of Reference (based on
  scoping statement) and interact closely
  with contractor/consulting firm
³ Process through BEO for approval




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         Next Step: Scoping
    What Does the Regulation Say?
³ Identify significant issue to determine the
  scope of the EA (called “scoping”); Note: Use
  participatory process, including host country,
  public and private institutions and others
³ Prepare scoping statement, which includes:
    ­ Scope and significance of issues to be analyzed
    ­ Identify issues that do not need to be addressed
    ­ Describe the timing of the analysis, format of EA, and
      schedule
³ Circulate scoping statement through BEO for
  comment by Federal agencies
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                            And Then?
³ Prepare EA in collaboration with host country
³ EA requires much more emphasis on analysis of
  alternatives than IEE
³ Hold consultations between USAID and host
  countries on results of EA
³ USAID must encourage host country to make EA
  available to public
³ If host country requires a document similar to
  an USAID EA, encourage (insist) on preparation
  of one document for both

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     The EA Outline (See §216.6)

1. Summary
2. Purpose
3. Alternatives Including the Proposed
   Action
4. Affected Environment
5. Environmental Consequences
6. List of Preparers


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                         1. Summary

³ Major conclusions
³ Areas of controversy
³ Issues to be resolved




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                            2. Purpose

³ Briefly specify underlying purpose and
  need to which USAID is responding in
  proposing alternatives, including the
  proposed action




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      3. Alternatives Including the
            Proposed Action
³ Present environmental impacts of
  proposal and its alternatives in
  comparative form
³ Briefly explain why certain alternatives
  not considered
³ Consider the no-action alternative
³ Identify the preferred alternative(s)
³ Include appropriate mitigation
  measures
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            4. Affected Environment

       ­ “Succinctly” describe the environment of
         the area(s) to be affected or created
       ­ Provide descriptions which are no longer
         than necessary to understand effects of
         alternatives
       ­ Provide the most detailed analysis for the
         more significant impacts, otherwise
         summarize or reference for lesser impacts




                                        Environmental Assessments (EAs) & Programmatic Environmental Assessments (PEAs)   10
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   5. Environmental Consequences
     (The Heart of the Matter)
      è Environmental impacts of the alternatives including
        the proposed action
      è Any adverse effects than cannot be avoided
      è Relationship between short-term uses of the
        environment and maintenance/enhancement of long-
        term productivity
      è Any irreversible or irretrievable commitments of
        resources if the proposal were to be implemented
      è Discussion of direct and indirect effects and their
        significance
      è Conflicts with other policies, plans or controls for the
        areas under consideration
      è Recommended mitigation measures
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 6. and 7. List of Preparers and
           Appendices
³ Names and qualifications of the EA
  Team
³ An appendix or appendices can be
  useful in organizing the EA so that only
  the most critical information for
  decision-making is in the body of the
  EA



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  Gaps in the USAID EA Process

       ­ §216.6 does not have language that
         emphasizes the importance of preparing
         detailed mitigation and monitoring plans
       ­ §216.6 does not mention the need for
         creating implementable work plans which
         define specific mitigation & monitoring
         actions, assign responsibilities, or establish
         management schedules and time lines.




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        Programmatic Environmental
             Assessment (PEA)
³ Prepared when an activity has many
  similar sub-activities that are to be
  undertaken in many areas (e.g
  umbrella small grant programs, road
  rehabilitation work, small-scale
  irrigation scheme, etc.).
³ Typically attempts to assess
  cumulative environmental impacts.


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 Strategic Environmental Assessment
                (SEA)
³What is SEA? - An environmental
  assessment method that mainly focuses
  on adverse impacts caused by
  development plans, policies and
  programs.
³ Unlike EIA/EA (which are project based),
  the method mainly focuses on:
           ü Environmental opportunities that can be
             enhanced to ensure sustainable
             development.
           ü Environmental constraints that should be
             overcome to ensure sustainable
             development.
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                       End




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