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The Hidden Lives of Galaxies NSTA 2001 - Jim Lochner and Gail

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					      Introduction
         Gail Rohrbach




 What are the Elements
           and
Where do they come from?




        Elements 2002 Workshop
What is an Element?
 element (n) -
 1. A fundamental, essential, or irreducible constituent of a composite
 entity. 2. [elements] The basic assumptions or principles of a subject.
 3. Mathematics a. A member of a set. b. A point, line, or plane. c. A part
 of a geometric configuration, such as an angle in a triangle ...
 4. Chemistry & Physics any of more than 100 fundamental substances
 that consist of atoms of only one kind and that singly or in combination
 constitute all matter. 5. One of four substances, earth, air, fire, or water,
 formerly regarded as a fundamental constituent of the universe. 6.
 Electricity The resistance wire in an electrical appliance such as a
 heater or an oven. 7. [elements] The forces that constitute the weather,
 especially severe or inclement weather: “outside paint that had been
 damaged by the elements.” 8. An environment naturally suited to or
 associated with an individual: “The business world is her element.” …
 11. [elements] The bread and wine of the Eucharist.

 August 5, 2002              Elements 2002 Workshop                              2
What is an Element?



                                          Sun:
                                      Air and Fire




                    Cloud:
                  Water and Air




 August 5, 2002                   Elements 2002 Workshop   3
What is an Element?



                  What’s the difference between an
                       element and an atom?
            (if both are fundamental building blocks of matter…?)




 August 5, 2002              Elements 2002 Workshop                 4
What is an Element?

 atom: a tiny, chemically indivisible particle made
 up of protons, electrons, and sometimes neutrons.
 An atom is identified by the number of protons in
 its nucleus, referred to as its “atomic number.”



 element: a substance composed solely of atoms
 with the same atomic number (i.e. atoms having an
 identical number of protons in each nucleus).


 August 5, 2002     Elements 2002 Workshop            5
What is an Element?


                  Periodic Table
                  of the Elements
                         Sample




 August 5, 2002         Elements 2002 Workshop   6
What is an Element?

   All the normal matter in the Universe is made
       up of combinations of these elements:

       Everything we see around us is just ~100
        different kinds of atoms (the elements),
               combined in various ways.

                   So, we’re back to the Ancient Greeks:
        All matter is made up of a “few” fundamental substances -




 August 5, 2002             Elements 2002 Workshop                  7
Where do the Elements Come From?

 • Why do we have only these elements? Why
 aren’t there more? (Why aren’t there an infinite
 number?)

 • Do all the elements exist in equal quantities?
 If not, why not?

 • How can we tell?



 August 5, 2002    Elements 2002 Workshop           8
Where do the Elements Come From?

   • How and when did the elements come to exist?

   • Why do we have only these elements? Why aren’t there more?
   Why aren’t there an infinite number?

   • Do all the elements exist in equal quantities? If not, why not?

   • How can we tell?



                  We’ll spend the rest of this workshop
                        exploring these questions


 August 5, 2002              Elements 2002 Workshop                    9
Where did the Elements come from?

  Sneak Preview:
       • All the matter that exists formed at once, a
       very long time ago - shortly after The Big Bang

       • Since then, matter has combined and
       recombined - making different types of atoms -
       but the total amount of matter hasn’t changed:
       no matter is created or destroyed
                 really, it’s matter-energy (E = mc2)
  “And he said this thing was so small -- this part of me was so small it
  couldn’t be seen -- but it was there from the beginning of the world.”
  -- Tillie, from “The Effects of Gamma Rays on Man-In-The-Moon Marigolds”

 August 5, 2002              Elements 2002 Workshop                          10

				
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posted:7/16/2013
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