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18 Calabrese_SHC_workshop ENEA _1_

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18 Calabrese_SHC_workshop ENEA _1_ Powered By Docstoc
					             “RIQUALIFICAZIONE DI EDIFICI ESISTENTI CON ELEVATI STANDARD
                         ENERGETICI: METODI E TECNOLOGIE”

CASE STUDY: Innovative Solar heating and cooling system with PCM tank at service of F-92 Building of
                             ENEA CASACCIA Research Centre (ROMA)




                    Solar Heating & Cooling Programme, Rome - June 12th 2013
                                                                                          Scientific referents:
                                                                                  Ing. Nicolandrea Calabrese
                                                                                   Ing. Francesco D’Annibale
                                                                                            Ing. Carla Menale
                                                                                            Ing. Paola Rovella
                                                                         For info: andrea.calabrese@enea.it
                                                              www.climatizzazioneconfontirinnovabili.enea.it
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”




                                                  Consumption2
 “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


CASE STUDY: Solar heating and cooling system at service of F-92 Building of ENEA CASACCIA
Research Centre (ROMA)
                                                                                               F-92 BUILDING FEATURES
                                                                                                 Latitude          42°03’N
                                                                                                Longitude         12°18’Est
                                                                                                Climatic
                                                                                                                         D
                                                                                               Zone (Italy)
                                                                                                    Area           381 m2 mq




           https://maps.google.it/maps/ms?gl=it&ie=UTF8&oe=UTF8&msa=0&msid=103631601450429953584.00047466407d1fa933f1a
 “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


CASE STUDY: Innovative Solar heating and cooling system at service of F-92 building of ENEA
CASACCIA Research Centre (ROMA)
                              A NETWORK OF UNDERGROUND PIPING CONNECTS THE HEATING
                              AND REFRIGERATION STATION TO THE BUILDING
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


           A) Solar heating:
   Heating with Sun…




      Evacuated tubes collectors type all glass
      (WINTER: 40-50°C)
      (SUMMER: 80 – 110°C)


WINTER TIME: room heating is realized with radiant heating system, powered with low temperature to maximize the
use of thermal solar energy.
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


A) Solar heating:
      Heating with the Sun…using radiant heating system




                                                            The highest paviment
                                                            temperature depends on
                                                            enviroment kind:




                                                            Range Tmandata panels: 40 – 50 °C

                                                            Dtmaximum panels’s track: 20°C
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


A) Solar heating:
 Main system’s Components:

     Evacuated tube solar collectors:




Technical Data:
-Single collector gross area = 3,75 [m2];
-Solar field gross area = 56 [m2];
-Thermal Power ≈ 25 [kWth].
  “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”

A) Solar heating: SYSTEM LAYOUT, during the research activity we analyze the different energy cotributions



                                                                    WINTER WORKING

                                                                       Request of Energy
                                                             FE07
                                                                       from building




   Solar field                             IN BUILDING
                                                         Gas boiler
      FE01                       Hot tank                  FE03
                                    FE02




                                                                          THERMAL CENTRAL
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”

        A) Solar heating:
                Winter Monitoring Data: 09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012
                 Energy contribution of Integration Gas Boiler and Solar Field
                 Energy contribution
                                                                           kWh Integration
                                                                           Gas Boiler
                                         GAS BOILER                        kWh Useful
                                                                           Solar Field




                                    SOLAR FIELD




                   09-29 February 2012           01-31 March 2012   01-15 April 2012
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


        A) Solar heating:

        Winter Monitoring Data: 09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012

09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012
                                                      Monitoring Thermal Solar Collectors
SOLAR FRACTION

                                                                                     Energy dissipated…




           INTEGRATION GAS BOILER: 3.628,0 kWh

           SOLAR FIELD: 4.532,0 kWh



                                                 09-29 February 2012       01-31 March 2012        01-15 April 2012

                                                    Solar radiation incident on the solar field [kWh]
                                                    Energy Produced by Solar field and used (FE01) [kWh]
                                                    Energy produced by the solar field and dissipated by Dry cooler
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


              Winter Monitoring Data: 09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012


      At the end of our research activity about solar heating and
      cooling system for WINTER season we obtained that the energy
      required to heat F-92 building was provided for:

      - 56 % by solar energy

      - 44 % by gas boiler (methane gas)
      These results were obtained ensuring COMFORT conditions into
      the building.
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


     A) Solar heating: obtained indoor environmental temperature
                  Winter Monitoring Data: 09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012
                      Environment Temperatures [⁰C]
                        Environment Temperatures [⁰C]
                                                                                              SET POINT

                                                                                              9 - 17 February 2012:
                                                                                              Fixed environment
                                                                                              setpoint
                                                                                              Tmin = 19°C
                                                                                              Tmax = 21°C

                                                                                               19 February - 15 April
                                                                                              2012:
                                                                                              Fixed environment
                                                                                              setpoint
                                                                                              Tmin = 18°C
                                                                                              Tmax = 20°C

                                                                                              Note: set TA01
                                                                                              Tmin = 14°C
                                                                                              Tmax = 16°C

                                 [Monitoring’s Day]
  9 - 17 February 2012 Working System CONTINUE
  19 February 2012 - 15 April 2012: Working System DISCONTINUOUS (from 7.00 am to 17.00 pm)
  “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


A) Solar heating: Comparision between February 2012 and February 2013
                    February 2012                                                   February 2013

                  Energy contribution                                              Energy contribution


                                                 GAS BOILER
                                                                                                             GAS BOILER
                                          10 - 12 February 2012:                          1975 kWh
                                          Solar collectors covered                         (46,5%)
                                          by snow



                                                                                                         10 - 12 February 2013:
                                                                                                         Solar collectors NOT
                                                                                          2275 kWh       covered by snow
                                                                                           (53,5%)
                                                SOLAR FIELD                                                  SOLAR FIELD

                                                                                                       SOLAR
                                                                                                       FRACTION
  9 - 17 February 2012 Working System CONTINUE
  19 February 2012 – 29 February 2012: Working System            01-28 February 2013 : Working System DISCONTINUOUS
  DISCONTINUOUS (from 7.00 am to 17.00 pm)                       (from 7.00 am to 17.00 pm)
 “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


           A) Solar heating:
               Winter Monitoring Data: 09 FEBRUARY – 15 APRIL 2012
     There is Dissipated
 Energy….BUT INTEGRATION
   GAS BOILER IS USED!!

   It would be necessary an
accumulation tank for thermal
   energy, DURING WINTER
     PERIOD, with a bigger
    capacity (experimental
    analisys 2012 year with
sensible Accumulation tank of
        C=1.500 liters)




     NEW GENERATION
  ACCUMULATION SYSTEM:
          PCM
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


PCM (Phase Change Material) Accumulation tank to reduce dissipated energy:
                                                  HYDRATED SALTS OF
                                                  S89-S7 SERIES placed
 Solar Field                                      in sealed tubes
                                     Hot Water

               Control
               Unit
                                         Gas
                            Hot          Boiler
                            Water
                            Tank




                                    Cold Water


 Sensible water accumulation of 3500 l            Latent PCM Accumulation

 Esens  mwater  cl  Tin  Tout  
                                                  (PCM S46 TubeICE) of 1000 l
                                                       Elat  N tubes  clat,tubes 
  3500  4.187  5  73000 kJ
                                                        130  533  69000 kJ
 “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


PCM (Phase Change Material) Accumulation tank



                                                             UNIVERSITA’ DI PADOVA
                                                             Dipartimento di Tecnica e
                                                                      Gestione
                                                               dei sistemi industriali
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


PCM (Phase Change Material) Accumulation tank to reduce dissipated energy:
        CHARGE PHASE                                DISCHARGE PHASE




                               Sensible
                                                     Sensible

   Temperature of
   the phase change                   Sensible                          Latent
                      Latent
                                                  Temperature of                 Sensible
                                                  the phase change
        Sensible                                                     Sensible
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


  Comparison Traditional Tank (ONLY WATER) - PCM Tank (HYDRATED SALTS)

        TRADITIONAL TANK                                     PCM TANK


               TE07                                             TE07




               TE08                                             TE08


            C = 1500 litres                                 C = 1000 litres
      “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”

             Comparison Traditional Tank C=1500 litres - PCM Tank C=1000 litres
                               APRIL 2012
                               APRILE 2012   APRIL 2013
                                             APRILE 2013
         TEMPERATURA MEDIA
                                  13.3          14.3         [°C]
         PERIODO
          TANK VOLUME
         VOLUME ACCUMULO          1500           900          [l]
         TEMPERATURA INTERNA
          INTERNAL BUILDING
                                  20.0          22.0         [°C]
          TEMPERATURE
         EDIFICIO
                                                                        where:
GG]      FE07/GG                    19            24       [kWh/GG]     •   n: days number of the conventional heating period
GG]      TANK_TO_LOAD/GG            13            16       [kWh/GG]     •   T0: environment conventional temperature
 ]       FE07                     1 070         1 556        [kWh]      •   Te: medium extenal daily temperature
 ]       FE03                      331           503         [kWh]
 ]       FE02                     1 159         1 394        [kWh]
 ]       TANK_TO_LOAD              739          1 053        [kWh]
         SOLAR FRACTION           69%           68%           %

        Days of April 2012 and Aprile 2013 (more comparable than days of March because days of April 2012 and days of
        April 2013 have medium temperatures more similar than March 2012 and March 2013) have an index FE07/GG
        more similar than those of March, respectively 19 kWh/GG and 24 kWh/GG.
        If we considere tank contribute to F–92 building heating (TANK_TO_LOAD) we obtain a higher value for 2013 equal
        to 16 kWh / GG compared to 13 kWh / GG of 2012.
        The contribution of the accumulation to the needs of the building (TANK_TO_LOAD/FE07) was the same: 69% for
        2012 and 68% for 2013 (SAME SOLAR FRACTION).

        The percentage of utilization of solar energy (TANK_TO_LOAD/FE02) with PCM accumulation amounted to 76%
        compared with 64% of the accumulation standard.
  “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”

                                     There aren’t heat fluxes in or          the tank remains
                                            out from tank                      well stratified
          100                                                                                                                      90


                                                                                                                    FE02
                                                                                                                    Tank_to_load
                                              Latent heat         Sensible heat                                     TE07
          80                                                                                                                       70
                                                                                                                    TE08




          60                                                                                                                       50
 Solid phase PCM

                                     Heat accumulation




                                                                                                                                         kWh
                                     due to PCM tubes
     °C




          40                                                                                                                       30
                                          melting




                                                                                                                                          kW
                                                                           Light heat input of PCM
                                                                       (discharge) which compensates
          20                                                                                                                       10
                                                                           the heat loss of the tank


           0                                                                                                                       -10
                                                                             20 kWh of thermal energy
First phase charge during the day: the tank receives
                                                                              are picked up from the
       from 8:00 to 12:40 an energy of 56 kWh
          -20
                                                                                       tank                                        -30
      08
                09
                     10
                          11
                               12
                                    13
                                         14
                                              15
                                                   16
                                                        17
                                                             18
                                                                  19
                                                                       20
                                                                            21
                                                                                 22
                                                                                      23
                                                                                           00
                                                                                                01
                                                                                                     02
                                                                                                          03
                                                                                                               04
                                                                                                                    05
                                                                                                                         06
                                                                                                                              07
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”



          Experimental test of a single PCM Vessel (HYDRATED SALTS)




                                                              PCM vessel:
                                                                 De = 50 mm
                                                                 L = 1000 mm

                                                               HYDRATED SALTS
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”



                        PCM Test Report: EXPERIMENTAL RIG
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


                          PCM Test Report: EXPERIMENTAL RIG

                                                            Geometry equivalent to a
                                                            subchannel in the real vessel

                                                            PCM vessel:
                                                                 De = 50 mm
                                                                 L = 1000 mm
                                                            Test section:
                                                                 Di = 60 mm
                                                                 L = 1000 mm



   Typical test conditions:
   • Water velocity in the anulus: 0.2 to 0.4 m/s
   • Inlet temperature Ti : 20 to 85 °C
   • Pressure P: 1.0 to 1.3 bar
   • Temperature ramp gradient: 5 to 600 °C/h
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


                     PCM Test Report: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
             FAST TEMPERATURE RAMP (10⁰C/min)


                                                            No visible effect on the output
                                                            temperature gradient around
                                                            the melting temperature
                                                            T=46°C
                                                            The     melting     energy    is
                                                            absorbed and released in
             SLOW TEMPERATURE RAMP (10⁰C/h)                 hours and its effect can not be
                                                            distinguished      from     the
                                                            thermal capacity of the single
                                                            phase material
 “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


                          PCM: IMPROVEMENTS
INCREASE OF PCM CONDUCTIVITY WITH HIGH CONDUCTIVITY FOAMS:
CERAMICS, METALS OR GRAPHITE




         AISI 316                 SiC (Silicon Carbide)
  “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


              B) Solar cooling:
 Solar cooling System with Absorption Chiller

                                                    Vacuum Solar
                                                    Collector
                                                    250 m2



                                                                                    Cold Water
                                                                                    Accumulation
                              Hot Water                                             tank 15.000 l
                               150 kW
                                                            Cold
                                          CHILLER
                                                            Water
                                                            100 kW




SOLAR COOLING system with integration gas boiler and accumulation system for hot and cold water. Idraulic scheme (doc. SYSTEMA S.p.A)
   SUMMER PERIOD: coincidence between cool energy request peak and period of maximum availability of solar
                                                energy.
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


B) Solar cooling:
Solar cooling System with Absorption Chiller
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


        B) Solar cooling:
SUMMER MONITORING:
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


        B) Solar cooling:
  Main system Components:
   Absorption Chiller                  Evaporative Tower:
                                                                    Accumulation tank for
   (water – lithium bromide):                                       cold water:




                                  Technical Data:
  Technical Data:                 -Potentiality = 43 [kW]             Technical Data:
  - Cooling Power =18 [kWf];       (Tbu=25,6[°C]; TH2O in=35[°C];     - volume 1000 [ L];
  - Heating Power in =25 [kWt];     TH2O out=30 [°C]);
                                  -Air Flow = 7.500,0 [m3/h];
                                  -Water Flow = 7.400,0 [l/h]
 “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


B) Solar cooling:
Layout of Absorption chiller water-lithium bromide




                                                                                                          Temperature          [°C]
                                                                                                 T Heat Medium Inlet            88
                                                                                                 T Heat Medium Outlet           83
                                                                                                 Chilled Water Inlet           12,5
                                                                                                 Chilled Water Outlet            7
                                                                                                 Cooling Water Inlet            31
                                                                                                 Cooling Water Outlet           35


                                                                                                    Electric Power Absorbed: 48 [W]
  http://www.yazaki-airconditioning.com/fileadmin/templates/img_airconditioning/swf/080925_chiller_absorption_ani.html
 “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


B) Solar cooling:
SYSTEM LAYOUT: during the research activity we analyze the different energy contributions

                                                                  SUMMER WORKING
                                                                  Water/Lithium-bromide Chiller
    FE04        FE05   Heat rate input                   Required building
                                                  FE07




                       FE06   Cold rated output
  FE01
                                                  FE03
                               FE02
 “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


B) Solar cooling:
Summer Monitoring Data: 01 June - 15 September 2012
              Energy Contributution of Integration Gas Boiler and Solar Field
              Energy contribution                                                      kWh Integration Gas Boiler
                                                                                       kWh Useful Solar Field




                                  GAS BOILER




                                  SOLAR FIELD




                01-30 June 2012             01-31 July 2012   01-31 August 2012   01-15 September 2012
 01 JUNE 2012 - 15 SEPTEMBER 2012: Working System DISCONTINUOUS (from 9.00 am to 19.00 pm)
 “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


B) Solar cooling:
Summer Monitoring Data: 01 June - 15 September 2012

 01 JUNE – 15 SEPTEMBER 2012
                                                                 Monitoring Thermal Solar Collectors
 SOLAR FRACTION




             INTEGRATION GAS BOILER: 4.657,0 kWh

             SOLAR FIELD: 8.909,0 kWh



                                                   01-30 June 2012         01-31 July 2012        01-31 August 2012      01-15 September 2012

                                                                      Solar radiation incident on the solar field [kWh]
                                                                      Energy Produced by Solar field and used (FE01) [kWh]
                                                                      Energy produced by the solar field and dissipated by Dry cooler
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


             Summer Monitoring Data: 01 JUNE – 15 SEPTEMBER 2012


 At the end of our research activity about solar heating and cooling
 system for SUMMER season we obtained that the thermal energy
 required by CHILLER to conditionig F-92 building was provided for:

 - 66 % by solar energy

 - 34 % by gas boiler (methane gas)
 These results were obtained ensuring COMFORT conditions into the
 building.
 “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


B) Solar cooling: obtained indoor environmental temperature
Summer Monitoring Data: 01 June - 15 September 2012
         T external medium
         (09:00 – 19:00)     Environment Temperatures [⁰C]    STOP OF SYSTEM      SET POINT
                                                              FOR
         21/07/2012: 31°C
                                                              MAINTENANCE:         01 June - 15
         22/07/2012: 29°C
         23/07/2012: 25°C
                                                  \                               September 2012:
                                                              21/08/2012          Fixed
         24/07/2012: 27°C
                                                              22/08/2012          environment
         25/07/2012: 30°C
                                                              23/08/2012          setpoint
         26/07/2012: 32°C
                                                              26/08/2012          Tmin = 22°C e
                                                                                  Tmax = 24°C

                                                                                  Note: TA01
                                                              T external medium
                                                                                  no controlled
                                                              (09:00 – 19:00)

                                                              03/09/2012: 24°C
                                                                                  01 JUNE 2012 - 15
                                                              04/09/2012: 19°C
                                                              05/09/2012: 24°C    SEPTEMBER 2012:
                                                              06/09/2012: 28°C    Working System
                                                              07/09/2012: 29°C    DISCONTINUOUS
                                                              08/09/2012: 29°C
                                                              09/09/2012: 28°C
                                                                                  (from 9.00 am to
                                                              10/09/2012: 28°C    19.00 pm)

                             [Monitoring’s Day]
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


               CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: BX EINSTEIN




                                                                                     Operative Data and
                                         Energy counters                             weather conditions
                                                           Management, Control and
                                                           Back up PC



                                     Servo motors electric valves
                                     regulation                                  Variable flow pumps
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


                        HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESENTED CASE STUDY




                                                              ONE OF THE FIVE
                                                             BETTER CASE STUDY
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


         PAYBACK PERIOD RELATIVE DIFFERENT PLACES AND SYSTEM POWER

                   Solar heating and cooling: PAYBACK PERIOD

                                                            WITHOUT BONUS
“Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


         PAYBACK PERIOD RELATIVE DIFFERENT PLACES AND SYSTEM POWER

                     Solar heating and cooling: PAYBACK PERIOD

                                                            WITH BONUS
                                                            INTRODUCED BY
                                                            D.M. del 28/12/2012
 “Use of solar and environmental heat to air conditioning”


Our research and development activities:




                                                             Thanks for your attention

				
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