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					      Round Table Discussion

Defining an Accountable
System in the Cambodian
        Context

Democratic Governance and Public Sector
      Reform Programme, CDRI
            May 25, 2006



                                          1
Structure of the Roundtable
        Discussion
¡   Objective:
    l   Peer Review of Accountability Definition
¡   Tasks:
    l   Present Accountability Study and Definition
    l   Group Feedback
¡   Outputs:
    l   Record Feedback from Today’s Discussion to
        Integrate into our Definition
    l   Share Publications with Stakeholders Soon



                                                      2
                    Background

¡   Study: “Accountability at the Provincial
    Level”
    l   Context: D&D Reform
    l   Focus: Formal and Informal Systems

¡   Research Objectives:
    l   Understand Current Management Systems at the
        Provincial Level
    l   Analyse Accountability Implications for the D&D
        Reforms



                                                          3
            Study Assumptions

¡   Assumption 1:
    l   Formal and Informal Components
        = Accountable System


¡   Assumption 2:
    l   Lack of Accountability in System
        => Cannot Achieve Democratic
        Development

                                           4
        Why Accountability?

“The administrative system at sub-national level
  will operate with transparency and
  accountability in order to promote local
  development and delivery of services…”
                           -D&D Framework, 2005


“Enhancing accountability reduces poverty”
                    -Cambodia at Crossroads, 2004

“Civic institutions that lack transparency and
  accountability generate perverse incentives.”
                    -Arthur Goldsmith, 2005,
                    How Good Must Governance Be?”
                                                    5
Practical Challenges in the Absence
          of Accountability

¡   Planning
    l   Survival Planning
    l   Lack of Horizontal and Vertical Coordination
¡   Human Resource Management
    l   Recruitment Process
    l   Official Appointments
¡   Public Expenditure Management
    l   Inadequate and Unpredictable Transfers
    l   Non-Transparent Procurement

                                                       6
Lack of Understanding of Term:
Findings from Data Collection

¡ Confusionby Cambodian officials About
  the Term ‘Kanakney-Pheap’

¡ Kanakney    = ‘Account'

¡ Pheap   = ‘Ability‘ or ‘Status’ or ‘Being’

      = ‘Status or Being of Accounts’


                                               7
                  Interpretations
¡   The term is understood differently as:
    l   Related only to Accounting and Financial Matters
    l   Compliance to Laws and Regulations
    l   Responsibility, Transparency, Non-Biased


¡   Less than 5% of Villagers Have Ever Heard the
    Term
                              -Kim Sedara, 2005, Government
                                     Responsiveness Study,




                                                              8
Current Available Definitions and
         Explanations
 l   “Implementation of one’s responsibilities or
     duties within the process of decisionmaking and
     responsibility for his or her actions by reporting
     and giving reason for such actions.”

 l   “Accountability is not just responsibility to any
     particular person, but is responsibility to all the
     relevant stakeholders.”
                           - Good Governance Handbook for
                           Commune Councils,MoI, DOLA, 2005


 l   “Responsibility”      -CDRI Economic Lexicon



                                                              9
     Challenges We Encountered
¡   Definition Conceptually Well-Constructed?
¡   Is It Complete?
¡   Is It Contextualized Enough for the Cambodian
    Context?
¡   Is It Useful? (e.g. Operationalised
    Appropriately to Be a Practical Guide for
    Policymakers?)

¡   CDRI Team Conducts Literature Review to
    Answer These Questions…

                                                10
CONCEPTUALIZING
 ACCOUNTABILITY


              11
Accountability as a Relationship
     Between Two Actors


     Answerability, Enforcement

 A                                B
        Delegation, Finance,
     Performance, Information,
           Enforcement



                                      12
    Two Dimensions of Accountability
            Relationship

¡   Accountability of Whom, to Whom?
            (e.g. Horizontal vs. Vertical
                            Accountability)

¡   Accountability For What?
            (e.g. Compliance, Financial,
                   Performance, Political?)



                                         13
Systems to Promote Accountability
  Relationships Between Actors


                    System
  Policy Inputs


                      B
                  A       C   Pro-Poor
                               Service
                   E    D     Delivery




                                         14
Formal and Informal Systems
  Influencing Accountability
 Rational-                  Traditional
Bureaucratic                Patronage
  System           ?          System

Mechanisms                  Mechanisms


A/C of Actors      ?    A/C of Actors


                                    Pro-Poor
               Incentives
                                   Clientelism

                                                 15
 Accountability in Formal, Patrimonial
    and Neo-Patrimonial Systems
               Rational-         Patronage            Neo-
              Bureaucratic        System            patrimony
                System
Accountab.    Answerability      Answerability           ??
 between      Enforcement        Enforcement
  Actors
Objectives      Pro-Poor      Rents for Patronage     Mixed
                 Service       (patron & clients)
                Delivery
 Features/  Rules-Based,           Personal,        Manipulatn
Mechanisms  Transparent,       No Written Rules,    of Formal
to Promote Horizontal links      Vertical Links      System
Accountab.       …                Important
   Origin        PA and        History, Culture,    TENSION
              Development       Social Norms,       BETWEEN
                Theories       Religion, Politics   THE TWO
                                                          16
     Framework to Understand
Accountability in Cambodian Context


   Cambodian
Traditional Values,   Western Concepts
     Culture,         of Public Admin &
      History            Development




      Cambodian       Cambodian           Definition of
       Current         Desired            Accountab.
      Accountab.      Accountab.            System
        System          System


                                                     17
                      Assumptions
¡   Both formal and informal institutions must be
    considered in study of Cambodian accountability

¡   Both systems have strengths and weaknesses to
    consider

¡   Accountability will not happen overnight.
    Sequenced solutions needed

¡   Solutions must Cambodian-owned and tailored to
    administrative environment and specific needs
    l   Awareness of political sensitivity important
    l   Consensus needs to be built

                                                       18
    DEFINING
  ACCOUNTABLE
   SYSTEMS FOR
PRO-POOR SERVICE
     DELIVERY
                   19
                         3-Tiered Definition of
                            Accountability
                                    1st: Vision of an Accountable
                        General     Cambodian Administration
More Operationalised



                       Definition   (Incorporates international, as well as
                                    technical and political understandings)

                                    2nd: Operationalisation of vision:
                       Provincial
                                    How to get to vision?
                         Level
                                    (Relate to D&D framework)


                       Function     3rd: Function-specific guidelines &
                       Specific     mechanisms
                                    (most operationalised definition)


                                                                              20
       Iterative Process for
     Contextualizing Definition
1) Documented Existing Technical Arrangements Of
   Provincial Governance In Planning, PFM, HRM

2) Brainstorming and Defining In Khmer: Identified
   Major Accountability Issues In The 3 Areas

3) Reviewed International Definitions

4) Compared Cambodian and International
   Understandings: Gaps in Each?

5) Worked Between 2: Formed Contextualized
   Definition Based that Also Encompasses
   International Criteria
                                                     21
         General Definition of an
           Accountable System

¡   A Personal, Administrative & Political Value
    of a Cambodian-Owned System

¡   Mechanisms To Achieve Accountability:
    l   Clear Assignment Of Roles and Responsibilities
    l   Adequate and Predictable Resources
    l   Horizontal and Vertical Coordination
    l   Transparency
    l   Law Enforcement


                                                         22
        General Definition (cont.)
¡   Focus of Government:
    l   Build Trust In Public Institutions
    l   Exhibit Administrative Neutrality
    l   Embody Responsible Performance

¡   Including Broader Actors:
    l   Public Participation
    l   Political Support

¡   Outcome:
    l   Serve the Public Interest, Particularly the Poor,
        Effectively
                                                        23
Definition: Accountable System
      at Provincial Level
¡   A Unified Administration

¡   Run According to the Principles of Democratic
    Development:
    l   Adherence to the Rule of Law
    l   Transparency of Operations
    l   Open Door Policy for Public Participation

¡   Proper Assignment Of:
    l   Functions
    l   Adequate And Predictable Resources
    l   Decisionmaking Authority

    l   To Serve Local Needs, Especially The Poor
                                                    24
                  Next Steps
¡   Definition Structures Data Collection for
    Rounds 2 and 3 Fieldwork in 4 Provinces

¡   Production of Short Policy Brief Series
    l Audience: Cambodian Policymakers at
      Different Levels, Civil Society Actors

¡   Publication of Literature Review:
    “Accountability and Neo-Patrimonialism”


                                               25
     Questions for Discussion
¡   General Impressions of Definition
    Presented?

¡   Conceptualisation of Accountability
    Clear? Useful?

¡   Is Definition Properly Contextualized?
    Useful for Policymakers? Donors?

¡   Comments on Normative Approach?
                                             26
            Definition for Planning
¡   Accountability in relation to planning cannot be
    implemented without clear guidelines as well as
    adequate fiscal resources, staff remuneration
    and capacity building in the Governor’s Office and
    the provincial line departments.

¡   It requires an effective linkage between planning
    and budgeting, and good vertical and horizontal
    coordination between and within sectoral
    ministries, as well as donors.

¡   It also requires coordination between national,
    provincial and local planning processes. It should
    build on existing participatory planning
    processes, and must also include political
    accountability.
                                                         27
               Definition for PEM

An accountable PEM system within the new provincial
  administration must be a unified system. It
  requires political will from and collaboration
  among government agencies at both national and
  sub-national level, as well as donor community to
  design a system which has:

¡   Function and expenditure assignments that are clearly
    defined among national and sub-national actors and that
    promote efficiency and effectiveness in service
    provision.

¡   An intergovernmental transfer system that can
    guarantee adequate, equitable, timely and
    transparent transfer.


                                                          28
        Definition for PEM (cont.)
¡   Harmonised and coordinated financings
    between on- and off-budgets to promote
    Cambodian ownership over service deliveries.

¡   An expenditure management system run by
    capable staff at provincial level to ensure
    transparency and efficient uses of available
    resources.

¡   Minimised personal and/or political
    interferences over the execution and
    enforcement of financial management issues.



                                                   29
       Definition for PEM (cont.)
¡   A competitive and attractive
    incentive/remuneration provided
    through adequate and efficient
    intergovernmental transfers.

¡   A neutral HRM administration.

¡   Strict enforcement and sanction of
    performance of public officials.

                                         30
            Definition for HRM
An accountable HRM system in Cambodian
  provincial administration would be a
  system that serves public interests and
  performs the best of its capacity to
  deliver outcomes. It requires:

¡   A competitive transparent recruitment
    process based on merit.

¡   A clear delegation of roles and
    responsibility to appropriate level with
    specific expectations and outputs.

                                               31

				
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