Russian Revolution • Russia ready for a revolution – Changing economy – Social groups/boundaries We Need Reform! • By 1917, Russia needed reform – Growth of political consciousness – Impact of revolutionary ideas – Weak, inefficient governments – Stood far behind rest of Europe in industry and farming • People of Russia resented autocracy of Czar Nicholas II • Felt gov’t & reign was corrupt Participation in WWI • Left country with food shortages • Widespread inflation • Country not prepared for war – Inadequately supplied- weapons, logistics, etc. • All contributed to people thinking Nicholas II was unfit to rule • Nicholas abdicated his throne in February of 1917 •March 1917-Provisional gov’t placed Nicholas and family under house arrest •July 1918- Royal family executed Revolution? • Germany willing to support Bolsheviks to weaken Russia’s position and Eastern Front • April 1917- Germany sent Lenin on train (all windows blacked out-secretive!) • With Lenin back, Bolshevik party increased in popularity • Bolshevik party successful because it supported the aims of the soldiers, workers, and peasants Success! • November 6, 1917- Lenin elected Chair of Council of People’s Commissars • New urban industrial regions appeared • Education and literacy increased • March 1918- Lenin pulled Russia out of WWI Civil War Reds vs. Whites 1918 • “Reds” (communists and revolutionaries) • “Whites” (monarchists, conservatives, liberalists, moderate socialists) • Whites were backed by the G.B., France, U.S., Japan- Did not want revolutions to spread! • Brought death and suffering to millions of people regardless of their political orientation Red Terror Comrade Lenin “cleanses the earth” 1920 • Due to suspicion of counterrevolutionaries, the Bolsheviks created a secret police “the Cheka” which killed and tortured thousands from 1918-1920 Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, and Mikhail Kalinin, 1919. Motto for Revolution: “Peace, Land, and Bread” White Army propaganda poster Who is represented in the poster?
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