Essays are graded on a NINE point scale,
just like AP essays
l 9 = 100 l Right now, if you are in
l 8= 97 the 5/6 range, I think you
l 7 = 93 are “okay” and can learn
what you need to learn to
l 6 = 86 succeed in the class and
l 5 = 80 on the AP exam.
l 4 = 77
l 3 = 72
l 2= 70
l 1 = 65
l NS = below 60
Issues that need to be fixed:
l Proper nouns need capital letters: English, America
l A lot is TWO words.
l There and their are NOT interchangeable.
l ‘s and s’ are not interchangeable
l “Themself” is not a word
l SentEnce, not sentAnce
l Spell the author’s name correctly, and punctuate
l Learn where to divide words at the end of a line, or
better yet, if you don’t have room, go to the next line.
l Refer to Elements of Style for more rules you should
know. This book is a REFERENCE book.
More issues – Refer to Elements of Style
if you are confused:
l Parallel structure errors (Ex. Immigrants
who come to America are looking for a
better life, sanctuary, or simply because
they have nowhere else to go.)
l Sentence fragments/run-ons
l Subject/verb agreement errors
l Pronoun/antecedent agreement errors
(Ex. If an immigrant lives here long
enough, they need to learn English.)
Other things that will help you
l Don’t be wordy. (Ex. “due to the fact that…,”
l Handwriting really does matter, even though it’s
not supposed to .
l Details are important.
l Summary is unnecessary.
l Spelling matters.
l Watch the immature expressions (Ex. “beat her
over the head with,” “all up in his face”) and
cliches (“beat around the bush”)
Don’t hate on your audience.
l Rogerian is one of THREE “models” of
argument. (The others are Classical and
Toulmin, & we will cover them later)
l Ideas come from Carl Rogers, a
psychologist. Your reading packet is
written by him.
A few quotes…
l “Real communication occurs when we listen with
understanding” – Carl Rogers
l “The first duty of a wise advocate is to convince
his opponents that he understands their
arguments, and sympathizes with their just
feelings.” –Samuel Taylor Coleridge (English
l “You can catch more flies with honey than you
can with vinegar” -??
You don’t pick fights with your audience!
The Rogerian model acknowledges the audience’s point of
view or opinions before presenting the author’s different or
opposing viewpoint .
A Rogerian argument supports the central argument with tact &
without outright attacking the audience’s preconceived notions.
l But seriously, the CONCEPTS are more important than the
LABELS. Don’t get overwhelmed.
l THIS IS NOT THE ONE AND ONLY RIGHT WAY TO WRITE
PERSUASIVELY!!!!!!!!! There are many right ways to write!
l Sometimes it works well and is appropriate, sometimes it’s not. As
a writer, you have to make the call.
Argument v. Persuasion
l Definitions tend to be “academic”
l Some say argument is purely logical, and
persuasion contains emotional appeals.
l ARGUMENT = discover a truth or
l PERSUASION = seeks to change a point
of view or ACT on a conviction
l Seeks to establish trust and find COMMON
l Assume that audience &/or opposition is made
up of REASONABLE people. This is,
unfortunately, not always true. Therefore,
Rogerian argument is not always the best
l Seeks to UNDERSTAND the point of view of
those with whom they disagree
¡ To start a DIALOGUE or DISCOURSE
¡ BOTH/AND instead of EITHER/OR
¡ WIN/WIN instead of WIN/LOSE
Courtroom Example: When you would
NOT use Rogerian techniques…
Prosecution and defense argue with EACH
OTHER - but the AUDIENCE is really the
Judge and jury. In this case, there is no
need to be nice or concede ANY points to
the opposition. Your goal is to WIN!!
Same thing with DEBATES:
The OPPONENT is not the
AUDIENCE, so you might
not see many Rogerian
techniques when you watch
debates! The goal is to WIN or
Aristotelian (Classical) argument
l Seeks to REFUTE the
they are WRONG!
l Audience/opponent is
WRONG, and must
be “disproved” or
l Again, don’t worry
about labels. Know
Things that happen in a Rogerian
l Speaker/writer shows
understanding to the
demonstrates that those
who disagree with them
are still reasonable,
intelligent people of good
will (not fools and idiots).
l Speaker/writer is non-
friendly (not “my way or
Probably the most useful (but difficult)
with controversial issues
l Brainstorm some controversial issues:
¡ Death penalty
¡ Gay marriage
¡ Gun control
¡ The difficulty is that when people become
polarized about issues, they don’t like to admit
that the “other side” may have some good
• State the problem or issue.
• Give the opposing position. Grant some validity to parts of it.
Recognize circumstances where it could be acceptable.
• State YOUR position, support it, and tell why the opposition will
be IMPROVED by embracing your views. Why will the world be a
better place for this?
How to use Rogerian Argument
While I am NOT a fan of rigidly structured essays, here is
an example of what a Rogerian argument might look like:
l Summary of Opposing Views*
l Statement of Understanding*
l Statement of Your position
l Statement of Contexts
l Statement of Benefits
l Important parts/pose a solution – here is where you
“concede” something to the opposing side and
acknowledge that others who think differently from you
are also intelligent, reasonable people.