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Essays are graded on a NINE point scale, just like AP essays l 9 = 100 l Right now, if you are in l 8= 97 the 5/6 range, I think you l 7 = 93 are “okay” and can learn what you need to learn to l 6 = 86 succeed in the class and l 5 = 80 on the AP exam. l 4 = 77 l 3 = 72 l 2= 70 l 1 = 65 l NS = below 60 Issues that need to be fixed: l Proper nouns need capital letters: English, America l A lot is TWO words. l There and their are NOT interchangeable. l ‘s and s’ are not interchangeable l “Themself” is not a word l SentEnce, not sentAnce l Spell the author’s name correctly, and punctuate appropriately l Learn where to divide words at the end of a line, or better yet, if you don’t have room, go to the next line. l Refer to Elements of Style for more rules you should know. This book is a REFERENCE book. More issues – Refer to Elements of Style if you are confused: l Parallel structure errors (Ex. Immigrants who come to America are looking for a better life, sanctuary, or simply because they have nowhere else to go.) l Sentence fragments/run-ons l Subject/verb agreement errors l Pronoun/antecedent agreement errors (Ex. If an immigrant lives here long enough, they need to learn English.) Other things that will help you l Don’t be wordy. (Ex. “due to the fact that…,” “utilize,” etc.) l Handwriting really does matter, even though it’s not supposed to . l Details are important. l Summary is unnecessary. l Spelling matters. l Watch the immature expressions (Ex. “beat her over the head with,” “all up in his face”) and cliches (“beat around the bush”) Rogerian Argument Don’t hate on your audience. Rogerian “Argument” l Rogerian is one of THREE “models” of argument. (The others are Classical and Toulmin, & we will cover them later) l Ideas come from Carl Rogers, a psychologist. Your reading packet is written by him. A few quotes… l “Real communication occurs when we listen with understanding” – Carl Rogers l “The first duty of a wise advocate is to convince his opponents that he understands their arguments, and sympathizes with their just feelings.” –Samuel Taylor Coleridge (English Romantic Poet) l “You can catch more flies with honey than you can with vinegar” -?? You don’t pick fights with your audience! The Rogerian model acknowledges the audience’s point of view or opinions before presenting the author’s different or opposing viewpoint . A Rogerian argument supports the central argument with tact & without outright attacking the audience’s preconceived notions. l But seriously, the CONCEPTS are more important than the LABELS. Don’t get overwhelmed. l THIS IS NOT THE ONE AND ONLY RIGHT WAY TO WRITE PERSUASIVELY!!!!!!!!! There are many right ways to write! l Sometimes it works well and is appropriate, sometimes it’s not. As a writer, you have to make the call. Argument v. Persuasion l Definitions tend to be “academic” l Some say argument is purely logical, and persuasion contains emotional appeals. l ARGUMENT = discover a truth or conviction l PERSUASION = seeks to change a point of view or ACT on a conviction Rogerian Argument l Seeks to establish trust and find COMMON GROUND. l Assume that audience &/or opposition is made up of REASONABLE people. This is, unfortunately, not always true. Therefore, Rogerian argument is not always the best approach. l Seeks to UNDERSTAND the point of view of those with whom they disagree ¡ To start a DIALOGUE or DISCOURSE ¡ BOTH/AND instead of EITHER/OR ¡ WIN/WIN instead of WIN/LOSE Courtroom Example: When you would NOT use Rogerian techniques… Prosecution and defense argue with EACH OTHER - but the AUDIENCE is really the Judge and jury. In this case, there is no need to be nice or concede ANY points to the opposition. Your goal is to WIN!! Same thing with DEBATES: The OPPONENT is not the AUDIENCE, so you might not see many Rogerian techniques when you watch debates! The goal is to WIN or Dominate! Aristotelian (Classical) argument l Seeks to REFUTE the opposition because they are WRONG! l Audience/opponent is WRONG, and must be “disproved” or overwhelmed by evidence. l Again, don’t worry about labels. Know concepts. Things that happen in a Rogerian Argument l Speaker/writer shows (sympathetic) understanding to the opposition. l Speaker/writer demonstrates that those who disagree with them are still reasonable, intelligent people of good will (not fools and idiots). l Speaker/writer is non- confrontational, even friendly (not “my way or the highway”). Probably the most useful (but difficult) with controversial issues l Brainstorm some controversial issues: ¡ Death penalty ¡ Gay marriage ¡ Abortion ¡ Gun control ¡ The difficulty is that when people become polarized about issues, they don’t like to admit that the “other side” may have some good points. To Review… • State the problem or issue. • Give the opposing position. Grant some validity to parts of it. Recognize circumstances where it could be acceptable. • State YOUR position, support it, and tell why the opposition will be IMPROVED by embracing your views. Why will the world be a better place for this? How to use Rogerian Argument While I am NOT a fan of rigidly structured essays, here is an example of what a Rogerian argument might look like: l Intro l Summary of Opposing Views* l Statement of Understanding* l Statement of Your position l Statement of Contexts l Statement of Benefits l Important parts/pose a solution – here is where you “concede” something to the opposing side and acknowledge that others who think differently from you are also intelligent, reasonable people.