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AUTOMATIC DESIGN OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF FORGING by iaemedu

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									INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
  International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
  6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME
                         AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)                                                    IJMET
Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), pp. 344-348
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI)               ©IAEME
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         AUTOMATIC DESIGN OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF
                           FORGING

                 Mirlind Bruqi                                Rame Likaj
           Mechanical Engineering Faculty             Mechanical Engineering Faculty
                10000, Prishtina                            10000, Prishtina
                     Kosova                                       Kosova

                   Ahmet Shala                                Nexhat Qehaja
          Mechanical Engineering Faculty              Mechanical Engineering Faculty
                10000, Prishtina                             10000, Prishtina
                   Kosova                                         Kosova



   ABSTRACT

   We can get items of different configuration from the simplest to the most complex shapes.
   In order to gain an optimal technologic forging process and to avoid losses of a larger scale,
   an appropriate choice of the rounding ray and of the forging inclination is needed.
   So far these parameters chose by graphic and analytic methods.
   Further in this paper is given the procedure of automatic calculation of these parameters by
   computers.

   Key words: Forging, forging inclination, rounding rays, automatization.

   1.     INTRODUCTION

           Methods for manufacturing using forging, are mostly utilized in mass serial
   production. The benefit of using forging is the minimum of discarded material and minimal
   finnishing proccess using cutting or without it, and their quick assembly into machinery.
   These methods of manufacturing with deformation, are applicable in different sectors of
   industry, such as automotive industry, railcar industry, farming equipment, household
   equipment etc.

                                                344
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME

There is a large number of factors to be considered when selecting rounding rays and forging
inclination such as:

    -    Type of technological process,
    -    Type of material to be machined,
    -    Quality of the surface of the tool,
    -    Work surface of the work piece,
    -    Deformation temperature,
    -    The speed of deformation,
    -    Lubricant, etc.

2. FORGING INCLINATION

       While building the forged parts, you should take under consideration it's geometrical
shape, because of the specifics of the forging process, selection of the correct material and
raw material, preparation of the thermal treatment, method of forging based on the mechanic-
technological properties of the part, and also the construction technology of the part in
connection with the most economical way of finishing the forging and finishing process of
the part.
       Forging inclination are necessary in order to be able to extract the forged part from the
tool. They should be designed in such a manner as to allow, the extraction of the forged part
without any special extraction tool.
The angle of inclination should be proportional to the friction coefficient, and the
compression tension of the material, in the engraving of the press.
Friction force Fµ which holds the forged part in the engraving will be dependent on the
friction coefficient µ, material compression tension p, contact surfaces of the forged part in
relation to the tool and the angle of engraving coefficient, Figure 1.
       Friction force is:

                 Fµ = p ⋅ µ ⋅ cos α [ daN ]                                  … (1)

     Where:
     µ friction coefficient which depends on the type of material, temperature and the
     current state of the contacting surface;
     p [daN] – compression tension;
     A [mm2] – surface of contact friction.
The usage of forged inclination is as follows:

        1°, 3°, 5°, 7°, 9°, 12°, 15°, or
        1°, 3°, 6°, 9°, 12°, 15°.

      The size of forged inclination is dependent upon the on the relation between the masses
of the hammers upper die against the bottom. If this relation is small then the angles of
inclination are small too. If the report between the upper die and bottom part is 0.05, then the
angle of inclination is α = 7° ÷ 10°. If relation is 0.03, then angles of inclination are 3° ÷ 5°.



                                               345
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME

       In practice we should take care that the forging angles be as small as possible.
Difference between inner and outer inclination should be a minimum of 2° in order to ease
the extraction of the part for cooling.
       All forged inclination is standardized because the much smaller assortment of cutting
tools to be used (mills) for making the engraving.
When working on parts with over pressure, the inclination angle is 0 ÷ 1°.
       Research shows that by decreasing the angle during all other similar conditions also
decreases the deformation force. Increase of the deformation force is expressed during angle
change to 5° (1° ÷ 5°). Continual increase of the angle produces a lower intensity of force
increase.




                                                                   α


                                                         α

                                                             Fµ

                    Figure 1. Friction force during material flow on the die

       If the forged inclinations are smaller then the mechanical processing goes down for
about 20%.
How to lower the forged inclination?
This can be achieved by:

    -   Combination of hammer forging – horizontal forging machine;
    -   Increasing of preparation engraving;
    -   Combination of hammer forging - press;
    -   Using of special tools for removal of angles and using of calibration;
    -   Intensive use of lubrication device.

       In real life all these combinations are possible, that is why utilization of inclination is
still not researched enough.
       Besides the methods we discussed earlier, forged inclination can also be calculated
automatically by using a computer. For this method a certain algorithm has to be devised,
which is programmed using computer Figure 2.




                                               346
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME


                                  DESIGN OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF FORGING


             FREE FORGING                                                                                              DIE FORGING


                                                                                 Open die forging                                              Closed die forging


                           Hammer forging                                  Press forging                                          HFM

                Classification of forged parts according                                                                   Classification of forged parts according
                         to hammer forging                                                                                              to press forging



             Group I              Group II               Group III                           Class I                  Class II                 Class III            Class IV


     S g.1    Sg.2 Sg.3   Sg.4 Sg.1 Sg.2     Sg.3      Sg.1   Sg.2     Sg.3           Sg.1    Sg.2   Sg.3    Sg.1         Sg.2    Sg.3              Sg.1                  Sg.1

   TA TB TC A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C


       Finished part                            Finished part
                                                                                                                        Definition of Crown volume
   Determining the volume                       V 1 +V 2 + … +V i=ΣV i                                                              Vk = …
     And weight
                                                         m=Vρ                                                         Determining the weight of primary
                                                                                                                       Material V 0 = (V p + V k) (1+∇)
                                             m 0 = (1.25 ÷ 1.35)m
                                                                                                                      Determining the initial dimensions
                                                δ = f(m,L, ∇, Machine)                                                         of the part
                                                D f = f(D, δ)
                                                H f = f(H, δ)                                                         Determining the type to which the
              :                                 T = f(m, ∇)                                                                       part belongs
     δ = f(m, ∇, L, Machine)
      For outer:                                       Outer: R=f(m,∇)
                 +x
                 −y                                                                                                                                YES
        φD = D                                         Inner r= f(R)                                             a)           d p<D
      Inner:
                 +x
                                                                                                                                  NO
        φd = d − y                              Forged inclination                                                                            Type a 1 → hammering
                                                                                                                                          ( forging is done with only one
      D F = f(D,δ)                                                                                                                   YE
                                                                                                                                         hammering )
      T = f(m, ∇)                                    Rounding Rays                                          b)             d p >d    S
      R rr = f(m,∇)                                                                                                                        Type b 1 → hammering
                                                                                                                                  NO
                                                                                                                                        ( forging is done with only one
                                                                                                                                     YE
       Finished Parts                      Determining the thickness of                                     c)              d p<d       hammering )
                                                                                                                                     S
                                                die S = …
                                                                                                                                                   YE
   Calculation of forged Parts                                                                                                          H≤2h S
           and volume                               Forged part
                                                                                                                                               NO          Type 1 → hammering
                                                                                                                                                            YE
             Gutter                                                                                                               NO            H>2h        S
             C=…                                                                                                                                           Type 2 → hammering
                                                     Tolerance                                                                                 NO
   Determining the width of
   channel    f(c,k)                                     V = ΣV i                                                                                           YE
                                                                                                                             d)                 H<1.3h      S
    Volume of crowning                     Determining the height of channel
                                                                                                                                               N        Type 2 →
        channel                              bridge C = 0.015          A                                                                       O     hammering
                                                                                                                                                         YE
                                                                                                                                          H<(1.3-4)h     S
   Determining the dimensions              Determining the surface of
     Of initial part                       the part on a horizontal plane                                         Type e                   NO        Type 2 →
                                                                                                                            YE                  hammering
      Determining the reduced              for d max   of the part A= (π / 4 )D max
                                                                                2                                                      H>4h,
                                                                                                                                               d < 350  >YE
                                                                                                                            S                  d > 350  S
         form                                                                                                                                             Type e
                                                                                                                                           NO
                                                                                                                                            Relation    YES
   Force and energy                        Part Maximum diameter                       Determining the height                            (6)       d p<d
   Depending on machine                            D max = H i tgα                       and diameter of the
                                                                                           part d, h                                      N                      Type l
       Output data                             Selection of crown                                                                         Relat. (c)
                                                                                                                                          O
                                                                                                                                           4 solution
                                                 channel f(c,k)                              Operation flow
              STOP
                                                                                       Selection of crowning machine


                          Figure 2. Algorithm for construction of forging technology


                                                                                347
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME

3. CONCLUSIONS

      - The development of automatic forging inclination and rounding rays, allows for
        shortening of the time It takes to acquire these parameters, and also the overall
        technical preparation;
      - This time of automation, defines a higher productivity, lower usage of materials, better
        production characteristics, lower qualification manpower, in other words all elements
        which are functional, even for low serial production.

4. LITERATURE

[1] S. Kalpakjan.: Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Practice Hill, 2006
[2] M. Roosi.: Stampaggio a caldo dei metalli, Hoepli, Milano, 1984.
[3] G. Oehler.: Lavorazione della lamiera, Tehniche Novve, Milano, 1986.
[4] A. Berruti.: Stampagio e presse, Torino, 1964.
[5] E. Bugini.: Principi per la lavorazione plastica dei metalli, Capelli, Bolgna, 1964.
[6] G. Galili.: Tehnologia Meccanica – Lovarazione plastiche, Milano, 1979.
[7] B. Musofia.: Obrada metala plasticnom deformaciom, Svjetlost, Sarajevo, 1988.
[8] Shyamsundar D. Hivarale, Prof. Dr. Dilip R. Pangavhane and Nitin H. Ambhore,
    “Application of Knowledge Engineering and Computational Intelligence for Structural
    Topology Optimization of Forging Connecting Rod Die”, International Journal of
    Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 10 - 20,
    ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359
[9] Piyush Gulati, Rajesh Kanda, JaiInder Preet Singh and Manjinder Bajwa, “Simulation
    and Optimization of Material Flow Forging Defects in Automobile Component and
    Remedial Measures using Deform Software”, International Journal of Mechanical
    Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 204 - 216, ISSN
    Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359




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