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					    Recommendations for
Human Capital Development for
 Earth Observation Programs
         within the
   Republic of South Africa
             Report of the
    IEEE International Expert Panel
                            Outline

   Introduction of Expert Panel
   Terms of Reference
   Process
   Issues from the Perspective of the Expert Panel
   Proposed Structure

 Essential Skill Sets for Earth Observation Program
 Curriculum Components for Partner program in
  ‘Overarching Themes’:
       The water cycle
       Disasters
       Global climate
       Human settlement.
The IEEE Expert Panel
            Terms of Reference

 Review the assessment, carried out by consultants, of
  the current status of teaching and research in Earth
  Observations at the institutions of higher education
  within South Africa.
 Assess the Human Capital Development (HCD)
  required for the Earth Observation programs at these
  institutions to be competitive in the international
  arena within 5 to 10 years.
 Provide advice on the processes, procedures and
  financial instruments that would be most effective to
  achieve those goals.
                        Process

 Provided guidance for Questionnaire Structure for the Audit
  Report of the Consultant Team
 IEEE ad hoc Expert Panel hosted by the government of South
  Africa from June 29 to July 1, 2010 in Brussels, Belgium
 Drafts by Writing Team and reviews by ad hoc Expert Panel
 Review of other relevant institutes, programs, funding models
  etc.
 Peer Review
 Presentation on February 21
 Continued development through a ‘live process’
           Writing Team


 Dr. Ellsworth LeDrew, F.IEEE, F.CASI
  (Team Leader)
 Dr. Jay Pearlman, F.IEEE
 Dr. Melba Crawford, F.IEEE
           Issues from the
  Perspective of the Expert Panel (1)

 Study and training in Earth observations is
  markedly challenged by the lack of depth of
  faculty expertise and programs at the majority
  of institutions.
   In some cases there is only one faculty member
  at the institution and the time of that faculty
  member may be focused on other activities,
  notably teaching use of GIS software.
            Issues from the
   Perspective of the Expert Panel (2)

 Effective access to appropriate imagery for a
  particular study theme or research project must be
  improved.

 With the exception of access to commonly available
  PC computer resources, access to specialized
  software, high performance computing, specialized
  field equipment in Earth observations, and airborne
  imaging systems needs considerable improvement.
            Issues from the
   Perspective of the Expert Panel (3)

 There is no single initiative or a program that currently
  provides experts in Earth Observations of an international
  caliber.

 Financial resources are scarce throughout the educational
  system.

 There is little evidence of systemic partnerships or
  dialogue between institutions of higher education and
  private industry, government, or international
  organizations.
            Issues from the
   Perspective of the Expert Panel (4)

 There is little evidence, with the exception of the
  University of Stellenbosch, of long-term strategic
  planning in Earth Observations curricula.

 High Band-width internet capacity is critical for all
  university, government and private institutions
  involved in the Earth-Observations initiative within
  South Africa and with the rest of the world.
           Keystone Concept
      for the Proposed Structure

The focus will be to develop a system
 such that individual students will not
 need to leave South Africa for
 universities in other countries to have
 a world-class higher education at any
 degree level.
  Strategy in Developing Structure

 develop an end-to-end program for Human Capital
  Development for specific key Earth Observation user
  requirements identified by the government of South
  Africa.
   This program will include the skill sets of the students as they
    enter the institutions of higher education and the skill sets
    required by employers within private industry and government
    in South Africa.
 include international and national networking with
  partners in education, industry and government.
  Guidance in Developing Structure

 A priority of the government of South Africa is Human Capital
  Development and this includes decent employment through
  inclusive economic growth.
 The objective of the government is to be a leading nation in the
  use of space science and technology in service to its people.
 The government has identified four overarching themes for
  focus that may serve as catalysts for human capital development
  and Earth observations:
     The water cycle
     Disasters
     Global climate
     Human settlement.
    Tactics in Developing Structure
 The tactics may include
   centers of excellence,
   research chairs,
   development of mentoring and communication processes within the
    country,
   collaboration with institutions in other countries,
   sandwich programs with institutions in other countries,
   development of programs that emphasize community participation in
    remote sensing,
   cooperative education programs,
   in-career professional development,
   accreditation for specific earth observations skill sets,
   and oversight by an advisory council.
 Any plan must include milestones and benchmarks that can be
  assessed in terms of success of the program at periodic intervals.
                        Exemplars

 National Astrophysics and Space Science Programme
      (http://www.star.ac.za/)
 African Institute for Mathematical Science Next Einstein
  Initiative (http://www.nexteinstein.org/home)
 EIS-AFRICA’S MODEL FOR TRAINING AND CAPACITY
  BUILDING (http://www.fig.net/pub/proceedings/nairobi/nkambwe-
  TS18-2.pdf)
 CSIR Earth Observations (http://www.csir.co.za/SAC/eo.html)
 Chair and host of the IEEE IGARSS’09 (International
  Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society) International
  symposium in Cape Town, July, 2009
  Two Structures for Consideration

 Networks of Excellence – ‘hub and spoke’ model

 National Institute informed by the African Institute for
  Mathematical Sciences – AIMS, the ‘Next Einstein
  Initiative’
   South African Institute for
    Geomatic Sciences SAGE

   Or a combination of the best parts of both?
      Networks of Excellence (1)
     Competitive Call for Proposals

 Initial Call for NoE for two of four overarching
  themes: water cycle, disasters, climate change,
  and human settlement
 The call would be for a combination of
  Networks of Excellence (NoE) and research
  chairs that would encourage development of
  partnerships within the various universities as
  well as between universities, government and
  industry
       Networks of Excellence (2)
        Structure of Operations
 Noting that some universities have PhD
  programs whilst other universities may only
  have Bachelor of Science programs in Earth
  Observations, or even one course in Earth
  Observations as part of a spatial analysis
  theme, we recommend that partnerships be
  developed around a hub and spoke model of
  collaboration and mentoring
        Networks of Excellence (3)
        The ‘Hub and Spoke’ Model
 There will be a central hub with two or more sets of
  rings of widening radius joined by spokes.
 The central hub would be one or more universities
  with accredited PhD programs that can provide
  leadership in teaching and scholarship
 Individual spokes would go out to the other
  universities that, at the first ring, may have a Master
  of Science (or equivalent) as the final degree and
 at the second ring of larger radius, may have a
  Bachelor of Science (or equivalent) as the final
  degree.
       Networks of Excellence (4)
            Ten-Year Goal

 The objective is to develop a structure for
  mentoring, exchange of curricula materials and
  courses, and collaborative scholarship that
  would, within a decade, provide every student
  equal access to a Masters or PhD program
        Networks of Excellence (5)
        Crucial Role of Mentoring
 The current PhD-capable universities would act as
  mentors to those in partnership with them.
 This mentoring may be enhanced through both
  academic exchanges and collaborative research with
  principals in internationally recognized institutions in
  other countries.
 External international partners may also be invited to
  participate as nodes in the hub or internal to a given
  institution’s program.
             Networks of Excellence (6)
                   Mentoring

 Mentoring would be enabled through activities that could
  involve milestones for measurement of success:
   Annual symposia that include all South Africa Networks of Excellence in Earth
    Observations. The symposia would include presentation of results of
    collaborative research amongst members of the hub and spoke network,
    examination of procedures for and evidence of success of networked learning,
    and development of lifelong learning curricula for partners in industry and
    government.
   Collaboration on research by all institutions in the network that will include
    participation by the public in field programs. The citizen as participant in science
    and technology is an initiative that is growing in several areas, such as weather
    and atmospheric science, and the GEO-wiki (http://www.geo-
    wiki.org/login.php?menu=home)
           Networks of Excellence (7)
                 Mentoring

 Sharing of undergraduate and graduate course materials and lectures between all
  institutions in the network by means of broad-band Internet and modern
  communication strategies. We note that, towards this end, R250 million was
  announced on October 28, 2010, by the Ministry of Science and Technology and the
  National Research Foundation to improve broadband connectivity throughout the
  South African research network.
 Bimonthly meetings of faculty and students within each Network of Excellence
  with emphasis on face-to-face discussion but inclusion of teleconferencing if
  necessary.
 Training of Faculty through funded secondment to highly ranked international
  universities in partnership with RSA and training centres such as ICT, Netherlands
  and recent opportunities sponsored by the European Union.
       Networks of Excellence (8)
           Research Chairs

 A senior research chair for each center would be
  resident at a PhD capable University, whilst junior
  chairs may be resident at the Masters or Bachelors
  capable universities
 The network so developed would be able to
  proceed with the research at a scale not possible
  before, and achieve a scale of activity and credibility
  that will foster further funding initiatives at the
  international scale.
          Networks of Excellence (9)
             Audit and Planning

 To ensure that the objectives of the network, including
  mentoring, growth of national and international partnerships,
  and creation of future capability in industry, we recommend
  that there be an Earth Observations Advisory Council for all of
  the Networks of Excellence in Earth Observations
 This council would be comprised of individuals from a variety of
  Earth Observation specialties, countries, and types of research
  and teaching institutions.
 This group, which may be very effective with the size of 4 to 6,
  would participate in the annual symposia for all of the
  networks.
    Dr. Neil Turok and the African
 Institute for Mathematical Science

 AIMS was developed
 “… to provide an excellent advanced education to
 talented African students, encouraging
 independent thinkers, researchers and problem
 solvers capable of contributing to Africa’s
 development. AIMS’ teaching philosophy promotes
 critical and creative thinking and deliberately avoids
 the emphasis, all too common in both African and
 international universities, on rote learning and
 cramming for written exams.”
    Dr. Neil Turok and the African
 Institute for Mathematical Science
AIMS’ declared goals are to:
  · Promote mathematics and science in
   Africa
  · Recruit and train talented students and
   teachers
  · Build capacity for African initiatives in
   education, research and technology
     Dr. Neil Turok and the African
  Institute for Mathematical Science
 AIMS is a partnership project of three South African
  universities – Cape Town, Stellenbosch, and
  Western Cape, and three international partner
  universities - Cambridge, Oxford, and Paris-Sud XI
  (Orsay). Universities, both within and outside
  Africa, are seeking to join AIMS, in the expansion of
  the AIMS model to create new AIMS centres
  throughout Africa as set out in this Plan.”
  (http://www.nexteinstein.org/)
         Dr. Neil Turok and the African
      Institute for Mathematical Science
 As an example of the impact of this project, Dr. Barry Green, the
  current Director of AIMS, notes in the 2010 Annual Report:
   “… South African institutions of higher education have the
    responsibility of graduating more South Africans with postgraduate
    degrees in the sciences, particularly Master's and Doctoral degrees.
    AIMS is working hard to encourage South African students in
    particular, to pursue scientific careers. One of the initiatives
    introduced to address this is a joint biomathematics programme
    offered in collaboration with Stellenbosch University with half of the
    course taught at AIMS. At the end of 2009 the first group of five South
    African honours students with biomathematics focus graduated at
    Stellenbosch University, with seven more registering for this
    programme at the beginning of 2010.”
          South African Institute for
             Geomatic Sciences
                    SAGE

 is a high impact venue to enhance the learning environment
  very quickly

 if the AIMS model is used or an affiliation with AIMS is
  pursued, there may be minimal risk

 With partnerships between many South African universities,
  with highly ranked international universities, and with
  government and private institutions of notable research in
  Earth Observations, a high quality academic program can be
  delivered with results visible within the short term
         South African Institute for
            Geomatic Sciences
                   SAGE

 With careful planning and implementation, this may
  be designed so that students from any South African
  University, regardless of historical status, may realize
  immediate value.

 The challenge will be to adapt this model to bring
  cutting edge post-graduate research into the
  academic process
   Incorporate the Networks of Excellence Funding Model
                 Essential Skill Sets

 Specify skill sets for an International caliber program in the
  Earth Observation Science at the BES, MES and PhD level
 Each may partner with one or more of the ‘overarching
  themes’ of
     The water cycle
     Disasters
     Global climate
     Human settlement.
 Curriculum components developed for each of these that
  include Earth Observations
BES Skill Set (1)
BES Skill Set (2)
BES Skill Set (3)
  Human settlement: Forestry and
       Natural Resources

 Advanced fundamentals:         Field measurements: sampling
  organic chemistry,              and data analysis
  biochemistry, microbiology,    Natural resource issues, policy,
  statistical methods             and administration
 Dendrology                     Natural resource and
 Forest soils                    environmental economics
 Conservation genetics          Human dimensions of natural
 Tree physiology                 resources
 Principles of silviculture     Degree dependent electives
 Forest ecosystems               related to fisheries, aquatic
                                  science, wildlife management,
 Landscape ecology               urban forestry
Human settlement: Agriculture


 Advanced fundamentals:           Cropping systems and
  organic chemistry,                production
  biochemistry, microbiology       Weather and climate
 Soil science (chemistry,         Agronomic systems
  physics, fertility, pedology)     analysis and management
 Hydrologic processes             Agricultural economics
 Plant genetics                   Economics and
 Plant science and                 management: of Natural
  physiology                        Resources
               Global climate
             Physical Processes


 Introduction to Global      Climate Change: Impacts,
  Change                       Adaptation and Mitigation
 Principles of Climate       Atmospheric Chemistry and
  Change Economics and         Air Quality
  Policy                      Atmosphere-Vegetation-Soil
 Meteorology and Climate      Interactions
 Boundary-layer Processes    Field Experiment
 Earth System Modelling       Meteorology and Air Quality
 Atmospheric Dynamics
                 Global climate
               Impact Assessment

 Environmental Systems Analysis:    Economics and Management
  Methods and Applications            of Natural Resources
 Integrated Environmental
  Assessment: Pollution              Advanced Environmental
  Management                          Economics and Policy
 Integrated Environmental           Theories and Models in
  Assessment: Regional                Environmental Economics
  Management
                                     Environmental Policy: Analysis
 Principles of Earth and             and Evaluation
  Ecosystem Science
 Environmental Economics for        Sustainable Technology
  Environmental Sciences              Development
                                     Environment and Development
                    Water Cycle


 Hydraulics and fluid           Land surface-atmosphere
  mechanics (open channel         interactions
  and closed conduits)           Biogeochemical systems
 Hydrologic processes           Global and regional climate
  (surface and groundwater       Meteorology and weather
  flow, contaminant
  transport)                     Earth system coupled
 Water resources systems         modelling
  analysis and management        Sensors and
 Water supply, distribution,     instrumentation
  collection and treatment       Economics and
                                  environmental policy
Thankyou
ells@uwaterloo.ca

				
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