Docstoc

Nutrition _amp; Weight Control

Document Sample
Nutrition _amp; Weight Control Powered By Docstoc
					"Planning a Healthy Diet"




     Richard T. Patton,   MA, MPH, RD/LN, CHES
        Changes 1980-2000
       Increase in Prevalence (%) of Overweight (BMI >or= 25),
Obesity (BMI >or=30) and Severe Obesity (BMI >or=40) Among U.S. Adults.

                  Overweight           Obesity            Severe
                   (BMI >or=          (BMI >or=           Obesity
                      25)                25)             (BMI >or=
                                                            40)
1999 to 2000            64.5               30.5                4.7

1988 to 1994            56.0               23.0                2.9

1976 to 1980            46.0               14.4             No Data
On any given day in the
    United States...
         815 billion calories are
          consumed (200 billion
          more than needed)
         47 million hot dogs
         4 million pounds of bacon
         60 million pounds of red
          meat
         170 million eggs
    On any given day in the
        United States...
   3 million gallons of ice cream

   10 million pounds
    of candy

   16 million gallons
    of beer and ale

   1.5 million gallons of hard liquor
    (enough to make 26 million people
    drunk!)
Obesity: Risk Factors

 Genetics
 Family history of obesity
 Psychological factors
 Social and cultural factors
 Medical Illnesses
 Medications
 Alcohol consumption
 Smoking Cessation
“Bummer of a birthmark, Hal”
  Dietary                                       Energy                            Use

Carbohydrates                                   Blood                          Brain
                                                sugar
                                        c   y
                                    ien




                                                    Sh
                               ic
                            ef




                                                        or
                          d
                      o




                                                        tb
                Ch




                                                         ur
                                                            st
                                                             Hi,
                                          Body




                                                               gh
            Amino
Protein                                                                     Metabolism




                                                                   In
            acids                        Protein




                                                                     te
                                                                     ns
                                                                      ity
                Pr
                  ot
                      ein
                              ex
                                    ce
                                        ss

                                                 Body                          Physical
  Fat           all                               Fat                          Activity
       Energy Balance


 •Type of energy     •Metabolism
    •Amount at      •Daily Activity
      one time      •Exercise-type
•Timing of meals     and intensity
  •Energy stored   •Thermal effect
       in body         of meals

Energy INTAKE      Energy Expenditure
 Dietary Reference Intakes
          (DRI)
             .
Dietary reference intakes are used
  to plan and evaluate diets for
          healthy people
        Establishing Nutrient
         Recommendations
1. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) defines the
   requirement of a nutrient that supports a specific function
   in the body for half of the healthy population.
2. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) use the EAR
   as a base and include sufficient daily amounts of nutrients to
   meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy
   populations. This recommendation considers deficiencies.
3. Adequate Intakes (AI) reflect the average daily amount of
   a nutrient without an established RDA that appears to be
   sufficient.
4. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is a maximum daily
   amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy
   people and beyond which there is an increased risk of
   adverse health effects.
     Diet-Planning Principles
1. Adequacy (dietary)—providing sufficient energy and
   essential nutrients for healthy people
2. Balance (dietary)—consuming the right proportion of
   foods
3. kcalorie (energy) control—balancing the amount of
   foods and energy to sustain physical activities and
   metabolic needs
4. Nutrient density—measuring the nutrient content of
   a food relative to its energy content
a. Empty-kcalorie foods denote foods that contribute
   energy but lack nutrients.
5. Moderation (dietary)—providing enough but not too
   much of a food or nutrient
6. Variety (dietary)—eating a wide selection of foods
   within and among the major food groups
  Dietary Guidelines for
       Americans
1. Adequate nutrients within energy
  needs
 a. Consume foods from all food groups and
   limit foods that can be detrimental to
   health.
 b. Consume a balanced diet.
2. Weight management
 a. Maintain a healthy body weight.
 b. Prevention of weight gain
   Dietary Guidelines for
        Americans
3. Physical activity
  a. Increase energy expenditure and
    decrease sedentary activities.
  b. Include cardiovascular conditioning,
    stretching, and resistance exercises.
4. Food groups to encourage
  a. Choose a variety of fruits, vegetables,
    milk and milk products, and whole
    grains.
   Dietary Guidelines for
        Americans
5. Fats
  a. Limit saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and
    trans fats.
  b. Choose monounsaturated and polyunsaturated
    fat sources.
  c.Choose lean, low-fat, or fat-free foods.
6. Carbohydrates
  a. Choose those that are high in fiber.
  b. Choose products with a minimal amount of
    added sugar.
  c.Decrease the risk of dental caries.
   Dietary Guidelines for
        Americans
7.Sodium and potassium
  a.Choose foods that are low in salt and high in
    potassium.
8.Alcoholic beverages
  a.Drink in moderation.
  b.Some should not consume alcohol.
9.Food safety
  a.Wash and cook foods thoroughly and keep cooking
    surfaces clean.
  b.Avoid raw, undercooked, or unpasteurized products.
           Exchange Lists
   Exchange Lists help to achieve kcalorie
    control and moderation.
    1.Foods are sorted by energy-
     nutrient content.
    2.Originally developed for those
     with diabetes
    3.Portion sizes vary within a group
    4.Food groupings may not be logical
"Planning a Healthy
       Diet"
                            The multiple colors of the pyramid                 The name, slogan,
                            illustrate variety: each color represents          and website present
                            one of the five food groups, plus one              a personalized
                            for oils. Different widths of colors               approach.
                            suggest the proportional contribution
                            of each food group to a healthy diet.




A person climbing
steps reminds
consumers to be                                                                The narrow slivers
physically active                                                              of color at the top
each day.                                                                      imply moderation in
                                                                               foods rich in solid
                                                                               fats and added
                                                                               sugars.



                                                                               The wide bottom
                                                                               represents nutrient-
                                                                               dense foods that
                                                                               should make up the
Greater intakes of                                                             bulk of the diet.
grains, vegetables,
fruits, and milk are
encouraged by the
width of orange,
green, red, and
blue, respectively.




                GRAINS   VEGETABLES         FRUITS       OILS           MILK       MEAT & BEANS
                                                                                       Fig. 2-3, p. 47
Plan Meals thru the Day

   Think about what you are going to
    eat instead of eating by habit or
    impulse!

   Eat more earlier when more active

   Eat less later when less active
      i.e. a little often vs. a lot at once
    Plan Meals thru the Day
   Most (about 85%) 0f the calories
    people consume are by habit or
    impulse

   Most (about 65%) of the calories
    people consume are in the latter day
    Plan Meals thru the Day
   Most (about 85%) 0f the calories
    people consume are by habit or
    impulse

   Most (about 65%) of the calories
    people consume are in the latter
    day
Sumo Wrestler meal planning
Eat a Variety of Foods
    (at Each Meal)
   Provides more nutrition
   Each member of the family can
    choose what they want at that time
   Controls eating one food in excess
   Exposes a person to different foods
   Makes a better meal
p. 38
Table 2-7, p. 48
Fig. 2-7, p. 52
    Center Meals around the
      Carbohydrate Foods

   Answers the question
       “What am I supposed to eat”?
   Provides the best source of energy.
   Provides a lot of most nutrients,
    (including fiber)
   Low in fat, and has the ‘good’ type
    and contains no cholesterol.
   Most have protein, certainly enough.
   Are not fattening--fats are!
Minimize FATS and SUGAR
   Fats are fattening
   Fats can lead to other health problems
   ‘Minimize’ fat intake, don’t eliminate it
   Sugar in large amounts is a problem
   Sugar is an enjoyable taste and may
    displace foods with more nutrition and
    be concentrated
   Fat and Sugar mix well with each other:
    the real problem
“you’re eating too much sugar.”
        Your fired, Jack.
Your lab results just came back,
and you tested positive for Coke
‘WHAT CAN I DO ABOUT      ‘YOU CAN STOP
 THESE BAD HANGOVERS   DRINKING ALCOHOLIC
    I GET, DOCTOR’?         BEVERAGES’!




   “NO SERIOUSLY, WHAT CAN I DO”?
       Don’t worry about
          PROTEINS
   Important for growth (height) and
    development
   Needed in smaller amount than most
    people think (.8 grams/kilogram BW)
   Can be gotten from a variety of
    carbohydrate foods as well as the
    protein foods (meat, dairy)
   Use as a part of the meal, not as the
    meal (eat lean, less and last)
Thought of the day

  Give a man a fish and
  he will eat for a day.


Teach him how to fish, and
  he will sit in a boat and
    drink beer all day.
Fig. 2-8b, p. 54
The serving size and
number of servings
per container
kCalorie information
and quantities of
nutrients per serving,
in actual amounts




Quantities of nutrients
as “% Daily Values”
based on a 2000-
kcalorie energy intake




Daily Values reminder
for selected nutrients
for a 2000- and a 2500-
kcalorie diet

kCalorie per gram
reminder

The ingredients in
descending order of
predominance by
weight
                          Fig. 2-8b, p. 54
Table 2-10, p. 59
  “Leroy thinks nothing is like a
brisk walk, so that’s what he does,
              nothing”
     Physical Activity

Include:
 cardiovascular conditioning,
 stretching,
 resistance exercises or
  calisthenics for muscle strength
  and endurance
  Three more, two more, one
more, okay!...Five million leg lifts
     right leg first! Ready
 “the only stretching
Leroy does is when he
       yawns”
 I see no reason
why you should not
    engage in
                                p
 strenuous activity           ee
                         ll k g,
                       e in           g!
                      W ok        kin
                       lo p loo
                            e
                        ke
        Physical Activity

   Engage in regular physical
    activity and reduce sedentary
    activities to promote health,
    psychological well-being, and
    healthy body weight
    …
        Physical Activity

   Weight management – 60+ minutes
    of above while not exceeding intake
    requirement
   Sustain weight loss – 60 to 90
    minutes of above
   …


   Reduce risk of chronic disease in
    adulthood by doing 30+ minutes of
    moderate-intensity physical activity,
    above usual activity, at work or home
    on most days of week
             Health Claims
Nutrition Related Health Claims allowed on Food Labels
      Ø   Calcium and Osteoporosis
      Ø   Sodium and Hypertension
      Ø   Dietary fat and Cancer
      Ø   Saturated fat & Cholesterol and
          heart disease
      Ø   Fiber foods and Cancer
      Ø   Soluble fiber foods and Heart
          Disease
      Ø   Fruits and vegetables and Cancer
      Ø   Oats and Heart Disease
      Ø   Folic Acid and Neural Tube Defects
Thought of the day


If at first you don't
      succeed,

skydiving is not for
       you.
Questions?

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:4
posted:7/14/2013
language:English
pages:60