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Limited Ufology

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					                 Limited Ufology
                               Paul Budding

Keywords: Limited Ufology, SETI, [In]commensurability, Communication,
NASA



                                   Introduction
Ufology does not have to be an absurd field of knowledge or pseudoscience as
some debunkers like to describe it. However, it is true that many of those who
are attracted to the UFO phenomenon are so because of its mythical
characteristics that entice the UFO buff to immerse him or herself in the
phenomenon as a belief system. Not surprisingly then the field becomes
absurdly over-ambitious and therefore it completely fails to progress. It does
not need to progress as-such but it would be preferable if serious thinkers could
discuss related issues within the field without feeling at all crazy.



In this paper I will explain why it is difficult to discuss Ufology within the field
as it stands at present. And I will then go on to say how the individual who does
want to discuss UFO’s in a sane and sensible manner can do so without being
absurd. As for definite advances in one’s knowledge the individual may need
help from related areas for that (SETI, NASA).




                                          1
                                     Part 1:

   From Absurd and Incommensurable Ufology to Limited and
                          Commensurable Ufology



In a message to Nick Pope I wrote the following: “I think that Ufology has
gone far too much down a political path and too many within it are convinced
that some within the U.S. establishment are covering up what they know about
ET. I am sure that some in the [likes of] the CIA (and UK’s MOD) know that
there’s a UFO Phenomenon but they are surely as bewildered by it as the rest of
us. But if they are bewildered then they cannot disclose because they would look
silly saying “we don’t know what they are, where they are from or why they are
here.” Hence although there are some interesting documents that the likes of
you and Rich[ard] Dolan uncover, the general political direction [of Ufology]
pushes me towards SETI… albeit on the UFO Phenomenon wing of it.”



Concerning documents that I referred to, I had in-mind the likes of these:

Nick Pope uncovered this document from the British Ministry of Defence
Intelligence Staff… this is an excerpt from it:



“That UAP exist is ‘indisputable’. Credited with the ability to hover, land, take-
off, to accelerate to exceptional velocities and vanish. They can reportedly alter
their direction of flight suddenly and clearly can exhibit aerodynamic
characteristics well beyond those of any known aircraft or missile either manned
or un-manned.”1


                                         2
Pope informs us that the original classification of the above document was…
SECRET: UK EYES ONLY. It was declassified in 2006. The following excerpt
is from page 10 of the Executive Summary:



“Attempts by other nations to intercept the unexplained objects which can
clearly change position faster than an aircraft have reportedly caused fatalities.”
Further on pilots are warned that “No attempt should be made to out-
manoeuvre a UAP during interception.”2



It is in this sense (and in the physiological, psychological, cultural and mythical
senses, see conclusion) that there is a UFO Phenomenon. However, I do not
seek for one second to imply that the UFO equates to ET and I do not take the
MOD as saying that either.



The following document that I am going to quote from is famous within the
UFO community. I first heard about it thanks to a Richard Dolan online video
but I soon noticed it being quoted multiple times elsewhere on the internet. It is
a declassified document from former 3 star General, Nathan Twining (year
1947):



“The phenomenon reported is something real and not visionary or fictitious.
[…] There are objects probably approximately the shape of a disc […] The
reported operating characteristics such as extreme rates of climb,
manoeuvrability (particularly in roll), and action which must be considered
                                          3
evasive when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar, lend belief to
the possibility that some of the objects are controlled either manually,
automatically or remotely.

[Further on in the document the UFO’s are described as typically] “Circular or
elliptical in shape, flat on bottom and domed on top.”3



Again, I am not at all making the case for ET. I am simply saying that the UFO
phenomenon is real. There’s a big difference. It is partly in the way that the
MOD and General Nathan Twining describe the phenomenon that I sign up to.
Albeit later in this paper we will see that this is not very relevant.



Now I will outline what is so wrong about the way that many within the UFO
field think.



Alien Depictions are absurd. For a start the depictions tend to view the aliens as
squishy biological beings. Yet even now, in the early 21st century, we realise that
we humans will not be squishy biological beings for much longer. We are set to
merge with our technology and become machine intelligence.

It is certainly not only the visual depiction that I have a problem with. The
assumption that humans and ET’s (or humans and interdimensionals or early
21st century humans and future time-travellers) would be commensurable to one
another is a massive assumption. If the other intelligence is hundreds, thousands
or millions of years ahead of us then there would surely be an
incommensurability problem. We humans can only possibly imagine our own
near future. Let’s imagine that we discovered the ability to travel back in time.

                                           4
Would we dialogue with societies from biblical times and earlier than biblical
times… on an equal basis? Would we arm them with deadly technologies?
Absolutely not. We would view them as not ready for it. We would surely study
them in a stealthy fashion as opposed to meeting their leaders and so forth.
Clearly this attitude on our part changes as we get closer to humans from the
‘almost’ here and now. Obviously we would communicate with ourselves from
the 1950’s, 60’s, 70s, 80s, 90s and last few years. At least there wouldn’t be an
incommensurability problem that would prevent us from doing this… and
hence we would consider some form of communication with them as opposed
to just stealthily studying our previous selves.



We can only view the whole Ufology field from our own early 21st century
human perspective. Other intelligences (whether ET, interdimensional or time
travellers) will not communicate with us if there’s a problem concerning
commensurability. Just think… there’s an incommensurability issue concerning
Einstein and Middle Ages Natural Philosophers. And the gap there is just a few
hundred years! Other intelligences will ignore us if they think that we are too
primitive. We must think this on the grounds that we can only work on
how we would react to primitive levels of intelligence. We have to think like
this in order to get beyond the absurdity of some or much of the UFO
phenomenon. This absurdity really shows itself in the depictions of Grey Aliens.
Even if abductees have suffered trauma and believe that they have seen these
beings… the field of Ufology should not work from that depiction.

So the Ufology that I am describing is a LIMITED UFOLOGY. If super-
advanced intelligences hundreds, thousands or millions of years ahead of
us have visited (or are visiting) us, then there’s no way that we can
communicate with them if they do not want to communicate with us.

                                          5
They will easily out-smart us. However intelligences that are just a little
ahead of us would be very interested in us. Hence just like NASA is
interested in earth like planets, Limited Ufology is interested in other 21st
century level-intelligences. Limited Ufology maintains the fascinating
appeal of Ufology AND it eliminates all of the UFO Phenomenon’s
absurdity.

The search must be for the commensurable. The incommensurable is
completely pointless. If we find primitive life we would study it, not
communicate with it. We have to understand that intelligences could exist that
are beyond us that would not want to communicate with us. This maybe simply
because we cannot offer them anything, and we are not ready for what they
could offer us. Just like biblical times are not ready for what we could offer
them. Limited Ufology also at least offers a plausible theory for why we haven’t
made contact with advanced intelligence already. Our science isn’t able to detect
other universes or times; we can’t get very far in the known universe, super-
advanced intelligence isn’t interested in communicating with us, life that is not
more advanced than ourselves cannot contact us.

Within a Limited Ufology context, communication theories become sensible,
even potentially smart. The whole subject matter goes from being a joke to being
worthy of discussion.

The UFO Phenomenon is only relevant IF it is close to us in the sense of
commensurability. Otherwise there’s never anything to discuss beyond the
mystery of what is seen. Clearly we want to know:



    What is it? E.g. human.
    Where is it from? E.g. the future.

                                          6
    Why is it here? E.g. for our welfare and their own welfare.



The above example is obviously an example of time-traveller theory. But it
could have been a machine intelligence ET example, or interdimensional. Or we
maybe in a position whereby we have not even come close to contact with a
commensurable intelligence. This would be the case if the best UFO sightings
were all top secret advanced military craft combined with psychological warfare
(e.g. holograms). In this case the thinker who signs up to Limited Ufology
would say that the best work being done now is by NASA who are looking for
earth-like planets… because discovery of earth-like planets would be the best
hope for changing the situation that I just referred to concerning failure to
discover commensurable intelligence.




Earlier in this paper I said that acknowledgement of unknown intelligently
controlled craft equated to there being a UFO Phenomenon. I also said that this
isn’t as relevant as it sounds. That is because the other intelligence seeks to
evade us forever and can do so. i.e., assuming that it is another intelligence as
opposed to human. Most likely, applying Occam’s razor… it is advanced human
craft or human psychological warfare. Also earlier in this paper (in my quoted
message to Nick Pope) I referred to moving in the direction of being on the
UFO Phenomenon wing of SETI. What I meant by that is (as said) an
acknowledging of the type of documents that I cited above. (Popes. Dolans).
Moreover, if SETI observed a signal it wouldn’t make much difference if the
intelligence that had been discovered was millions of miles away or not. So I do
not understand SETI’s conflict there with Ufology. But I do understand that
SETI do not want to be contaminated by the many absurd claims of the UFO


                                          7
community. In particular the demand for disclosure means that there’s less and
less chance of Ufology and SETI being reconciled than ever before. The
demand for disclosure is absurd if the establishment is as bewildered by the
UFO’s as the rest of us are. The political direction of Ufology has certainly
distanced itself further from SETI. Moreover the disclosure/conspiracy aspect
of Ufology is a negative move for another reason. As anthropologist Charles
Ziegler put it:


“Can UFOlogists define the nature of the government evidence they would be
willing to accept as conclusive proof that there was no cover-up, no alien
visitation? The answer, I believe, is no because any such evidence can be
regarded as an element of a further cover-up. In other words…the myth will
live on, partly because it is unfalsifiable – an attribute that it shares with the
central myths of most theologies – and partly because it serves various functions
for those who claim to find it credible.”4




Limited Ufology is not distant from SETI. It should be noted that SETI too
search for incommensurable intelligence so I have the same issue with them on
that issue that I do with Ufology. Limited Ufology does not deny the UFO
Phenomenon. It simply rejects the claims that there’s any prospect of
communication with incommensurable intelligence… and rejects the claims that
the U.S. establishment are communicating with this incommensurable
intelligence. Moreover, personally speaking… Occam’s Razor5 slants me
towards the human hypothesis concerning current UFO sightings (including the
best ones). This means that I slant towards today’s humans and their secretive
highly advanced craft6… and also some holographic psychological warfare
techniques. (see conclusion) But there is hope with NASA’s earth-like
discoveries that more exotic discoveries will eventually be made. And in physics,
                                           8
there is a pattern/trend towards theories of ‘many worlds’. In other words, the
likes of multiverse theories, time-travel theories and even simulated universes
theory. However, as I will make clear in the conclusion, the trend towards many
worlds in physics does not mean that UFO’s are from another dimension. And
even if it does mean that UFOs are from another dimension we still need to
keep commensurability in-mind. They do not want contact even if they do exist.



                                     Part 2:
            The Irrelevance of the Real UFO Phenomenon


The UFO Phenomenon is real. It is not just real because of the declassified
documents. There is a pattern that is well documented even if those documents
had not been declassified. Jacques Vallee defines the physiological and
psychological patterns (concerning close encounters) as follows:



Psychologically these “have to do with a loss of a sense of space; loss of
orientation. I have had a witnesses tell me we were driving north when everyone
knows they were driving south. They were disorientated at the time. [Also] loss
of a sense of time; people thinking that only ten minutes went by when [in-fact]
three hours went by. [Physiologically there’s] “very often effects on the skin;
[e.g.] sunburns, […] effects on the eyes from conjunctivitis to blindness to
temporary blindness in some cases.”1 Elsewhere Vallee writes of “the
physiological factors [that] include evidence of exposure to UV radiation,
frequent effects on the eyes (from conjunctivitis to temporary blindness), skin
blisters or injuries in reaction to focused beams of light, temporary inhibition of



                                         9
muscle control, disturbances in the sleep cycle, and general fatigue and anemia
lasting over seven days and life-threatening in some extreme cases.”2

SETI ignore this well-documented work. So this is another reason why I am on
the UFO Phenomenon wing of SETI. They also overlook psychological warfare
albeit many in Ufology do too! An early 1980s document concerning “The Role
of Behavioural Science in Physical Security”3 discusses “the feasibility of using
holographic techniques to project false images” to test responses.4 Vallee argues
that hologram techniques have been used. He says that “during the Watergate
investigation it was discovered that there was a plan originating in the White
House to surface a submarine off the Coast of Cuba and to paint the second
coming of Christ over the island of Cuba using holograms, which is all within
our technology today. The idea was that since there is a large Catholic
population in Cuba they would be so upset by this vision that this would
saturate the communication channels, [i.e.,] the telephone system in Cuba long
enough for an invasion to take place. [This is] psychological warfare. [… I
have…] personally investigated several […] genuine UFO cases where there
was, in-fact, manipulation. […] My conclusion and that of the scientists working
with me, was that there was in-fact a manipulation taking place and that it was
not a hoax on the part of the witnesses but a hoax on the part of someone
much better organized than them.”5 The physiological and psychological effects
are (by now) easy to establish because they are so well-documented. The
psychological warfare is less easy a pattern to establish than the physiological
and psychological effects presumably because we are tricked and bewildered by
it in most cases. However the fact that it has been done and is even admitted to
in documents is enough to be certain that it is a factor in some or many UFO
cases.

Vallee is an asset to Ufology albeit he ignores Occam’s razor in the sense that
his working hypothesis is, concerning the best cases, interdimensional as
                                        10
opposed to human. Vallee has observed the trend/pattern towards many worlds
in physics and cosmology. However this does not means that Occam’s razor
would now connect many worlds to the UFO phenomenon. We do not even
know that many worlds exist or that if they did that communication between
them would be possible. And as said throughout this paper, the
commensurability issue is all-important here. If interdimensionals are popping
in-and-out of our planet then clearly they do not want to communicate.

Science is incremental. Yes, there are Kuhnian revolutionary paradigm shifting
changes that link scientific change and worldview change but these are not the
norm. Poppers normal science is the norm. Normal technological science can
and is accelerating… and yet it remains within the popperian normal science
paradigm. Hence normal can be radical so long as it stays within the paradigm. I say this
because a quote from the radical technologist/inventor/writer, Ray Kurzweil is
used here to define an example of how normal science works within technology:
"The kinds of scenarios I am talking about 20 or 30 years from now are not
being developed because there's one lab that's sitting there creating a human-
level AI in a machine. They're happening because it is the end result of
thousands of tiny steps. Each step is conservative, not radical and makes perfect
sense. Each one is just the next generation in some company's product"6 Vallee,
(who coincidentally referred to a technological singularity even before Kurzweil)
is conscious of his desire for a Kuhnian world-view changing scientific
paradigm shift. He states that he has “maintained a keen interest in [the] UFO
phenomenon for about fifty years […] because it presents the kind of anomaly
that leads to new concepts in science. In other words even if we don’t have a
complete explanation in the next few years or decades, the data is so compelling
that it can lead to [a] disruptive breakthrough.”7 And he claims that “UFO
reports may provide an existence theorem for new notions of space and time –
and breakthroughs in technology innovation.”8 However, surely this is wrong. A

                                           11
better prediction would be that the future would look back on the UFO
Phenomenon being the alchemy before the chemistry as opposed to a key
component of the paradigm shift. More obviously, the paradigm shift would
emerge out of theoretical physics itself. Moreover, Vallee desires not only the
paradigm shift that is worked on by theoretical physicists, but also a proven
connection between the close encounter UFO reports and this same paradigm
shift… thus the establishment of contact and communication. And Vallee is not
factoring in the commensurability issue nor the fact that higher intelligences
clearly do not want communication. Vallee is Ufology’s best asset but he too
can take wrong paths. And as said, he ignores Occam’s razor.

If you asked me a straight question… does any part of the UFO Phenomenon
possess an exotic paradigm shifting aspect to it? (e.g. Machine Intelligence ET’s,
Time-Travellers, Interdimensionals) I would say that I have no idea (albeit it is
not my working hypothesis) AND that it is an irrelevant question because if any
of them have visited earth then they evade us and will do this consistently. We
will never discover them. Hence thinking about those intelligences in relation to
visitation is pointless and makes a mockery of Ufology. Hence serious ufologists
are advised to discuss issues within a context of commensurability and
incommensurability. Ufology then becomes a sane and sensible subject matter,
still fascinating but not absurd.

                                    Conclusion:

      Thinking from within contexts of Ufology/SETI/NASA

The next approximate 20 years for me are about NASA getting technology onto
Europa to search for life and about NASA’s continuing discovery of earth-like
planets. If we find simple life on Europa then it will mean that life is abundant
throughout the universe because life’s existence in two places, Earth and
Europa, i.e., equating to a tiny fraction of the universe/a mere grain of sand of
                                        12
the universe… will mean that life is common throughout the universe. Hence
Europa is key. If we can find life there then this will boost confidence because
we will know that more and more life will be discovered in the future. However,
by relying on a NASA mission to boost confidence in extra-terrestrial life, I find
myself well-and-truly within their paradigm as opposed to the Ufology
paradigm. Nevertheless, I am on the UFO Phenomenon wing of SETI/NASA
thinking because I think that the UFO Phenomenon, even if entirely human, is
part of our culture, and that it makes for a great myth which does not mean
entirely false. It’s a great story with elements of truth (e.g., physical traces/radar
blips are elements of physical truth albeit it doesn’t mean its ET). And Limited
Ufology can philosophically speculate about the fantastic without being
absurd… if it keeps to commensurable others as opposed to incommensurable others.
But if Ufology’s role concerns mythology, culture, philosophical speculation…
then what is the SETI inclined and NASA inclined thinker to do? They too
could engage in Limited Ufology thinking but they will also slant towards
thinking about human colonisation of Mars, and wondering whether or not
Europa has life, and about earth-like planets outside of our solar system. It is a
good idea to combine all of these elements into one.




The image below is taken from NASA’s website.

           Astronomy Picture of the Day (address for this picture, see Notes, conclusion, footnote 1)




                                                      13
                                   2012 May 24




                            All the Water on Europa


“Explanation: How much of Jupiter’s moon Europa is made of water? A lot,
actually. Based on the Galileo probe data acquired during its exploration of the
Jovian system from 1995 to 2003, Europa possesses a deep, global ocean of
liquid water beneath a layer of surface ice. The subsurface ocean plus ice layer
could range from 80 to 170 kilometers in average depth. Adopting an estimate
of 100 kilometers depth, if all the water on Europa were gathered into a ball it
would have a radius of 877 kilometers. To scale, this intriguing illustration

                                        14
compares that hypothetical ball of all the water on Europa to the size of Europa
itself (left) - and similarly to all the water on planet Earth. With a volume 2-3
times the volume of water in Earth's oceans, the global ocean on Europa holds
out a tantalizing destination in the search for extraterrestrial life in our solar
system.”2




                                          15
                                    Notes


Part 1


1. Nick Pope quoting from 'Project Condign' Document: A formerly classified
UK intelligence study into UFOs. (Youtube Video)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BU6rg6D2fz8

2. Nick Pope: p10, Executive Summary quotes from ‘Project Condign’
Document. (Youtube Video)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=b8Djvyyb7jM
#at=15

3. Richard Dolan: The UFO Cover-up in ten minutes. (Youtube Video)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7q7616UT27s

4. Saler, Ziegler and Moore, 1997, p70, UFO Crash at Roswell: The Genesis of
a Modern Myth. (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press)

5. I define Occam’s razor as… suggesting that we always seek the simplest
answer(s) that do not over-step the boundaries of normal science.

6. The following information is taken from a television program called
“Unsolved History” (Channel: Discovery History, screened in the UK on 3rd
July 2013). The secretive advanced human craft theory is part of the answer
concerning the best UFO sightings. Area 51 in the Nevada desert is inextricably
linked to this theory. The history of Area 51 begins in the Cold War period.
Nick Cook (a British aviation expert) explains that Area 51 came into existence
because the Lockheed Company was carrying out secretive work and required a
more secretive location to continue doing so. Groom Lake, Nevada, was an


                                       16
ideal location due to its remoteness. Hence, Lockheed continued to carry out its
work on top secret spy plane designs there. The first project to be tested there
was the U2 Spy Plane. This plane was credited with being able to produce
detailed arial images of enemy installations from altitudes of 20,000 metres; out
of reach of enemy radar. For over four years the U2 plane flew over the USSR
and gathered vital photographic information about the Soviet’s military
capabilities. But this ceased when Russia downed one of the U2 planes and
imprisoned the pilot (Francis Gary Powers) for ten years (on grounds of
spying). One of the next secret planes to be tested at Area 51 was the ‘A12’; a
CIA program for a Mach 3 (i.e., three times the speed of sound) spy plane. The
A12 and its successor, the SR71 became known as “blackbirds”. Both could
reach altitudes above 25,000 metres. America kept these planes secret so that
the Soviet Union was in the dark concerning U.S. capabilities.

During the 1980s Area 51 became famous for its secret test flights. People
would get as close as they could to Area 51 in order to sky-watch. This was due
to Bob Lazar claiming to have worked on the reverse engineering of alien space-
craft. Some of the sky-watchers will have confused Stealth for alien craft. Stealth
was tested in secret flights for many years at Area 51. Stealth’s history goes back
to the 1970s when Lockheed argued that it was now feasible to design a craft
invisible to radar. The result was the B2 Stealth Bomber and the F1 17 Stealth
Fighter. To the casual observer the craft looks UFO-like and may still fool
people today. Sometimes the F1 17 even looks as if it’s changing shape. The
secrecy ended in January 1991 when the F1 17 was used during the first Gulf
War. Both the B2 and F1 17 are vital components of America’s air-power. For
example, both planes were put into action during the Bosnian conflict and in
2003 during the invasion of Iraq.

All of this raises the question of current Area 51 secret craft. In 1991 a series of
unexplained sonic booms occurred in the Southern California area, caused by
                                         17
craft flying at Mach 3 or Mach 4, up to four times the speed of sound. During
this same period there was also a dramatic surge in reports of strange looking,
very fast moving aircraft around Groom Lake. At the same time the SR71
blackbird program was cancelled by the Airforce. The father of Stealth, Ben
Rich says that a craft called ‘Aurora’ replaced the SR71. One of the purposes of
Aurora is apparently to verify nuclear proliferation. And aviation weekly claims
that these craft have been observed flying at very high altitude. Aviation writer,
James Goodall says that Aurora can fly at 8000 miles per hour or Mach 12, and
at an altitude of between 150,000 and 225,000 feet. The U.S. has not yet
admitted to Aurora’s existence but Nick Cook points out that America would
not end the SR71 program if it didn’t have something better (i.e., more
advanced) to replace it.

If Aurora does exist, it too will surely be mistaken for alien craft.

The following is a summary of Nick Cook’s conclusion on the TV
Program “An Alien History of Planet Earth”

Cook’s conclusion was that U.S. top-secret Defence Industry technology was
being developed by government-backed Defence Industry programs, deriving
from the recovery of experimental research conducted by Nazi scientists during
the second world war and taken afterward to America thanks to the well-
documented, ‘Operation Paperclip’. These programs were further developed at
the top-secret research facilities established at White Sands, New Mexico, with
the collaborative aid of the same German scientists. With regards to UFO
phenomenon… these stories were generated and then promoted by the CIA as
a false-lead explanation to cover-up genuine real-world military research and
development (R & D) for the sake of National Security, particularly during the
Cold War. Declassified documents and blueprints obtained from archives are



                                         18
produced in support of this conclusion. (An Alien History of Planet Earth,
History Channel)



FOR MORE ON SECRET HUMAN TECHNOLOGY AS A
SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE EXPLANATION FOR THE UFO
PHENOMENON SEE PAGES 19 – 22 OF SERIOUS NEW UFOLOGY
MAGAZINE: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/96779895/Serious-New-
Ufology-Magazine_-Issue-1_-September-2011




Part 2


1. Jacques Vallee in Jacques Vallee, Terence Mckenna, John Mack, Budd
Hopkins on the Alien, UFO Abduction Phenomenon. (Youtube Video)
www.youtube.com/watch?v=QJQ0MZ6Q9ZA

2. Jacques Vallee, On Messengers of Deception. (Daily Grail Website)
http://dailygrail.com/features/jacques-vallee-messengers-of-deception

3. The Role of Behavioural Science in Physical Security: Proceedings of the
Fifth Annual Symposium, June 11-12 1980. (Document)

4. p181 in The Role of Behavioural Science in Physical Security: Proceedings of
the Fifth Annual Symposium, June 11-12 1980. (Document)

5. Jacques Vallee in Jacques Vallee, Terence Mckenna, John Mack, Budd
Hopkins on the Alien, UFO Abduction Phenomenon. (Youtube Video)
www.youtube.com/watch?v=QJQ0MZ6Q9ZA
                                       19
6. Ray Kurzweil in Brockman and Kurzweil, After the Singularity: A Talk with
Ray Kurzweil.http://www.kurzweilai.net/after-the-singularity-a-talk-with-ray-
kurzweil


7. Jacques Vallee, Contact Learning from Outer Space, GCF 2011-01-23.
(Youtube Video) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4S98WGpzW1Q

8. ibid




Conclusion



1. Europa Image: Taken from the NASA Website:
http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap120524.html

2. ibid




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