MBA Leadership Program by yurtgc548


Leadership Program
   rd   th
 23 ­28 May 2006
Exponential growth

§       The growth in information
    •     Estimated that the amount of new
          information stored on paper, film,
          magnetic, and optical media has about
          doubled in the last three years. 1999­
    •     Information explosion? - new stored
          information grew about 30% a year
          between 1999 and 2002.
•   The growth in information
     •   The World Wide Web contains about 170
         terabytes of information on its surface; in
         volume this is seventeen times the size of
         the Library of Congress print collections.
     •   Instant messaging generates five billion
         messages a day (750GB), or 274
         Terabytes a year.
     •   Email generates about 400,000 terabytes
         of new information each year worldwide.
n   What is a terabyte?

     •   Terabyte (TB) 1,000,000,000,000 bytes
         1 Terabyte: 50000 trees made into paper
         and printed.
         2 Terabytes: An academic research library.
         10 Terabytes: The print collections of the
         U.S. Library of Congress
    Demographics ­ Generation Xers

•   Generation Xers are people born between 1964 and
•   The average employee in his or her late twenties, for
    instance, has already switched jobs five or six times.
•   Two common traits
•      ­Structures are extremely egalitarian
•     ­ Super­ supportive of employees’ desire to get a life outside
        of work.
     Demographics ­ Generation Xers

As for the old­fangled idea of paying one’s dues in a dull job
before moving up to something sexier, forget it:

 •   77% of Generation Xers say they’d quit in a minute if
     offered ‘increased intellectual stimulation’ at a different
 •   51% would jump ship for the chance to telecommute
 •   61% of Generation X women would leave their current
     jobs if they were offered more flexible hours elsewhere.
        Generation X ­ Needs
•   The top three things they want in a job are
•     ­ positive relationships with colleagues
•     ­ interesting work
•     ­ and continuous opportunities for learning
•   Recognition scored low and power and prestige
    ranked dead last.
•   Generation Xers are suspicious of hierarchies. Rank
    and seniority mean nothing to them. They want to
    participate as equals.
        Leading in a global context
        Relative Certainties
        Relative Certainties                             Key Uncertainties
                                                         Key Uncertainties
§   Globalization is largely irrevocable.      § Degree to which Asian countries will
                                               § Degree to which Asian countries will
§   2020: China’s population 1.4billion;         set ‘new rules of the game’, most
                                                  set ‘new rules of the game’, most
    India’s 1.3billion                           notably China and India
                                                  notably China and India
                                               § Whether the rise of China and India
                                               § Whether the rise of China and India
§   World Economy will be 80% larger
    than in 2000; average per capita             occurs smoothly
                                                  occurs smoothly
                                               § Our ability to manage or contain
                                               § Our ability to manage or contain
    income will be 50% higher
                                                 financial crises
                                                  financial crises
§   Increased globalization will place         § Extent to which authoritarian regimes
                                               § Extent to which authoritarian regimes
    hundreds of millions of working­age          face pressure to democratize
                                                  face pressure to democratize
    adults into the global economy.            § Ability of EU and Japan to adapt
                                               § Ability of EU and Japan to adapt
§   With growing world economy, demand           workforces and welfare systems and
                                                  workforces and welfare systems and
    for raw materials will increase in China     integrate immigrant populations
                                                  integrate immigrant populations
    and India and shape their foreign          § Extent to which political instability in
                                               § Extent to which political instability in
    policies.                                    producer countries may disrupt
                                                  producer countries may disrupt
                                                 supplies to developed countries
                                                  supplies to developed countries
        Leading in a global context
            Relative Certainties
            Relative Certainties                             Key Uncertainties
                                                             Key Uncertainties
§   Traditional geographic groupings will         §
                                                  §   Ability of states and international
                                                       Ability of states and international
    lose significance as non­state actors             institutions to coexist with non­state actors
    emerge                                             institutions to coexist with non­state actors
§   Political Islam will remain a potent          §
                                                  §   Impact of religious identities on unity of
                                                       Impact of religious identities on unity of
    force, as well as other ‘identity policies’       multiethnic states
                                                       multiethnic states
§   Improved WMD capabilities of some             §
                                                  §   Degree to which religious authorities
                                                       Degree to which religious authorities
    states; a more pervasive sense of                 transcend national boundaries
                                                       transcend national boundaries
    insecurity.                                   §
                                                  §   Ability for terrorists to acquire biological,
                                                       Ability for terrorists to acquire biological,
§   Great power conflict escalating into              chemical, radiological and nuclear weapons.
                                                       chemical, radiological and nuclear weapons.
    total war is unlikely; internal and               Ability to manage flashpoints and competition
    regional conflicts continue to rise and       §
                                                  §    Ability to manage flashpoints and competition
    smoulder                                          for resources
                                                       for resources
§   Environmental and ethical issues              §
                                                  §   Extent to which internal conflicts result in
                                                       Extent to which internal conflicts result in
    become even more important                        ‘failed states’
                                                       ‘failed states’
§   US will remain single most powerful           §
                                                  §   Extent to which new technologies like
                                                       Extent to which new technologies like
    actor economically, technologically               biotechnology create or resolve ethical
                                                       biotechnology create or resolve ethical
    and militarily                                    dilemmas
                                                  §   Whether the US loses science and technology
                                                       Whether the US loses science and technology
              Going Global
•   Saturated mature markets
•   Pressure on costs and Pressure on quality
•   Increasing competition
•   Consolidation of markets
•   Global communication
•   Educated customers/clients
            The Impact of Change
             Stage 1            Stage 2              Stage 3





n   Identifying which organisational structure will best
    meet the needs of customers/clients
n   Identifying which organisational structure will
    provide cost or quality of service advantages
n   Working across functional, geographic and cultural
n   Increasing complexity
n   Creating a global mindset
           Challenges for Leaders

n   Simplify things               n
                                  n   Increasing Complexity
                                      Increasing Complexity
n   Spend more time with          n
                                  n   No time
                                      No time
    customer                      n
                                  n   No time to manage
                                      No time to manage
n   Develop your people           n
                                  n   Heavy workloads
                                      Heavy workloads
n   Reduce costs, resources       n
                                  n   Heavy workloads for their
                                      Heavy workloads for their
n   Build the team                    people
n   Provide clarity, direction,   n
                                  n   Limited authority
                                      Limited authority
    leadership                    n
                                  n   Dual reporting – matrix
                                      Dual reporting – matrix
n   Make people accountable,          managers
    reward performance            n
                                  n   Reduced rewards
                                      Reduced rewards
n   Motivate your people          n
                                  n   Little/no training as a
                                      Little/no training as a
n   Get things done through           manager
    your people
The Global Mindset/Global Skillset
n   Global awareness
n   Cultural awareness and sensitivity (Cultural
n   Collaborative/co­operating
n   Actively reaching out across organizational
n   Willingness and ability to work in teams
n   Creativity and innovation
n   Able to manage the flexibility/control paradox

n   Planning       ­ Setting objectives, strategies etc.
n   Organising     ­ Managers setting tasks and organising staff.
n   Commanding     ­ Giving orders to staff so jobs are completed.
n   Coordinating   ­ Management must ensure that there is
                             consistency throughout the business.
n   Controlling    ­ Making sure all individuals fit in with
                     the plan.

                                             Henri Fayol

There is nothing more difficult to take in hand,
more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in
its success, than to take the lead in the
introduction of a new order of things.
                                Machiavelli 1513
•   It is the business of general to be serene and
    inscrutable, impartial and self controlled.
•   There are five qualities which are dangerous in the
    character of a general:

      –   If reckless, he can be killed
      –   If cowardly, captured
      –   If quick­tempered you can make fool of him
      –   If he has too delicate a sense of honour you can calumniate him
      –   If he is of a compassionate nature you can harass him

                                                               Sun Tzu 500-300 BC

n   The ability to influence others to do
    something they would not have done
    themselves, to work toward a collective
    goal or vision, without recourse to
    authority, control or coercion
   Understanding Leadership

 Economic                                                Historical Context
                 Team Needs          Individual Needs
                  (Followers)            (Trait)

                          Situational Needs

Market context                                    Cultural Context
                    Trait Approach
n   Based on the assumption that individuals are born with special
n   Approach suggests that organizations will function more
    effectively if they have senior managers will the appropriate
n   Importance is therefore placed on selecting the ‘right’ person
n   Major traits:
     –   Intelligence
     –   Self­confidence
     –   Determination
     –   Integrity
     –   Sociability
            Trait Approach
n Strengths
  • Intuitively it fits in with the common view that
    leaders are different, special.
  • Significant amount of research to validate this
  • Provides a detailed understanding of the leader
    component in leadership
  • Provides a benchmark for individuals against
    which they can assess themselves
               Trait Approach
n   Weaknesses
    • No definitive, agreed list of traits
    • Does not take in account the impact of situation
    • Not all lists of traits are validated by research
    • No link between traits and outcomes: group and
      team performance
    • Not useful as a basis for training – the focus is on
          Trait Approach
n Which   traits are the most important?
n Does a leader need them all?
n How can we recognize and recruit using
n Do traits apply to all situations?
Leadership Development ­ the Business Case

Return On Investment (ROI)

n   Caterpillar      194%
n   Astrazeneca      685%
n   General Motors   333%
n   Oracle           180%
                   Skills Approach
n   Still focuses on the leader
n   Looks instead at the competencies of the leader
n   3 skills approach         (based on work on Katz)
    – Personal skills
    – Technical skills
    – Human skills
n   Later models developed five different elements:
    –   Competencies (problem solving, knowledge etc)
    –   Individual attributes (cognitive ability, motivation and personality)
    –   Leadership outcomes
    –   Career experiences
    –   Environmental influences (factors outside the control of the leader e.g.
        ageing plant
                Skills Approach

n   Strength

    – It is a leader­centered model that stresses the importance of
      the leader's abilities, and it places learned skills at the center
      of effective leadership performance
    – It describes leadership in such a way that it makes it
      available to everyone.
    – It provides a sophisticated map that explains how effective
      leadership performance can be achieved.
    – Provides a structure for leadership education and
      development programs that include creative problem solving,
      conflict resolution, listening, and teamwork.
                  Skills Approach
n   Weaknesses

    – The model seems to extend beyond the boundaries of
      leadership, including, for example, con­flict management,
      critical thinking, motivation theory, and personality theory.
    – The skills model is weak in predictive value. It does not
      explain how a person's competencies lead to effective
      leadership perfor­mance
    – It claims not to be a trait approach, but indi­vidual traits such
      as cognitive abilities, motivation, and personality play a large
      role in the model.
    – It is weak in general application because it was constructed
      using only data from military personnel.
             Style Approach
n   Emphasizes the behaviour of the leader
n   Leadership composed of essentially two
    – Task behaviours
    – Relationship behaviours
                                         The Leadership Grid

                      County Club Management: Thoughtful                 Team Management: Work accomplishment is
                      attention to the needs of the people for           from committed people; interdependence
                      satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable,   through a “common stake” in organization
                      friendly organization atmosphere and work          purpose leads to relationships of trust and
                      temp.                                              respect.
 Concern for People
 Concern for People

                                        Middle­of­the­Road Management: Adequate organization
                                        performance is possible through balancing the necessity to
                                        get work out while maintaining morale of people at a
                                        satisfactory level.

                       Impoverished Management: Exertion of                  Authority­Compliance Management:
                       minimum effort to get required work done              Efficiency in operations results from
                       is appropriate to sustain organization                arranging conditions of work in such a
                       membership.                                           way that human elements interfere to a

                                                                             minimum degree.

                      1 Low                                                                               High        9
                                                      Concern for Results
                                                      Concern for Results
               Style Approach

n   Strengths

    – It includes the study of the behaviors of leaders rather than
      only their personal traits or charac­teristics
    – It is a reliable approach because it is supported by a wide
      range of studies
    – It reinforces the importance of the two core dimensions of
      leadership behavior: task and relationship
    – It provides a broad conceptual map that is useful in gaining
      an understanding of our own leadership behaviors.
              Style Approach


  – Researchers have not been able to associate the behaviors
    of leaders (task and relationship) with outcomes such as
    morale, job satisfaction, and productivity
  – Researchers from the style approach have not been able to
    identify a universal set of leadership behaviors that would
    consistently result in effective leadership
  – The style approach implies, but fails to support fully, the idea
    that the most effective leadership style is a high­high style
    (i.e., high task and high relationship).
       Situational Approach

n   Focuses on leadership in situations

    – What is the situation?
    – Who are the People?
       • Willingness
       • Ability
n   Can be developed
                    Situational Leadership
Focus on
                                  Involving,                       Persuading
                                 Participative                     Influencing

                                   Delegating                      Directing
                                  Empowering                      Instructing

                                                           Focus on task, content, procedure

                High Ability/commitment           Moderate                     Low Ability/commitment

                          Very able,        Able,           Able,        Unable, Unwilling
                           Willing,       Unwilling       Unwilling,       or Insecure
                          Motivated       Insecure       Unmotivated
        Situational Approach
n   Strengths

    – It is an approach to leadership that is recognized by
      many as a standard for training leaders.
    – It is a practical approach that is easily understood and
      easily applied
    – The approach provides a clear set of prescrip­tions for
      how leaders should act if they want to enhance their
      leadership effectiveness
    – The approach recognizes and stresses that there is not
      one "best" style of leadership; instead, leaders need to
      be flexible and adapt their style to the requirements of
      the situation.
        Emotional Intelligence
SELF­AWARENESS:                   EMPATHY:
§ knowing your emotions,          § recognizing feelings in others
   recognizing feelings as        and tuning into their verbal and
   they occur, and                nonverbal cues
   discriminating between

MANAGEMENT:                       RELATIONSHIPS:
 § handling feelings so they're   § handling interpersonal
   relevant to the current        interaction,
   situation and you react        § conflict resolution, and
 § "gathering up" your feelings
   and directing yourself
   towards a goal, despite self
   ­doubt, inertia, and
      Emotional Intelligence
             Definition                      Hallmark

MOTIVATION   A passion to work for reasons   • Strong drive to achieve
             that go beyond money or         • Optimism, even in the face
             status                            of failure
             A propensity to pursue goals    • Organizational commitment
             with energy and persistence

EMPATHY      The ability to understand the   • Expertise in building & retaining
             emotional makeup of other         talent
             people                          • Cross­cultural sensitivity
                                             • Service to client & customers
             Skill in treating people
             according to their emotional
Behavioural Styles

                    Amiable    Expressive

                     Analyst      Driver


             Easy going                Dominant
Behavioural Styles
 Spontaneous            Amiable      Expressive

                  • Supportive       • Ambitious
                  • Dependable       • Stimulating
                  • Agreeable        • Enthusiastic
                  • Helpful          • Amusing
     Team         Analyst            Driver

                  • Serious          • Determined
                  • Industrious      • Efficient
                  • Persistent       • Decisive
                  • Exacting         • Practical

              Easy going           Task/              Dominant
Behavioural Styles
Potential Strengths and Weaknesses
 Spontaneous Amiable                             Expressive

                  Strength       Weakness        Strength       Weakness

                  Supportive     Soft            Ambitious      Manipulative
                  Dependable     Submissive      Stimulating    Excitable
                  Agreeable      Indecisive      Enthusiastic   Egotistical
                  Helpful        Undisciplined   Amusing        Flippant
     Team         Analyst                        Driver

                  Strength       Weakness        Strength       Weakness

                  Serious        Dull            Determined     Arrogant
                  Industrious   Critical         Efficient      Hard
                  Persistent     Pedantic        Decisive       Dominating
                  Exacting       Over­detailed   Practical      Unsympathetic

              Easy going                     Task/                 Dominant
       Emotional Intelligence
                Definition                  Hallmark

SOCIAL SKILLS   Proficiency in managing     • Effectiveness in leading
                relationships & building    change
                networks                    • Persuasiveness
                                            • Expertise in building &
                An ability to find common     leading teams
                ground & build rapport      • Developing others
                                            • Teamwork and collaboration
                                            • Conflict management
                                            • Building bonds, cultivating
        Situational Approach

n   Weaknesses
    – this approach does not have a strong body of research
      findings to justify and support the theoretical underpinnings
      on which it stands.
    – There is ambiguity regarding how the approach
      conceptualizes certain aspects of the leadership process.
    – It is not clear in explaining how subordinates move from low
      development levels to high development levels, nor is it clear
      on how commitment changes over time for subordinates.
    – The model does not address how demographic and cultural
      characteristics affect employees’ preferences for leadership
    – In applying this approach, the model does not provide
      guidelines for how leaders use this approach in group settings
      as opposed to one­to­one contexts.
           Leading Motivation


                       ESTEEM      PRAISE, RECOGNITION TO
                        NEEDS      SHOW SOMEONE THEY ARE

                 NEEDS            A TEAM MEMBER'S ACCEPTANCE

            SECURITY               REASSURANCE TO RELAX
             NEEDS               SOMEONE WHO FEELS UNSAFE

                             FOOD TO MEET HUNGER NEEDS
   The Cultural Web

         Stories          Symbols

  Rituals            The            Power
and routines       Paradigm       structures

        Control         Organisational
        systems           structures
    Hygiene factors and motivators

HYGIENE                  SATISFIERS
n   company policy       n   achievement
n   pay                  n   recognition
n   working conditions   n   work itself
n   management           n   responsibility
n   fringe benefits      n   advancement
      Achievement, Affiliation & Power
n   The need for achievement is characterized by the wish to take responsibility for
    finding solutions to problems, master complex tasks, set goals, get feedback on level
    of success

n   The need for affiliation is characterized by a desire to belong, an enjoyment of
    teamwork, a concern about interpersonal relationships, and a need reduce

n   The need for power is characterized by a drive to control and influence others, a
    need to win arguments, a need to persuade and prevail.

              According to McClelland, the presence of these motives or drives in an
              individual indicates a predisposition to behave in certain ways. Therefore, from
              a Partner’s perspective, recognizing which need is dominant in any particular
              individual affects the way in which that person can be motivated
Learning and Unlearning

                 Unconscious competence

             Conscious competence

      Conscious incompetence

 Unconscious incompetence
Stages of Team Development




        Team Characteristics

n   Balanced Roles      n   Sound Procedures
n   Clear Objectives    n   Appropriate
n   Openness and            Leadership
    Confrontation       n   Regular Review
n   Support and Trust   n   Individual
                        n   Co­operation and
                        n   Sound Inter­group
                        n   Good
   Effective Teams


 Team together,                   Team
   team apart                     composition
communication                        Team

            Team          Team
           dynamics       Norms
Effective Teams

n   Customers/Stakeholders
     –   Have we identified our customers/clients/stakeholders
     –   Have we identified their needs?
     –   Can we meet those needs?

n   Team Purpose
     –   What is our collective purpose?
     –   Can we define success for the team?
     –   How will we measure it?

n   Team Composition
     –   Appropriate members, size of team
     –   Appropriate skills to achieve the task
     –   Balance of team role preferences

n   Team Leadership
     –   What style of leadership is appropriate?
     –   Has it changed/does it need to change?
Effective Teams

n   Team Norms
     –   Have we agreed how we want to work together?
     –   Are these norms explicit?
     –   Do we have agreed processes for; decision making, meetings, problem solving?
     –   What happens when team members do not adhere to the agreed norms?

n   Team Dynamics
     –   How well do we interact?
     –   How do we manage confrontation (or lack of it)?

n   Team Communication
     –   Do we have an agreed approach to communication within the team?
     –   Do we have an agreed approach to communication from the team?

n   Team together, team apart
     –   How do we behave when we are not together?
     –   How do we manage personal, functional and team agendas when they conflict?
Building Trust

      Trust …….
not wanting individuals
  in your team to fail
             Building Trust

 Achieving                                              Demonstrating
  Results:                                                Concern:

  Following                                              Respecting the
 through on                                               well­being of
  business                Trust
                         Trust                               others


               Acting with Integrity:
               Behaving in a predictable manner

                                    Adapted from Trust in the Balance by Robert Bruce Shaw1
                Leadership Practices that Drive a
                     Performance Culture
 Building capabilities and setting direction
 Building capabilities and setting direction                              Energising people
                                                                          Energising people
••    Communicating long term direction for the group
      Communicating long term direction for the group                      •• Inspiring people
                                                                               Inspiring people
••    Managing stakeholders effectively
      Managing stakeholders effectively                                    •• Providing support
                                                                               Providing support
••    Staying on top of sector/specialist knowledge
      Staying on top of sector/specialist knowledge
••    Solving problems
      Solving problems                                                     Managing performance
                                                                           Managing performance
••    Providing ongoing coaching and training
      Providing ongoing coaching and training
                                                                           ••   Holding people accountable
                                                                                Holding people accountable
Creating an environment of openness and respect
Creating an environment of openness and respect                            ••   Reviewing performance
                                                                                Reviewing performance
                                                                           ••   Following through
                                                                                Following through
 ••   Openness and candor
      Openness and candor                                                  ••   Providing regular and frequent feedback
                                                                                Providing regular and frequent feedback
 ••   Respectful treatment of people
      Respectful treatment of people                                       ••   Rewarding/recognizing performance
                                                                                Rewarding/recognizing performance
 ••   Actively dealing with conflict
      Actively dealing with conflict
 ••   Demonstrating courage
      Demonstrating courage
 ••   Encouraging open communication
      Encouraging open communication
 ••   Creating an environment of trust
                                                                           Structuring tasks
                                                                           Structuring tasks
      Creating an environment of trust
 ••   Acting with integrity
      Acting with integrity                                                •• Managing stress
                                                                              Managing stress
                                                                           •• Setting group and individual goals
                                                                              Setting group and individual goals
Fostering effective collaboration
Fostering effective collaboration                                          •• Delegating work responsibilities effectively
                                                                              Delegating work responsibilities effectively

••    Encouraging cross­departmental cooperation
      Encouraging cross­departmental cooperation
••    Valuing/encouraging diversity
      Valuing/encouraging diversity                     Empowering people
                                                        Empowering people
••    Building the team
      Building the team                                 •• Driving for results
                                                            Driving for results
••    Building a network
      Building a network                                •• Staying focused
                                                            Staying focused
                                                        •• Giving decision­making authority
                                                            Giving decision­making authority
                                                        •• Encouraging initiative
                                                            Encouraging initiative
                                                        •• Encouraging innovation and calculated
                                                            Encouraging innovation and calculated
                                                           risk taking
                                                            risk taking
                                                        •• Making decisions
                                                            Making decisions

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