MBA 669 - Infrastructure

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MBA 669 - Infrastructure Powered By Docstoc
					MBA 669
Special Topics:
IT-enabled organizational Forms


                 Dave Salisbury
        salisbury@udayton.edu (email)
  http://www.davesalisbury.com/ (web site)
This Week’s Fun Stuff
n   Codification of knowledge, expertise and
    procedures
n   IT and the control of information/decision-
    making
n   IT and the standardization and
    homogenization of organizations and
    industries
n   Issues surrounding the codification of
    expertise and decision-making
  Why We Invest in IS&T

                     Revenue



             +             +          +
   IS&T             Management
Investment       Support & Decision       Profit
                     Systems


             –              –         –
                       Costs
IT and locus of control

n   Some cases used to push decision-
    making to lower levels
n   Some cases used to get control
n   What is the effect of advanced IT in
    organizations?
    n   Liberating or constraining?
    n   Autonomy or top-down control?
Isomorphism and homogenization

n   Infrastructure
n   Standards
n   Systems
n   Codified procedures
Simon & the rational person
n   Humans can be rational actors, their
    rationality is bounded by their limitations
n   Humans tend to satisfice, or settle on the first
    acceptable option, rather optimizing
n   Information stored in computers can increase
    human rationality if accessible when needed
n   The central problem is not how to organize to
    produce efficiently, but how to organize to
    make decisions (i.e. process information)
IT provides assistance to...

n   Communicate and/or distribute
    knowledge
n   Collaborate with other workers
n   Routinize procedures
n   Capture and codify knowledge
n   Create knowledge
Two key issues

n   Uncertainty
    n   Lack of information
n   Ambiguity
    n   Lack of structure
Online analytical processing
n   Enables interactive examination/manipulation of
    detailed & consolidated data from many perspectives
    n   Analyze complex relationships to discover patterns, trends,
        and exception conditions in real time
n   Consolidation
    n   The aggregation of data.
    n   From simple roll-ups to complex groupings of interrelated
        data
n   Drill-Down
    n   Display detail data that comprise consolidated data
n   Slicing and Dicing
    n   The ability to look at the database from different viewpoints.
    n   When performed along a time axis, helps analyze trends and
        find patterns
Decision support systems

                What If-Analysis
                What If-Analysis



                        Sensitivity Analysis
                        Sensitivity Analysis
Important
Decision
Support
Systems
  Important
Analytical Models              Goal-Seeking Analysis
                               Goal-Seeking Analysis
  Decision
  Support
  Systems
  Analytical Models                       Optimization Analysis
                                          Optimization Analysis
Data mining for decision support
  n   Software analyzes vast amounts of data
  n   Attempts to discover patterns, trends, &
      correlations
  n   May perform regression, decision tree,
      neural network, cluster detection, or
      market basket analysis
Models as decision making aids
n   A model (in decision making) is a simplified
    representation of reality.
n   The benefits of modeling in decision making
    are:
    n   Cost of virtual experimentation is much lower
    n   Simulated compression of time.
    n   Manipulating the model is much easier
    n   The cost of mistakes are much lower
    n   Modeling for “what-ifs”
    n   Analysis and comparison of a large number
        alternatives
    n   Models enhance and reinforce learning
Artificial intelligence

                        Artificial
                         Artificial
                      Intelligence
                       Intelligence



  Cognitive
   Cognitive                                  Natural
                                               Natural
                       Robotics
                        Robotics
   Science
    Science                                  Interface
                                              Interface
                      Applications
                      Applications
 Applications
 Applications                               Applications
                                            Applications

•Expert Systems       •Visual Perceptions   •Natural Language
•Fuzzy Logic          •Locomotion           •Speech Recognition
•Genetic Algorithms   •Navigation           •Multisensory Interface
•Neural Networks      •Tactility            •Virtual Reality
AI application areas in business

            Neural Networks
            Neural Networks

                   Fuzzy Logic Systems
                   Fuzzy Logic Systems

                         Genetic Algorithms
                         Genetic Algorithms
  AI Application
  Areas in
  Business                      Virtual Reality
                                Virtual Reality
    AI Application
    Areas in                        Intelligent Agents
                                     Intelligent Agents
    Business
                                           Expert Systems
                                           Expert Systems
Expert systems

                        The Expert System
                        The Expert System
          Expert
          Advice
                              User
                              User           Inference
                                              Inference
                           Interface
                            Interface          Engine
                                                Engine         Knowledge
                           Programs
                           Programs           Program
                                               Program           Base


 User   Workstation




                                 Expert System Development
                                 Expert System Development

                                        Knowledge
                                        Engineering
                   Knowledge
                   Knowledge
                   Acquisition
                   Acquisition
                    Program
                    Program

                                        Workstation          Expert and/or
                                                          Knowledge Engineer
Expert system applications

         Decision Management
         Decision Management

             Diagnostic/Troubleshooting
             Diagnostic/Troubleshooting


                      Maintenance/Scheduling
                      Maintenance/Scheduling


                               Design/Configuration
                               Design/Configuration

  Major
  Application                        Selection/Classification
                                     Selection/Classification
  Categories
  of Expert Systems
                                          Process Monitoring/Control
                                          Process Monitoring/Control
Why have expert systems?

n   Standardize procedures and their
    application throughout organization
n   Share codified procedures more readily
n   Protect against loss of expertise
n   Preserve expertise for more important
    tasks
n   Replace expertise with systems
Codification & leveraging processes
n   Focus on business processes rather
    than divisions or functions
n   Processes tend to cross divisions and
    functions
n   IT as enabler of process focus
n   Choosing what goes to people and what
    goes to IT
n   Re-engineering focus
Standardization

n   Standardization as diminishing freedom
    or as enhancing reliability?
n   Does structure constrain or enable?
n   What impact does it have on
    codification of knowledge (see more on
    this Tuesday)?
n   Good or bad? Why or why not?
Widespread analytics
n   Heavy use of modeling and optimization
    routines
n   Enterprise approach (can’t be piecemeal to
    get the big benefits)
n   Ever more sophisticated tools
n   Again, most of this was not doable until the
    advent of sophisticated IT
n   Still need to apply expertise, experience and
    intuition
Diffusion of responsibility
n   The “myth” of technology neutrality that
    enables blame to be passed
    n   “The computer did it”
    n   “That’s what the model came up with”
    n   “The computer requires it”
n   Use of technology implies control by
    technology
    n   At once empowered and dominated
    n   Dependent on it to complete tasks
Lost expertise
n   Codification detaches knowledge from
    context
n   Experts are no longer so, and
    considered expendable
n   Technology replaces bodies
n   This effect is moving up the corporate
    ladder
n   Lack of flexibility in applying the rules

				
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posted:7/14/2013
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