General Findings Concerning the Ionosphere-Thermosphere

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					General Findings Concerning the

  Reported by Janet Kozyra (University of Michigan)

  Based on presentations, audience comments, and
  conversations at ILWS 2011. Thanks to all
  Basic Principle Underlying Findings

• Purpose of ILWS is to enhance scientific
  progress in Heliophysics through interagency
  and international collaboration between
        Key ITM Science Frontiers for
             the Coming Decade
• The ITM as an active element modulating the geospace response to
  solar and solar wind driving (i.e., global electrical conductance
  changes, chemical-dynamical interactions, mass outflow patterns,
  and the associated processes and linkages).
   – Untangle key coupling & feedbacks by studying ITM response in
     unusual parameter spaces (i.e., anomalous solar cycle 23/24 minimum
     and recovery to solar maximum, extreme space weather events,
     stratospheric warming events, etc.)

• ITM coupling to the middle/lower atmosphere
   – Meteorological driving of the ITM
   – Space weather effects on the mid/low atmosphere

• Long-term changes in the ITM due to:
   – Anthropogenic global change
   – Solar variability
                         What is Needed?
The study of multi-scale, non-linear dynamical systems is the most important
challenge of the 21st century
•Introduces a new set of requirements
     – Gather information on global connections (sometimes across vast spatial &
        temporal scales)
     – Deepen understanding of the individual regions and processes that are
        elements of these connections.
     – Follow the evolution of simultaneous patterns of key parameters not single
        cuts through these patterns (i.e., outflows, conductance, particle inputs,
        currents, etc.).
•To satisfy these requirements,
     – Need imaging instruments that obtain instantaneous global patterns or
        constellation missions that combine in-situ detailed information into global
        patterns. The lack of such ITM missions is a major weakness in the
        current program. Will seriously inhibit progress towards more accurate
        space weather prediction models & the emergence of regional models
     – Need rich flexible data environments that leverage distributed ITM
        observations into new information about the interconnected Geospace
        system. Includes the latest commercial and scientific developments in
        digital search, data manipulation and analysis tools, server-side visualization,
        data assimilation and data fusion
Resources Available to Address Them
  ITM Operating Scientific Satellites
Satellite   Launch        Agen    Orbit             Science
TIMED       extended      NASA    625 km,           Physics, dynamics, energetics, thermal
            mission               circular, 74.1o   structure & comp of the MLTI – global
            9/2012                incl              coverage at 1 LT only
AIM         extended      NASA    Polar, sun-       Polar mesospheric clouds -- very focused
            mission to            synchronous       science topic
CINDI       4/2008, MOO   DoD     MOO               Neutral atmosphere wind velocity and the
            on C/NOFS,    (US)    Equatorial, 400   charged particle drift velocity -- equatorial
            extended?             -800 km           region only
Cosmic      4/2006        Taiwa   6 microsats in    Near realtime 1000-2500 daily Ne profiles,
            extended?     n/US    6 orbit           TEC, TIP radiance products
            Cosmic-2?             planes,800km
AMPERE      8/2010        NSF     Sensors on 66     Patterns of FAC in both hemispheres at a
            switched to           Iridium           10-min cadence. Revolutionary step
            high res mode         satellites        forward for geospace system investigations

   *Lack of observations in the ITM is a serious problem for progress on
   critical science frontiers and forecast goals in the coming decade
Solar Irradiance
Satellite   Launch   Agencies   Orbit          Science
SolACES     2/2008, DLR         On ISS         Solar UV and EUV
            18 mon (Germany),
SDO/EVE     2/2010   NASA       Circular       Solar-EUV
                                ronous orbit
PICARD      6/2010   CNES                      Simultaneous absolute total and
                                               spectral solar irradiance, solar
                                               diameter & shape,helioseismology
SORCE       1/2003   NASA       40o orbit,     Solar x-ray, UV, vis, near-IR and
                                645 km alt     TSI
Not Launched Yet
Satellite Launch Agencies             Orbit                Science
ASIM         2013 - 2   ESA, DK,      ISS                  Upward lightning discharges
             yr         Spain,
Firefly      2011?      NSF, NASA     secondary payload    Lightning and Terrestrial Gamma
(cubesat)               GSFC                               Ray Flashes (TGFs).
Chibis       2011       Ukraine       launches from        Lightning discharges
(microsat)                            Progress Space
                                      Cargo Ship, 500 km
EQUARS       not       Brazil         Equatorial, 700-     Tropospheric convection,
             launched                 800 km alt           lightning, gravity waves, influence
             yet as of                                     of dynamical processes on the TN
             7/2011                                        field, ionospheric irregularities.
ePOP         2011 –     CSA           Elliptical polar     Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe
             2 yr                     orbit, 300-1500
IONOSAT      2012       Ukraine       400 km perigee,      Systematic study of the dynamic
                                      polar orbit          response of the ionosphere to the
                                                           influences “from above” and
                                                           “from below”. 3 microsats in a
                                                           cluster, spacing 50-3000 km
Kuafu        2012-      CNSA (also    A: L1               Observe complete chain of
             2015       DE, BE, FR,   B1/B2: Polar 2-8 RE disturbances from the solar
ITM Operational Satellites          Will there be COSMIC-2, ACE & C/NOFS replacements from NOAA?
 Satellite     Launch      Agencies       Orbit          Science
 DMSP          2012;       US DoD         Sun-synch,     Collaborative and stand-alone studies of
               2016, 5yr                  low-Earth,     the space environment (over 2000 papers
               nominal                    polar orbit    since inception)

 Valuable research usage, valuable contextual information for other missions, climatological
 data set (30 years), excellent ITM resource for assimilative space weather modeling. Large
 amounts of archived data already are not accessible to the general scientific community.
 POES          N19, 2009, NOAA            Sun-synch,     Collaborative and stand-alone studies of
               5yr                        low-Earth,     the space environment
               nominal                    polar orbit    Same as above.
 NPOESS        cancelled   Loss of essential capabilities in LEO space environment monitoring.
                           Only particle measurements continued by DWSS and MetOp
 MetOp         2009,       ESA,           Sun-synch,     MetOp is part of the European
               2012,       EUMET-         low-Earth,     contribution to a co-operative venture with
               2016        SAT            polar orbit    NOAA through the Initial Joint Polar
                                                         Satellite System (IJPS)
 METEOR-                   Russia                        METEOR-3M measures temp & humidity
 3M (??)                                                 profiles, clouds, surface properties, & high
                                                         energy particles in the upper atmosphere.
* Worldwide operational satellite programs are existing resources proven to enable scientific
discoveries that will feed directly back into working models of the space environment. They
give essential contextual and stand-alone information on space weather & climate.
    Possible ILWS Coordinating Activities in ITM
•   Largest immediate gains: Pursue interagency and international agreements
    that enable access to, and use of, operational data for scientific purposes in
    ways that do not create national security concerns. Can ILWS actually
    influence payload selections on these operational satellites?
•   Take advantage of rides of opportunity to build constellation-type missions
    for ITM global observations. ILWS can provide a framework for linking these
    efforts, which may each involve a limited number of parameters, to create a
    multi-parameter simultaneous view of the dynamical behavior of the ITM.
•   Mechanisms for continuity of essential long-term data sets: Identify
    essential long-term data sets using ILWS as an international forum. Some
    work on this was done within CAWSES-1. Consider mechanisms to add
    instrumentation where possible on mission payloads to continue these data
•   Enhance communication with ground-based networks: Create a
    framework to disseminate information to existing ground-based networks
    about opportunities for synergistic investigations with satellite missions in
    ILWS. These networks for example might provide global contextual
    information during space weather events. Maybe this could be done through
•   One Worldwide Data Environment: Provide a forum to disseminate
    information about, and develop linkages between, ongoing data environment
    developments in Heliophysics worldwide.

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