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GDN Public Service Delivery Conference Education Thematic Panel

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GDN Public Service Delivery Conference Education Thematic Panel Powered By Docstoc
					GDN Effective Public Service
   Delivery Workshop
  Education Sector Panel
       Feb. 2, 2009


     Rekha Balu, Harry Patrinos, Emiliana Vegas
Outline

n       State of Education
n       Institutional Challenges
n       Frameworks
n       What Do We Know
    n    Access
    n    Quality
    n    Information and Participation
n       What Don’t We Know
       School Enrollment and Completion




Source: Reproduced from Figure 7 in
Eric A. Hanushek and Ludger
Wößmann, Education Quality and
Economic Growth, The World Bank,
2007, based on data provided in Lant
Pritchett, “Access to Education.”
Issues in Education Coverage

n   Look at the green: Of 75 million primary-school-
    aged children not in school, 95% are in developing
    countries
n   Growing demand for secondary school
n   Reaching marginalized groups (indigenous, girls,
    students with disabilities) requires different intensity
    of investment.
Primary-School Attendance Rates by Income
Quintile, Developing Countries, 2000-2006




Source: UNICEF (2007) Progress for Children http://www.unicef.org/progressforchildren/2007n6/index_41796.htm
Outline

n       State of Education
n       Institutional Challenges
n       Frameworks
n       What Do We Know
    n    Access
    n    Quality
    n    Information and Participation
n       What Don’t We Know
Outline

n       State of Education
n       Institutional Challenges
n       Frameworks
n       What Do We Know
    n    Access
    n    Quality
    n    Information and Participation
n       What Don’t We Know
Institutional Challenges
n   Where’s the demand?
    q Financing decoupled from service

    q Extra-governmental taxation

n   Principal-agent problems
    q Teachers: principals, communities

    q High transaction and discretion

n   Asymmetric Information
    q Do parents have enough information to make choices?

n   Incomplete reform
    q Decentralization – devolve decisions, without authority over finances, hiring,
       curriculum.
    q School expansion – enroll students, but no new teachers.

n   Donor influence and multiple principals
    q Cascading distortions
Tensions and (False?) Dichotomies
n   Efficiency vs. redistribution
    q Ex: Conditional cash transfers or social insurance

n   Targeting vs. universal provision
    q Ex: School financial aid, secondary school stipends

n   Vertical vs. Horizontal Integration
    q Ex: School health/sanitation programs

n   Private vs. Public
    q Ex: Rural private schools or public scale

n   Local vs. Central control
Ø   How are these resolved within or between institutions?
Ø   How do indicators reflect these tensions?
Outline

n       State of Education
n       Institutional Challenges
n       Frameworks
n       What Do We Know
    n    Access
    n    Quality
    n    Information and Participation
n       What Don’t We Know
Outline

n       State of Education
n       Institutional Challenges
n       Frameworks
n       What Do We Know
    n    Access
    n    Quality
    n    Information and Participation
n       What Don’t We Know
      Framework: Alternative arrangements
    • From Needs to Demand
    • From Inputs to Performance
                     Improve existing arrangements, quality of treatment
                    Evaluate variation within programs, not just between

           Central government Control                                                               Private control

Central            States                      Municips       Schools      NGOs       Cmtys           Parents Private
government                                                                                                    ops
partners
with:

Set-up:            Federalization              Localization   Auton.       Contract   Community- Vouchers Private
                   /decentn                                   schools      out        driven dev          contract

Country            Nigeria, South              Indonesia,     Nicaragua,   Kenya,     El Salvador     Col.,      Pakistan
examples           Africa, Brazil,             Uganda         (India)      Uganda                     Chile
                   Argentina
    Source: adapted from Pritchett and Woolcock (2004)
Outline

n       State of Education
n       Institutional Challenges
n       Frameworks
n       What Do We Know
    n    Access
    n    Quality
    n    Information and Participation
n       What Don’t We Know
Outline

n       State of Education
n       Institutional Challenges
n       Frameworks
n       What Do We Know
    n    Access
    n    Quality
    n    Information and Participation
n       What Don’t We Know
Access and Affordability: Change the price
of schooling
                 Enrollment/               Achievement
                 Completion
    Universal    n Free schooling
                 (Uganda, Kenya, etc)
                 n Vouchers (Chile)




    Targeted     Fee reductions,           n Conditional Cash
                 combinded incentives      Transfers (Mexico)
                 (Bogota)                  n Merit scholarships
                                           (Kenya, Bangladesh)
                                           n Vouchers for poor
                                           (Colombia)

                Incentive design and implementation matters
Access and Affordability: Improve access
and quality
n   Change cost-benefit assessment
    q Increase school supply

      n Indonesia: Primary school construction paired with
         trained teachers and school supplies increased attendance
      n Need to consider water, sanitation, other constraints

    q Reduce class size

      n South Africa: Reduced class size would increase
         attainment by half a year
      n Bolivia: Increases achievement
What Do We Know
 n   Access
 n   Quality
 n   Information and Participation
Teacher quality
n   Teacher training and development
    q   Contract teachers vs. permanent
n   Incentives to lead to effective teaching
    q   Working conditions:
        n   Housing, supplies
    q   Input-based (reducing absence)
    q   Output-based (improving student learning)
    q   Changing lines of authority (information to parents)
        n Community contracting
    Teacher Politics
n   Union effect on student achievement
    q   Argentina: Students perform better when teachers express
        higher job satisfaction
    q   Mexico: States with less union-govt conflict benefit lower-
        achieving students
    q   India (private schools): Students of union teachers perform
        worse
n   Mismatch of Responsibility?
    q   Teachers administering school meals
    q   NGOs running schools
What Do We Know
 n   Access
 n   Quality
 n   Information and Participation
Institutional factors affecting student
learning
 n   Decentralization of what, to whom:
     q   Administrative (personnel), fiscal, political
 n   Differences in the level of decision-making can impact
     student learning
     q   Cross-country evidence: Level of curricular autonomy may
         have an impact on student learning (Woessmann 2003)
 n   Decentralization can exacerbate inequality in student
     outcomes within countries (e.g. Argentina and Brazil)
 n   Parental participation in education management
     matters.
 School-based management: Program
differences in teacher characteristics
                                                                                        El
                                                   Honduras Nicaragua
                                                                                        Salvador
                                                                       No
    Years of education                             Less                                 More
                                                                       difference
                                                                       No
    Years of experience                            Less                                 Less
                                                                       difference
    Hours of work                                  More                --               More

    Absences/school closings                       Less                --               Less

    Use of alternative teaching
                                                   Less                --               --
    methods
    Salary                                         Less                --               Less

    Bonus salary perceived                         --                  More             --

        Sources: (Gropello & Marshall, 2005), Parker (2005), Sawada and Ragatz (2005)
Important features of decentralization
n   Monitoring/incentive design focused on
    improvement, not just absolute performance
n   Parent voice and community monitoring =>
    decreased teacher absence => decreased student
    absence
n   Transparency to ensure funds reach schools
n   Legal framework that separates responsibilities and
    avoids duplication, multiple principals
n   Restructure, rather than simply creating additional
    layers of government
Outline

n       State of Education
n       Institutional Challenges
n       Frameworks
n       What Do We Know
    n    Access
    n    Quality
    n    Information and Participation
n       What Don’t We Know – Further Study
Want to know more about:
q   What’s happening in the classroom

n   What specific teacher practices work?
    q   Structured observation matched to survey and
        administrative data
n   Peer practices?
    q   When do good students ‘pull up’ low achievers? Vice
        versa? Net effects?
n   Ability vs. education attainment
n   Cumulative skill effects for teachers and students
    q   Value-added analysis
    Want to know more about:
q   What’s happening outside the classroom

n   Between and within-school differences in:
    q   Race, ethnicity
    q   Socioeconomic background
    q   Prior achievement
    q   Resources
    q   Instructional quality
    q   Unobserved differences
n   Use of indices to measure sorting, stratification effects?
n   How do these influence outcomes? Are some of these school-level
    or system-level features only?
Evaluate tensions in future work
n   Efficiency vs. redistribution
    q   Donor effects.
    q   Marginal returns may be low in one area, high in another.
n   Targeting vs. universal provision
    q   Expanding secondary without straining capacity?
n   Vertical vs. Horizontal Integration
    q   Are comprehensive efforts sustainable?
n   Private vs. Public
    q   Effect of private providers on equality of opportunity, equality of outcomes.
    q   Teacher professional development – what components matter, who does it
        best?
    q   ICT
n   Local vs. Central control: Long-run effects
    q   Teacher turnover and retention – why do good teachers leave, what helps
        them stay?
    q   Re-centralization?
Evaluate indicators
n   Are we measuring our stated goals? Process vs. output:
    q   Political economy of redistribution
    q   Partnerships
    q   Decentralization
        n   Decision-making
        n   Efficient use of funds
n   Do the indicators produce change?
    q   If teachers care about career mobility, what indicators will connect
        their interests to student performance?
    q   If parents prefer to sort, how to connect them with equality goals?
Feedback loop?

n   Do institutional forms spread with research
    attention?
    q   Decentralization
    q   Teacher incentives
n   If success in one setting spurs implementation in
    another, what are the consequences?
n   Thank you.

n   Comments?

				
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