Determinism Human actions have specific causes by yurtgc548


									           Freedom - Determinism Theories
u   Determinism: all human actions are caused
    u Hard Determinism: behavior is caused by

      either unconscious desires and fears (Freud)
      or by environment and heredity (Skinner).
      Freedom is an illusion, and people are not
      responsible for their actions—though they
      can be held responsible for social purposes
       u   Objections: how we can challenge or change
           our attitudes if we are determined? Why not
           explain behavior with reasons, not causes?
     Freedom - Determinism Theories
u   Compatibilism (Soft Determinism): freedom
    is compatible with determinism, if freedom is
    understood as the ability to do what we want
    u   Actions caused by our choices or character are
        free; actions caused by external forces (genetics,
        culture, upbringing, threats) are not free
               Choice/will (cause)
                                   act        (cause)
    Hard determinist reply: choices are          forces
    caused by external forces.
        Freedom - Determinism Theories
u   Indeterminism: like sub-atomic events, free
    actions are unpredictable, because nothing
    causes them
    u   Objection: if free human actions are chance or
        random events, then we could not control our
        “free” actions or be responsible for them
u   Libertarianism: our free choices define our
    selves: this is what we experience (and is what
    our theory should explain)
    u   Objection: how can “we” be both cause & effect?
          Freedom - Determinism Theories
u   Freedom as an Assumption: Morality requires
    that we think of ourselves as free. As objects
    in the world, we are determined; but as
    conscious, choosing beings, we are free (Kant)
u   Existentialism: freedom & self-consciousness
    consist in our ability to conceive that which is
    not—and that could not be caused by what is
    u   Objection: Wanting to believe in freedom does
        not make it true; besides, even that is determined
        Time: Reality or Illusion?
• Time is the objective, fixed sequence of events
  in the world: “it” is real and does not change.
  The subjective experience of time as moving
  is illusory (McTaggart, Smart)
• Time is a mental construct in terms of which
  all phenomena are experienced as real (Kant)
• Objective time is a conceptual abstraction that
  fails to capture our real experience of duration
  and the passage from past to future (Bergson)

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