APES Chapter 1 by yurtgc548

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									 APES Chapter 1

Environmental Problems,
   Their Causes and
      Sustainability
             Basic Terms
u Environment-   everything that affects
  living organisms
u Ecology-science that studies
  relationships b/t organisms and
  environment
         Human Population
u Thehuman race plays a key role in
 important issues we will be
 discussing the whole year
  – Population growth
  – Resource use
  – Poverty
  – Loss of biological diversity
  – Pollution
  – Global climate change
             Population Growth
                  Linear
u   Linear
    – No consistent doubling time
    – Slow growth
                 Population Growth
                    Exponential
u   Exponential Growth
    – Quantity increases at a
      constant rate per unit time
    – Growth rate proportional to
      current size
       uLarger populations add more
        people than smaller ones
        growing at the same rate
       10% growth of 100,000 people
        = 10,000 added per year
       10% growth of 1,000,000
        people = 100,000 added
    – Starts slowly, but grows
      enormously due to doubling
               Population Growth
                  Exponential
u Doublingtime—the amount of time it
 takes a population to double its size.
 – Exponential growth shows a doubling time
 – Rule of 70:
         70/rate (%) = doubling time
 70 divided by the growth rate as a percentage = doubling time


 – The higher the growth rate, the less time it
   takes to double

 – i.e.: growth of populations of people and
   bacteria, savings accounts, etc.
             Let’s See If the Rule of 70 Works!
u   10% fixed annual growth rate…what is doubling time?
u   70/10 = 7 year doubling time
               100 people to start
(.10)(100)   =+10 10% growth
              110 total # of people at end of year 1
(.10)(110)   =+11
              121 end of year 2
(.10)(121)   =+12
              133 end of year 3
(.10)(133)   =+13
               146 end of year 4
(.10)(146)   = +14
               160 end of year 5
(.10)(160)   = +16
               176 end of year 6
(.10)(176)   = +17
               193 end of year 7—almost doubled!
             Population Size vs. Time




                                        After
After 7
                                        Another
years
                                        7 years it
population
                                        will
has nearly
                                        double
doubled
                                        again
from 100
to 200
             Population Growth
u   Growth has slowed, but still growing
    exponentially at an annual growth rate of
    1.25%/year
    – Not much?
    – Calculate doubling time (70/1.25 = ? years)
u   1950-2004 2.5à6.4 billion (6,400,000,000)
    – 80,000,000 people added in 2004
    – 9100/hour
u Growth more rapidly than Earth can support
u Projected 8-12 billion by end of century,
  depending on growth rate
                                                                                     16
                                                                                     15
                                                                              ?      14
                                                                                     13
                                                                                     12
                                                                                     11




                                                                                          Billions of people
                                                                           ?
                                                                                     10
                                                                                     9
                                                                                     8
                                                                          ?
                                                                                     7
                                                                                     6

                                                                                     5
                                                                                     4
                                                                                     3
                                                                                     2
                                              Black Death–the Plague
                                                                                     1
                                                                                      0
2-5 million 8000   6000         4000           2000                    2000       2100
  years                          Time                  B.C.   A.D.

 Hunting and              Agricultural revolution                      Industrial
  gathering                                                            revolution
            Resource Use
u Global economic
  output is a rough
  measure of human
  resource use
u More people due to
  exponential growth
  and economic
  growth ↑ resource
  use
                    Poverty
u   22 fold ↑ in economic
    growth b/t 1950 and 2004

u   50% of people still trying
    to survive off < $3/day

u   To survive they must
    deplete and degrade
    environment
                         Poverty
Wealth is becoming
increasingly
concentrated, with the
richest 20% receiving
most of the world's
income (82.7%).
        Loss of Biological Diversity
u Premature extinction of
  species due to
  environmental depletion
  and degradation
u 1%/year

u IRREVERSIBLE!

u i.e. cutting down forests
  due to farming and
  development
                Pollution

u Presence of substances at
  high enough levels to harm
  living organisms
   – Naturally (volcanic
     eruptions)
   – Human activities (burning
     fossil fuels, using
     pesticides, etc.)
u Disrupt support systems of
  organisms
                   Pollution
u Occurs more in urban areas
u Can contaminate area
  where produced or be
  carried away by wind or
  water
u Factors that determine
  damage a pollutant can
  cause:
    – Concentration
    – Persistence
    – Chemical nature
    – Rate of degradation
                     Pollution
u   Point sources
    – Single, identifiable
    – Cars, smokestacks
    – Easier to identify and
      control
u   Nonpoint sources
    – Dispersed, difficult to
      identify
    – Pesticides runoff and
      spray
                       Pollution
u   Output control
    – Stop before it starts
    – Easier to do
    – Less expensive to reduce to
      acceptable levels—regulation
u   Cleanup
    – Temporary bandage
    – Only moves pollution to
      another site
    – Expensive
               Climate Change
u   Population growth,
    resource use, poverty,
    and loss of biological
    diversity contribute to
    climate change
    – Global warming
    – Cycle continues
     What the Earth Provides Us
    Sun and Earth’s Natural Capital
u Capital--wealth used to
  sustain (i.e. a business or
  life)
u Income--output derived
  from an investment of
  capital
u All life and economies
  (income) depend on solar
  and natural capital.
    What the Earth Provides Us
      Solar Capital/ Energy
u Directsunlight and
 indirect forms of
 renewable solar energy
    uProvides   99% of the
     energy used on earth to
     sustain life.
    uBiomass (plant matter)
     made by plants during
     photosynthesis using
     solar energy (i.e.
     firewood, food, coal)
    uHydropower and solar
     power
     What the Earth Provides Us
                Natural Capital
u   Earth’s resources and
    ecological services
    – Air
    – Water
    – Soil
    – Forests
    – Fishery
    – Minerals
    – Natural water and air
      purification
                              RESOURCES


                    Water                 Energy

             Air                 Soil                 Minerals


              NATURAL CAPITAL
         Nutrient             Pollution            Biodiversity
        Recycling              Control
                                                                 Pest &
Population          Climate                 Waste                Disease
 Control            Control               Treatment              Control
                              SERVICES
      What the Earth Provides Us
         Natural Resources
u Resource-anything obtained from
 environment to satisfy our needs OR
 wants
  – Food
  – Water
  – Shelter
  – Transportation
  – Recreation
u Natural   resources are classified as
  – Perpetual
  – Renewable
               Resources




   Perpetual                   Nonrenewable




         Winds,       Fossil    Metallic         Non-
Direct                fuels     minerals         metallic
         tides,
solar                                            minerals
         flowing
energy
         water                  (iron,           (clay,
                                copper,          sand,
                                aluminum)        phosphates)




               Renewable




Fresh     Fresh      Fertile     Plants and
air       water      soil        animals
                                (biodiversity)
    What the Earth Provides Us
         Perpetual Resources
u Renewed continuously
  – Solar energy
  – Winds
  – Flowing water
u Resources we cannot drain--yet
  What the Earth Provides Us
        Renewable Resources
u Can be renewed or replenished fairly
 rapidly by natural processes
 – Fresh air
 – Fresh water
 – Plants
 – Animals
u Renewableas long as we don’t use
 them quicker than they’re renewed!
  What the Earth Provides Us
       Renewable Resources
u Sustainable yield -highest rate tha
 renewable resource can be used
 indefinitely w/o reducing its available
 supply (capital)
  – LIVE OFF INCOME, NOT CAPITAL
u Environmentaldegradation –
 degrading environment in any way
  – i.e. using more than sustainable yield
    causing resource capital to shrink
    (degrading environment)
  – LIVING OFF INCOME AND CAPITAL
   What the Earth Provides Us
        Renewable Resources
u “Tragedy of the Commons”
u Garrett Hardin, 1968

u Said we are exploiting and
  degrading publicly owned,
  common resources.
u Need to take no more than
  sustainable yield.
  What the Earth Provides Us
       Renewable Resources
u Possible   solutions to the tragedy?
  – Limit access
  – Reduce population
  – Convert free access to private
    u Private owners environmentally
      conscientious?
    u How do you make global resources (oceans
      and air) private?
    u Will restricted access foster lack of
      appreciation for these resources?
  What the Earth Provides Us
      Renewable Resources
u Government  has laws and treatises
 that regulate access to commonly
 owned resources
 – Hunting licenses
 – Fishing licenses
 – National Park rules and regulations
 – IDEM standards
       What the Earth Provides Us
               Renewable Resources
u   Ecological footprint--amt of biologically
    productive land and water needed to
    supply us with the renewable resources
    we use and absorb or dispose of our
    waste
       u How  much of Earth’s natural capital and
         biological income we use
       u EVERYTHING we do leaves an effect our
         environment—our footprint
       u Renewable resources are being depleted
         and degraded to support our lifestyles
                            Total Ecological Footprint
                                    (Hectares)
   Country

                                                     3 billion
  United States
                                                     hectares

The Netherlands   62 million hectares
                              880 million
         India                hectares
        What the Earth Provides Us
           Renewable Resources
u Per capita = per person
u **Per capita ecological footprint=

  total footprint/total population
  – Humanity’s per capita ecological footprint
    exceeds Earth’s biological capacity by 15%
  – We are exceeding sustainable yield and
    dipping into our capital
  – i.e. country has 1,000,000 hectares of
    ecological footprint and 100,000 people:
    u 1,000,000   ha/ 100,000 people = 10 ha/person
                        Per Capita Ecological Footprint
                         (Hectares of land per person)

    Country

                                                    9.6
  United States

                                    3.8
The Netherlands
                  0.8
          India
  What the Earth Provides Us
     Nonrenewable Resources
u Resources    we can depleteà fixed
 quantity
    u Energy  resources
       – Gas, Coal
    u Metallic mineral resources

       – Iron, Copper
    u Nonmetallic mineral resources

       – Salt, clay
  – **These nonrenewables are
    economically depleted when it costs too
    much to obtain what is left
                      Area under curve
Resource production




                       equals the total
                        amount of the
                                                 Economic depletion
                          resource.
                                                   (80% used up)




                                          Time
     What the Earth Provides Us
        Nonrenewable Resources
u   Solutions for preserving our
    nonrenewable resources
     – Try to find more
     – Recycle/Reuse
     – Waste/Use less
     – Substitute
     – Wait millions of years
                 Economic Growth
u   Economic growth is an ↑ in the capacity of a
    country to provide people with goods and
    services needed
     – ***Measured by change in country’s
       u GDP  (Gross Domestic Product—in $)
          – Annual market value of all goods and services
            produced WITHIN a country
       u GNP (Gross National Product—in $)

          – Annual market value of all goods and services
            produced by a country’s businesses
            THROUGHOUT THE WORLD
              Economic Growth

u Country’s standard (quality) of
  living gauged by
   – Per capita GDP= GDP/country’s
     population
   – Per capita GNP = GNP/country’s
     population
u Countries with larger populations
  have to spread the wealth thinner
    u Lower per capita GDPà lower
      standard of living
    u China
        Economic Development
u Economic   development-improving
  living standards by economic growth
u UN classifies countries as
  economically developed or
  developing based on Human
  Development Index (HDI):
  – Standard of living (per capita GDP)
  – Life expectancy
  – Literacy
u Most   developed is #1, second is #2,
 etc.
       Economic Development

u Developed:   US, Canada, Japan, etc.
  – High life expectancy, literacy,
    industrialization and per capita GDP
u Developing:Africa, Asia, Latin
 America, India
  – Lower life expectancy, literacy,
    industrialization and per capita GDP
  – 97% of world’s projected ↑ in population
    is expected to take place in these
    countries
                        12

                        11

                        10
                                  World total
Population (billions)




                        9

                        8

                        7                       Developing
                        6
                                                countries
                        5

                        4
                                                             Developed
                        3
                                                             countries
                        2

                        1      2000                2050            2100

                        1950
                                                Year
Percent of
World’s                                19
             Population
                                                      81

             Population     0.1
             growth rate
                               1.6

             Wealth and                                   85
                income
                                  15

              Resource                                    88
                   use
                                  12

               Pollution                            75
              and waste
                                        25

                           Developed         Developing
                           countries         countries
                 Globalization

u   Process of social, economic
    and environmental changes
    that lead to increased
    interconnectedness throughout
    world
    – Information (internet)
    – International trading
    – Technology
    – Human mobility
u   **One country can’t be
    environmentally sustainable
    without the others!!
Environmental and Resource Problems
        The Big Five Causes
 u   Major causes of problems
     1. Population growth
     2. Wasteful resource use
     3. Poverty
     4. Poor environmental
      accounting
     5. Ecological and
      environmental ignorance
Environmental and Resource Problems
        The Big Five Causes
 1. Talked about population growth
 2. Wasteful resource use
   – Affluenza
      uHigh stress

      uHigh debt

      uBankruptcies

      uOveruse of resources
Environmental and Resource Problems
        The Big Five Causes
 3. Poverty
   – Survival at the expense of environment
   – Live in areas w/ greater risk of natural
     disasters
   – Work in unsafe, unhealthy conditions
   – Life expectancy low
   – Many children for economic security
   – Death from preventable causes
Environmental and Resource Problems
        The Big Five Causes
 4. Poor environmental accounting
   – Not including environmental cost of
     economic goods and services in the
     market price
   – Cleanup and waste expensive and
     corners cut
 5. Ignorance
   – Many have no idea about the impact of
     their actions
   – Many “live for today”
Environmental and Resource Problems
   Problem and Cause Connection
 u Environmental   impact (I) affected by
   interaction b/t population size (P),
   resource consumption (A) and
   technology (T)
 u Technology can be helpful or harmful

 u I = P X A X T
Developing Countries




                     X                      X                  =




                         Consumption
                                               Technological              Environmental
Population (P)            per person
                     X                           impact per     =       impact of population
                         (affluence, A) X
                                            unit of consumption                  (I)
                                                     (T)
Developed Countries




                                            X                       =
                 X
     Living More Sustainably
Two School of Thought on How It’s
              Done
u Environmentalists:
  – Eliminate waste and stop depletion and
    degradation to sustain our capital
u Others:
  – Say environmentalist are exaggerating
    and/or it is a hoax
  – Man can overcome problems w/
    ingenuity, economic growth, and
    technology
            Living More Sustainable
               What We Must Do
u   Protect solar and natural capital (wealth) and
    live off the resources they provide (income)
u   Meet current needs of people without
    compromising the needs of future generations
           – NO DEPLETION OF CAPITAL
           – NO SELFISHNESS
u   Identify how Earth sustains itself and apply
    this info to our lifestyles and economies
    – Gaia hypothesis
u   Rewards to encourage more sustainable
    forms of economic growth and penalties to
    discourage
       Is Our Present Course
           Sustainable?
       Guidelines for the Earth
u Never leave it worse than
  you found it
u Take only what you need

u Do no harm

u Sustain diverse living
  organisms
u Maintains Earth’s capacity
  for self-repair
u Don’t waste

u Don’t pollute

								
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