# APES Chapter 1 by yurtgc548

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```									 APES Chapter 1

Environmental Problems,
Their Causes and
Sustainability
Basic Terms
u Environment-   everything that affects
living organisms
u Ecology-science that studies
relationships b/t organisms and
environment
Human Population
u Thehuman race plays a key role in
important issues we will be
discussing the whole year
– Population growth
– Resource use
– Poverty
– Loss of biological diversity
– Pollution
– Global climate change
Population Growth
Linear
u   Linear
– No consistent doubling time
– Slow growth
Population Growth
Exponential
u   Exponential Growth
– Quantity increases at a
constant rate per unit time
– Growth rate proportional to
current size
people than smaller ones
growing at the same rate
10% growth of 100,000 people
10% growth of 1,000,000
– Starts slowly, but grows
enormously due to doubling
Population Growth
Exponential
u Doublingtime—the amount of time it
takes a population to double its size.
– Exponential growth shows a doubling time
– Rule of 70:
70/rate (%) = doubling time
70 divided by the growth rate as a percentage = doubling time

– The higher the growth rate, the less time it
takes to double

– i.e.: growth of populations of people and
bacteria, savings accounts, etc.
Let’s See If the Rule of 70 Works!
u   10% fixed annual growth rate…what is doubling time?
u   70/10 = 7 year doubling time
100 people to start
(.10)(100)   =+10 10% growth
110 total # of people at end of year 1
(.10)(110)   =+11
121 end of year 2
(.10)(121)   =+12
133 end of year 3
(.10)(133)   =+13
146 end of year 4
(.10)(146)   = +14
160 end of year 5
(.10)(160)   = +16
176 end of year 6
(.10)(176)   = +17
193 end of year 7—almost doubled!
Population Size vs. Time

After
After 7
Another
years
7 years it
population
will
has nearly
double
doubled
again
from 100
to 200
Population Growth
u   Growth has slowed, but still growing
exponentially at an annual growth rate of
1.25%/year
– Not much?
– Calculate doubling time (70/1.25 = ? years)
u   1950-2004 2.5à6.4 billion (6,400,000,000)
– 80,000,000 people added in 2004
– 9100/hour
u Growth more rapidly than Earth can support
u Projected 8-12 billion by end of century,
depending on growth rate
16
15
?      14
13
12
11

Billions of people
?
10
9
8
?
7
6

5
4
3
2
Black Death–the Plague
1
0
2-5 million 8000   6000         4000           2000                    2000       2100
years                          Time                  B.C.   A.D.

Hunting and              Agricultural revolution                      Industrial
gathering                                                            revolution
Resource Use
u Global economic
output is a rough
measure of human
resource use
u More people due to
exponential growth
and economic
growth ↑ resource
use
Poverty
u   22 fold ↑ in economic
growth b/t 1950 and 2004

u   50% of people still trying
to survive off < \$3/day

u   To survive they must
environment
Poverty
Wealth is becoming
increasingly
concentrated, with the
richest 20% receiving
most of the world's
income (82.7%).
Loss of Biological Diversity
u Premature extinction of
species due to
environmental depletion
u 1%/year

u IRREVERSIBLE!

u i.e. cutting down forests
due to farming and
development
Pollution

u Presence of substances at
high enough levels to harm
living organisms
– Naturally (volcanic
eruptions)
– Human activities (burning
fossil fuels, using
pesticides, etc.)
u Disrupt support systems of
organisms
Pollution
u Occurs more in urban areas
u Can contaminate area
where produced or be
carried away by wind or
water
u Factors that determine
damage a pollutant can
cause:
– Concentration
– Persistence
– Chemical nature
Pollution
u   Point sources
– Single, identifiable
– Cars, smokestacks
– Easier to identify and
control
u   Nonpoint sources
– Dispersed, difficult to
identify
– Pesticides runoff and
spray
Pollution
u   Output control
– Stop before it starts
– Easier to do
– Less expensive to reduce to
acceptable levels—regulation
u   Cleanup
– Temporary bandage
– Only moves pollution to
another site
– Expensive
Climate Change
u   Population growth,
resource use, poverty,
and loss of biological
diversity contribute to
climate change
– Global warming
– Cycle continues
What the Earth Provides Us
Sun and Earth’s Natural Capital
u Capital--wealth used to
life)
u Income--output derived
from an investment of
capital
u All life and economies
(income) depend on solar
and natural capital.
What the Earth Provides Us
Solar Capital/ Energy
u Directsunlight and
indirect forms of
renewable solar energy
uProvides   99% of the
energy used on earth to
sustain life.
uBiomass (plant matter)
photosynthesis using
solar energy (i.e.
firewood, food, coal)
uHydropower and solar
power
What the Earth Provides Us
Natural Capital
u   Earth’s resources and
ecological services
– Air
– Water
– Soil
– Forests
– Fishery
– Minerals
– Natural water and air
purification
RESOURCES

Water                 Energy

Air                 Soil                 Minerals

NATURAL CAPITAL
Nutrient             Pollution            Biodiversity
Recycling              Control
Pest &
Population          Climate                 Waste                Disease
Control            Control               Treatment              Control
SERVICES
What the Earth Provides Us
Natural Resources
u Resource-anything obtained from
environment to satisfy our needs OR
wants
– Food
– Water
– Shelter
– Transportation
– Recreation
u Natural   resources are classified as
– Perpetual
– Renewable
Resources

Perpetual                   Nonrenewable

Winds,       Fossil    Metallic         Non-
Direct                fuels     minerals         metallic
tides,
solar                                            minerals
flowing
energy
water                  (iron,           (clay,
copper,          sand,
aluminum)        phosphates)

Renewable

Fresh     Fresh      Fertile     Plants and
air       water      soil        animals
(biodiversity)
What the Earth Provides Us
Perpetual Resources
u Renewed continuously
– Solar energy
– Winds
– Flowing water
u Resources we cannot drain--yet
What the Earth Provides Us
Renewable Resources
u Can be renewed or replenished fairly
rapidly by natural processes
– Fresh air
– Fresh water
– Plants
– Animals
u Renewableas long as we don’t use
them quicker than they’re renewed!
What the Earth Provides Us
Renewable Resources
u Sustainable yield -highest rate tha
renewable resource can be used
indefinitely w/o reducing its available
supply (capital)
– LIVE OFF INCOME, NOT CAPITAL
– i.e. using more than sustainable yield
causing resource capital to shrink
– LIVING OFF INCOME AND CAPITAL
What the Earth Provides Us
Renewable Resources
u “Tragedy of the Commons”
u Garrett Hardin, 1968

u Said we are exploiting and
common resources.
u Need to take no more than
sustainable yield.
What the Earth Provides Us
Renewable Resources
u Possible   solutions to the tragedy?
– Limit access
– Reduce population
u Private owners environmentally
conscientious?
u How do you make global resources (oceans
and air) private?
u Will restricted access foster lack of
appreciation for these resources?
What the Earth Provides Us
Renewable Resources
u Government  has laws and treatises
owned resources
– National Park rules and regulations
– IDEM standards
What the Earth Provides Us
Renewable Resources
u   Ecological footprint--amt of biologically
productive land and water needed to
supply us with the renewable resources
we use and absorb or dispose of our
waste
u How  much of Earth’s natural capital and
biological income we use
u EVERYTHING we do leaves an effect our
environment—our footprint
u Renewable resources are being depleted
and degraded to support our lifestyles
Total Ecological Footprint
(Hectares)
Country

3 billion
United States
hectares

The Netherlands   62 million hectares
880 million
India                hectares
What the Earth Provides Us
Renewable Resources
u Per capita = per person
u **Per capita ecological footprint=

total footprint/total population
– Humanity’s per capita ecological footprint
exceeds Earth’s biological capacity by 15%
– We are exceeding sustainable yield and
dipping into our capital
– i.e. country has 1,000,000 hectares of
ecological footprint and 100,000 people:
u 1,000,000   ha/ 100,000 people = 10 ha/person
Per Capita Ecological Footprint
(Hectares of land per person)

Country

9.6
United States

3.8
The Netherlands
0.8
India
What the Earth Provides Us
Nonrenewable Resources
u Resources    we can depleteà fixed
quantity
u Energy  resources
– Gas, Coal
u Metallic mineral resources

– Iron, Copper
u Nonmetallic mineral resources

– Salt, clay
– **These nonrenewables are
economically depleted when it costs too
much to obtain what is left
Area under curve
Resource production

equals the total
amount of the
Economic depletion
resource.
(80% used up)

Time
What the Earth Provides Us
Nonrenewable Resources
u   Solutions for preserving our
nonrenewable resources
– Try to find more
– Recycle/Reuse
– Waste/Use less
– Substitute
– Wait millions of years
Economic Growth
u   Economic growth is an ↑ in the capacity of a
country to provide people with goods and
services needed
– ***Measured by change in country’s
u GDP  (Gross Domestic Product—in \$)
– Annual market value of all goods and services
produced WITHIN a country
u GNP (Gross National Product—in \$)

– Annual market value of all goods and services
THROUGHOUT THE WORLD
Economic Growth

u Country’s standard (quality) of
living gauged by
– Per capita GDP= GDP/country’s
population
– Per capita GNP = GNP/country’s
population
u Countries with larger populations
have to spread the wealth thinner
u Lower per capita GDPà lower
standard of living
u China
Economic Development
u Economic   development-improving
living standards by economic growth
u UN classifies countries as
economically developed or
developing based on Human
Development Index (HDI):
– Standard of living (per capita GDP)
– Life expectancy
– Literacy
u Most   developed is #1, second is #2,
etc.
Economic Development

u Developed:   US, Canada, Japan, etc.
– High life expectancy, literacy,
industrialization and per capita GDP
u Developing:Africa, Asia, Latin
America, India
– Lower life expectancy, literacy,
industrialization and per capita GDP
– 97% of world’s projected ↑ in population
is expected to take place in these
countries
12

11

10
World total
Population (billions)

9

8

7                       Developing
6
countries
5

4
Developed
3
countries
2

1      2000                2050            2100

1950
Year
Percent of
World’s                                19
Population
81

Population     0.1
growth rate
1.6

Wealth and                                   85
income
15

Resource                                    88
use
12

Pollution                            75
and waste
25

Developed         Developing
countries         countries
Globalization

u   Process of social, economic
and environmental changes
interconnectedness throughout
world
– Information (internet)
– Technology
– Human mobility
u   **One country can’t be
environmentally sustainable
without the others!!
Environmental and Resource Problems
The Big Five Causes
u   Major causes of problems
1. Population growth
2. Wasteful resource use
3. Poverty
4. Poor environmental
accounting
5. Ecological and
environmental ignorance
Environmental and Resource Problems
The Big Five Causes
2. Wasteful resource use
– Affluenza
uHigh stress

uHigh debt

uBankruptcies

uOveruse of resources
Environmental and Resource Problems
The Big Five Causes
3. Poverty
– Survival at the expense of environment
– Live in areas w/ greater risk of natural
disasters
– Work in unsafe, unhealthy conditions
– Life expectancy low
– Many children for economic security
– Death from preventable causes
Environmental and Resource Problems
The Big Five Causes
4. Poor environmental accounting
– Not including environmental cost of
economic goods and services in the
market price
– Cleanup and waste expensive and
corners cut
5. Ignorance
– Many have no idea about the impact of
their actions
– Many “live for today”
Environmental and Resource Problems
Problem and Cause Connection
u Environmental   impact (I) affected by
interaction b/t population size (P),
resource consumption (A) and
technology (T)
u Technology can be helpful or harmful

u I = P X A X T
Developing Countries

X                      X                  =

Consumption
Technological              Environmental
Population (P)            per person
X                           impact per     =       impact of population
(affluence, A) X
unit of consumption                  (I)
(T)
Developed Countries

X                       =
X
Living More Sustainably
Two School of Thought on How It’s
Done
u Environmentalists:
– Eliminate waste and stop depletion and
u Others:
– Say environmentalist are exaggerating
and/or it is a hoax
– Man can overcome problems w/
ingenuity, economic growth, and
technology
Living More Sustainable
What We Must Do
u   Protect solar and natural capital (wealth) and
live off the resources they provide (income)
u   Meet current needs of people without
compromising the needs of future generations
– NO DEPLETION OF CAPITAL
– NO SELFISHNESS
u   Identify how Earth sustains itself and apply
this info to our lifestyles and economies
– Gaia hypothesis
u   Rewards to encourage more sustainable
forms of economic growth and penalties to
discourage
Is Our Present Course
Sustainable?
Guidelines for the Earth
u Never leave it worse than
you found it
u Take only what you need

u Do no harm

u Sustain diverse living
organisms
u Maintains Earth’s capacity
for self-repair
u Don’t waste

u Don’t pollute

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