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AN INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

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									 AN INTRODUCTION TO
ANIMAL STRUCTURE AND
      FUNCTION
       Structure verses Function
n   Anatomy – study of structure

n   Physiology – study of function

n   Functional anatomy

n   Tissues – groups of cells that share a common
    function.
          EPITHELIAL TISSUE
n   Body covering and lines inner body
    cavities.
n   Attached to the basement membrane
    n   Basement membrane is an extra cellular
        matrix.
n   Function primarily protection and some
    secretion.
        Classification Can Be Based on
              Number of layers
n   Simple epithelium – single layer
    n   Found on surfaces that participate in gas and nutrient
        exchange.
n   Stratified epithelium – several layers
    n   Found on surfaces that undergo frequent abrasion.
n   Psuedostratified epithelium – Appear to be more
    than one layer but are not.
    n   Found on surfaces that are ciliated.
          Classified by Cell Shape

n   Squamous – Flat “tile like” cells.
    n   Meant for covering large areas.
n   Glandular or Cuboidal – Cube shaped cells
    n Involved in storage and secretion.
    n line glands and mucous membranes.

n   Columnar – brick shaped cells.
    n   Involved in storage and secretion.
Chuck and Me
Psuedostratified columnar
Simple Columnar
Simple Cuboidal
Columnar Ciliated
             Connective Tissue
n   Bind and support other tissues.
n   Sparse population of cells scattered
    through and extra cellular matrix.
n   Matrix usually secreted by the cells that
    make up the tissue.
    n   Matrix may be – web like fibers, gelatinous or
        fluid.
        Connective Tissue Fibers
             Composition
n   Collagenous Fibers – Tensile Strength

n   Elastic Fibers – Elasticity

n   Reticular Fibers – Connects layers of tissue
    together.
    Major Types of Connective Tissue

n   Loose - Packing material that holds
    organs in place and has all types of fibers.
    n   Cells scattered throughout this type of tissue
        are macrophages and fibroblasts.


n   Adipose – Stores fat and provides
    insulation.
n   Fibrous – Dense and mostly collagenous fibers.
    n   Tendons - attach muscle to bone.
    n   Ligaments – join bones together.

n   Cartilage – Collagenous fibers embedded in a
    rubbery matrix made of condroitin sulfate.
    n   Secreted by chondrocytes

    n   Strong but flexible
Adipose Tissue
Loose Connective Tissue
Connective Tissue
n   Bone – Mineralized connective tissue.
    n   Osteoblasts - deposit a matrix of collagen that is
        flexible but more brittle than cartilage.

    n   Hydroxyapatite - calcium, magnesium and
        phosphorous matrix.

    n   Osteons (Haversian systems) are subunits of bone
        that contain blood vessels and is innervated.

    n   When and osteoblast gets caught in its own secretion
        it is called an osteocyte.
Cartilage
n   Blood – Cells suspended in a fluid matrix
    called plasma.
    n   Plasma contains water salt and a variety of
        proteins.

    n   Erythrocyte – Red blood cells. Carry O2 and
      CO2 to and from tissues via hemoglobin.
    Leucocytes – White blood cells involved in the
      immune system.
    Platelets – Proteins involved in the clotting of
      blood.
             Nervous Tissue

n   Senses Stimuli. Electrically activated.
n   Axons transmit impulses toward another
    neuron.
n   Composed of Neurons.
Neuron
                     Muscle Tissue
n   Myofibrils made up of contracting proteins called
    actin and myosin.
n   Individual units are called sacromeres.
n   Most animals are primarily composed of muscle
    tissue.
n   Three primary types of muscle tissue:
    n   Striated - skeletal, voluntary
    n   Cardiac - intercalated discs, involuntary
    n   Smooth – peristalsis, involuntary
Skeletal Muscle
Smooth Muscle
Cardiac Muscle
Organs are made up of many layers of different
                  tissues
Serosa, Sub Mucosa, Mucosa and
           Muscularis
                             Body Plan
n   Size and shape of the body depends on how the
    animal interacts with its environment.
n   All cells must be bathed in an aqueous
    environment for nutrient and gas exchange.
    n   Amoebas have a large surface area relative to their
        volume.
    n   Tape worms are flat.
    n   Hydra are gastric sacs exposed to water on all sides.
    n   Multicellular organisms have complex folds with small
        tightly packed cells that are bathed in interstitial fluid.
Fusiform shape conducive for swimming fast
Body plan of Amoeba and Hydra
Small Intestine
          Regulating the Internal Environment
n   Homeostasis maintained through positive
    and negative feedback systems.
n   Receptor      Control center    Effector
    n Receptor senses stimuli
    n Control Center processes and directs a
      command to the effector.
    n Effector carries out the response.
                     Bioenergetics
n   Metabolic Rate – Amount of energy an animal
    uses in a unit of time.
n   Measured in Kilocalories or Calories.
n   Can be measured by:
    n   Amount of heat given off
    n   O2 consumption
    n   CO2 emission.
n   Endotherms need more energy to maintain basic
    metabolic functions than ectotherms
n   Basal Metabolic Rate – minimal amount of energy
    needed to maintain cellular functions for an endotherm
    under no stress.

n   Standard Metabolic Rate - minimal amount of energy
    needed to maintain cellular functions for an ectotherm
    under no stress.

n   Amount of energy to maintain each gram of body
    weight is inversely proportional to body size.

    n   Due to greater surface to volume ratio in smaller animals.
    n   Dissipate heat much more rapidly.
Ghost Crab on a Treadmill

								
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