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									Appendix A.
The Incredible Years:
Parent, Child and Teacher Training Series
The Incredible Years
§ Award winning “exemplary best practices” program
  with demonstrated effectiveness. [Office of Juvenile Justice
 and Delinquency Prevention, Substance Abuse and Mental Health
 Services Administration]

§ Comprehensive—targets home, school and child.
§ Designed to prevent, reduce and treat conduct
  problems and to increase children’s social
  competence.
§ Parent skills training uses group discussion,
  videotape modeling, and homework exercises .
§ Child series (Dina Dinosaur) uses puppets and
  videotapes to teach social skills, conflict
  management, and successful classroom behavior.
    The Incredible Years Outcomes
    Research indicates that children’s emotional, social and
    behavioral adjustment is as important for school success as
    cognitive and academic preparation.


§   Child program promotes children’s cognitive problem-
    solving strategies, increases use of pro-social skills
    and reduces conduct problems at home and school.
§   Parent program helps strengthen parenting skills,
    reduces parenting stress and increases parent’s
    involvement in school activities.
§   Teacher program strengthens classroom
    management skills, reduces classroom aggression
    and improves teachers’ ability to focus on student’s
    social, emotional and academic competence.
    Incredible Years
    Adherence to Model Fidelity

    CMHRC commitment to excellence, demonstrated
    through:
§   Training and certification of facilitators, dedicated FT
    coordinator for Incredible Years programming.
§   Purchase of all required curriculum and program
    materials.
§   Use of treatment fidelity groups, peer review,
    videotape feedback.
§   Continued use of ongoing training and technical
    support from the Incredible Years developers
§   Ongoing evaluation of parent and child groups.
    CMHRC Goals for Incredible Years

•    Implement a comprehensive model that employs
     evidence-based multiple strategies for providing
     supportive environments and that accommodates
     ethnic, cultural and economic diversity.
•    Expand the target population to universal and
     earlier prevention—reaching children with certain
     family characteristics that put them at particular risk
     for developing conduct problems, delinquency and
     substance abuse.
•    Strengthen partnerships with local agencies that
     serve at-risk populations and, with the community at
     large, promoting a holistic view of health that includes
     physical and mental well-being.
    The Incredible Years and Ben
    Franklin School
§   Partnership sponsored through a two-year grant from
    the Rochester Area Foundation First Steps Initiative
§   Implements the comprehensive model-teacher, child
    and parent.
§   First year, Franklin Kindergarten teachers and para-
    professionals receive extensive training and
    mentoring from certified Incredible Years trainers.
§   Second year, Franklin Kindergarten teachers
    implement independently with guidance and support
    from CMHRC IY staff.
§   Second year, Franklin 1st Grade teachers will receive
    comprehensive training and mentoring from CMHRC
    IY staff (like Kindergarten teachers this year).
    Incredible Years
    Dina Dinosaur Prevention
    Why offer Dina Dinosaur in kindergarten classes at
    Ben Franklin school?
§   Social and emotional competencies are important
    predictors of school readiness and academic
    success.
§   Prevalence of aggressive behavior in early
    childhood 10% and may be as high as 25% for
    socio-economically deprived children.
§   Dina program cost effectively reaches high number
    of at-risk youth early in life when behavior is most
    malleable and before severe behavior problems
    arise.
    Incredible Years
    Dina Dinosaur Prevention

Goals for program at Ben Franklin [Kindergarten]:
§   Prevent early behavior problems from
    escalating.
§   Integrate children into peer group –classroom
    as “family”.
§   Improve social competence for entire class,
    provide common vocabulary and problem
    solving steps to use in everyday conflict.
§   Magnify dosage of IY intervention through
    teacher reinforcement of key concepts
    throughout the school day.
Incredible Years
Dina Dinosaur Prevention - Children
Implementation at Ben Franklin during
  School Year 2007-2008:
§   Offered 2 times a 6-day cycle in 5
    kindergarten classrooms
§   Lessons over entire school year, seven units
    in sequential order [rules/behavior, feelings,
    problem solving, anger management, peer
    relations etc.]
§   Led by Children’s Mental Health Incredible
    Years staff with Ben Franklin teachers
    participating in planning and delivery of
    lessons
Incredible Years
Teacher Training at Ben Franklin
Teacher training at Ben Franklin during School
Year 2007-2008 included:
§ Five full day interactive classroom management
workshops offered throughout the school year, and 3
days of training from Seattle IY trainer on Dina
Dinosaur curriculum.
§ Sessions on promoting pro-social behavior and
school readiness, reducing non-cooperation and
aggressive behaviors, and ways to collaborate with
parents to support school involvement and school-
home consistency.
§ Teachers implementing a classroom action plan
with ongoing support from CMH IY staff.
Incredible Years
Parent Training at Ben Franklin
Parent training at Ben Franklin during School
Year 2007-2008 included:
§ A 12-week parent group with two CMH IY
facilitators meeting once a week. Child care, supper
and transportation offered to program participants.
§ Used a collaborative process to promote positive
parent-child relationships through play, praise and
attention.
§ Worked on effective limit-setting, use of incentives,
building social competence and handling misbehavior.
§ All Kindergarten parents received detailed handouts
on the Dina Dinosaur curriculum throughout the year
and received tips on how to use the Dina techniques
at home.
Evaluation of Incredible Years
at Ben Franklin
Evaluation on all three components of the model, data
collection includes:

§ Classroom Environment Scale [pre/post]
§ Social Competence Scale on Student Behavior [pre/post]
§ Teacher Classroom Strategies [pre/post]
§Teacher Workshop Satisfaction Surveys
§ Parent Dina Dinosaur Satisfaction Surveys
§ Parent Stress Index [parent group, pre/post]
§ Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory [parent group, pre/post]
§ Parent Group Satisfaction Surveys
Classroom
Environment Scale
Teachers filled out the scale in October 2007 and again
in May 2008. Instructions were to:

Think about the general atmosphere of your classroom
during the last month. Use the scale below where ‘10’
stands for always, ‘0’ stands for never and ‘5’ stands for
half the time.



  0.…1 .... 2….3.…4….5.…6….7.…8.…9….10
      Rarely             Sometimes           Almost always
  Classroom Environment Scale
  October 2007 versus May 2008
         Teachers rate their classrooms on scale of 1 through 10 for
         behaviors exhibited in past month (N=8 Classrooms)
                                                                      Q1. Students follow
                                                                      classroom rules
Almost
Always                                                                Q2. Students work
                                                                      cooperatively (helping
                                                                      sharing, teamwork).

Some-                                                                 Q3. Students attempt
times                                                                 to problem solve
                                                                      when conflicts arise
                                                                      (talk about problem,
                                                                      discuss feelings,
                                                                      suggest solutions).
Rarely
                                                                      Q4. Students
                                                                      manage anger (uses
Statistically                                                         words not fists, takes
significant = p≤.002        p≤.001           p≤.000           p≤001   deep breaths, remains
                                                                      calm).
                   Source: Classroom Environment Scale database
  Classroom Environment Scale
  October 2007 versus May 2008
         Teachers rate their classrooms on scale of 1 through 10 for
         behaviors exhibited in past month (N=8 Classrooms)

                                                                          Q5. Students
Almost                                                                    express feelings
Always                                                                    appropriately
                                                                          (positive or negative)


Some-                                                                     Q6. Students handle
times                                                                     transitions well.

                                                                          Q7. Students stay on
                                                                          task during class
                                                                          activities.
Rarely

                                                                          Q8. Students show
                                                                          awareness and
Statistically                                                             concern for individual
significant = p≤.000        p≤.002            p≤.003              p≤000
                                                                          differences
                   Source: Classroom Environment Scale database
Classroom Environment Scale
October 2007 versus May 2008
 Teachers rate their confidence on six point scale: very unconfident,
 unconfident, somewhat unconfident, somewhat confident,
 confident, very confident (N=8 Classrooms)


                                                         How confident are you
                                                         in managing current
                                                         behavior problems in
                                                         your classroom?




                                                         How confident are you
                                                         in managing future
                                                         behavior problems in
                                                         your classroom?

                                        Source: Classroom Environment Scale database
Classroom Environment Scale
By Franklin Program (AM, PM, Extended Day)
October 2007 versus May 2008
Average TOTAL score on Classroom Environment
Scale by Program (maximum =80 points)




                         Source: Classroom Environment Scale database
 Social Competence
 Scale – Teacher*
 Teachers rate individual student behavior on 25 questions
 using scale: ‘not at all’, ‘a little’, ‘moderately well’, ‘well’ ‘very
 well’ .

 Ratings occurred in October 2007 and again in May 2008.
 Questions look at:
 q Emotional regulation
 q Problem solving skills
 q Attentiveness and initiation

 N= 89 students
 (17 students moved before post data was collected and are not included in the
 analysis.)

* Tool used by Incredible Years Programs – Denver Colorado School District
      Social Competence Scale Teacher
      Emotional Regulation
      October 2007 versus May 2008
          Percentage who do “well” or “very well”
         N=89 students




Source: Social Competence Scale Teacher database
      Social Competence Scale Teacher
      Social Skills/Peer Interaction
      October 2007 versus May 2008
          Percentage who do “well” or “very well”
         N=89 students




Source: Social Competence Scale Teacher database
      Social Competence Scale Teacher
      Attentiveness/ Initiative
      October 2007 versus May 2008
          Percentage who do “well” or “very well”
         N=89 students




Source: Social Competence Scale Teacher database
Social Competence Total Score by Franklin
Program (AM, PM, Extended Day)
October 2007 versus May 2008
Average TOTAL score by Program (maximum =125 points)
      N=89 students




    All statistically significant at p≤000   Source: Social Competence Scale Teacher database
Social Competence Total Score by Ethnicity
October 2007 versus May 2008
Average TOTAL score by Program (maximum =125 points)




         N=42                               N=6            N=8
                        N=10                        N=20         1 Native American
    All statistically significant at p≤01                        pre 75, post 125
 Source: Social Competence Scale Teacher database
Social Competence Total Score by Gender /
Ethnicity/ Disability: October 2007 versus May 2008

Average TOTAL score by Program (maximum =125 points)




    N=51                                   N=47           N=6
               N=38               N=42                                 N=83

   All statistically significant at p≤01    Source: Social Competence Scale Teacher database
Social Competence Total Score by Teacher
October 2007 versus May 2008
Average TOTAL score by Program (maximum =125 points)




            N=18               N=20                 N=33   N=18

 Source: Social Competence Scale Teacher database
Social Competence Total Score by Gender /
Ethnicity/ Disability: October 2007 versus May 2008

Average TOTAL score by Program (maximum =125 points)




    N=51                                   N=47           N=6
               N=38               N=42                                 N=83

   All statistically significant at p≤01    Source: Social Competence Scale Teacher database
Social Competence Total Score by Ethnicity
October 2007 versus May 2008
Average TOTAL score by Program (maximum =125 points)




         N=42                               N=6            N=8
                        N=10                        N=20         1 Native American
    All statistically significant at p≤01                        pre 75, post 125
 Source: Social Competence Scale Teacher database
Social Competence Total Score by Franklin
Program (AM, PM, Extended Day)
October 2007 versus May 2008
Average TOTAL score by Program (maximum =125 points)
      N=89 students




    All statistically significant at p≤000   Source: Social Competence Scale Teacher database
Social Competence Total Score by Teacher
October 2007 versus May 2008
Average TOTAL score by Program (maximum =125 points)




            N=18               N=20                 N=33   N=18

 Source: Social Competence Scale Teacher database
Teacher Strategies Scale*
  Teachers rate how often they use various teaching strategies
  on 34 questions using scale: ‘rarely/never’, ‘sometimes’, ‘half
  the time’, ‘often’ ‘very often’ .

  Ratings occurred in October 2007 and again in May 2008.
  Questions divided into five scales**:
  q Positive Approaches with Parents
  qPraise and Incentives
  q Proactive Strategies
  q Limit-Setting Strategies
  q Inappropriate Strategies (lower score better)
  N= 5 teachers, parent scale =4 teachers
*Tool used by Incredible Years Programs – Denver Colorado School District
** Incredible Years in process of completing psychometric analyses, currently
using these scales
Teacher Strategies Scale
Fall versus Spring
Average total score on each subscale, n=5 (parent n=4)




Increase in proactive strategies and decrease in inappropriate strategies
significant at p≤05, increase in praise marginally significant p≤06
                                              Source: Teacher Strategies database
Teacher Training: Satisfaction
with Workshops 1-5
       Ben Franklin Staff Only




                                      There were no
                                      “not helpful” answers


                         Source: Teacher workshop satisfaction database
Teacher Training: Satisfaction
with Workshops 1-5
            Ben Franklin Staff Only




                                                     Source: Teacher
                                                     workshop
  There were no “neutral” or “not helpful” answers   satisfaction
                                                     database
Teacher Training:
Satisfaction by Workshop
                    Ben Franklin Staff Only
                      Average score
        Scale: 1=not helpful, 2=neutral, 3=helpful, 4=very helpful
WORK   CONTENT       VIDEOS      LEADER’S         GROUP                    ROLE
SHOP
                                 TEACHING         DISCUSSION               PLAYS
 1            3.9          3.4              3.9                     3.9            3.8
N=18
 2            3.7          3.3              3.9                     3.9            3.5
N=18
 3            3.8          3.2              4.0                     3.9            3.6
N=19
 4            4.0          3.8              4.0                     3.9            3.7
N=22
 5            3.9          3.9              4.0                     4.0            3.7
N=22
                                           Source: Teacher workshop satisfaction database
Parent Feedback Survey
Dinosaur School
    Parents were asked to read a description of the Dinosaur School
    (puppets named Dina and Wally and the lessons being taught)
    They were then asked to think about the last three months and rate
    the following questions on a 4-point scale “very often”, “somewhat
    often”, “once in awhile”, “not at all”.

•     How often does your child talk about the things he or she is
      learning in Dinosaur School?
2.     How often have you noticed your child doing the following:
a. Talks about his/her feelings
b. Identifies / recognizes when there is a problem
c.    Tries to solve problems when they come up (uses solutions/ideas
      from Dinosaur School)
d. Shares or helps friends/siblings
Parent BASIC Group
 Weekly parent group using Incredible Years curriculum to
 strengthen parenting skills and reduce stress.

 Nine parents completed [3 fathers, 4 mothers, 1 stepparent,
 1 grandparent]

Tools Used to Measure Outcome:
   Pre and Post Parenting Stress Index
    [PSI] Paper/pencil assessment parent fills out to assess parent-
    child relationship (three subscales and total stress score)

   Pre and Post Eyberg Child Behavior
    Inventory [ECBI] Paper/pencil behavioral rating scale
    parent fills out to measure their perception of child conduct problems
    and the extent to which it is a problem for the parent.
Parenting Stress Index
Pre to Post Program
Significant Drop in Percentage of Parents at a “Clinical Level” of
Parental Stress (TSS*)
Average stress level for the Ben Franklin parent group [beginning
and end] is less than for the parent “treatment groups” held at the
CMHRC.
                                                Average Entry Score –
                                                81.2 (SD=8)
                                                Average Exit Score -
  N=6 with pre and post PSI*                    47.7 (SD=13)
                                                t{5}=6.5, significant at
                                                p<.001

                                                *Total Stress Score
                                                (TSS) is an indication of
                                                the stress level
                                                experienced within the
                                                role as parent.

                                                Clinical level is at or
                                                above the 90th percentile
Source: PSI / ECBI Database                     on PSI scale.
 Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory
 [ECBI] Pre to Post Program
Significant Improvement in Behavior Intensity and
Child Behavior Problems (as perceived by parents)
 Average ECBI levels for the Ben Franklin parent group [beginning
 and end] is lower than for the parent “treatment groups” held at the
 CMHRC.



    N=9 with pre and post ECBI                  INTENSITY
                                                Average Entry Score - 132
                                                (SD=19)
                                                Average Exit Score - 89 (SD=8)
                                                t{8}=8, significant at p<.001


                                                PROBLEM
                                                Average Entry Score – 12 (SD=10)
                                                Average Exit Score - 1 (SD=3)
                                                T{8}=3 , significant at p<.01


                                                  Source: PSI / ECBI Database
Parent Satisfaction with BASIC IY
Parent Program, n=9 parents
                                    •     Problem(s) that
                                          originally prompted
                                          me to take this
                                          program for my
                                          child….
                                    •     Use of methods to
                                          try and change
                                          child’s problems…
                                    •     My feelings about
                                          my child’s
                                          progress…
                                    •     Has helped with
                                          other
                                          personal/family
                                          problems…


                Source: Tally sheet for parent BASIC satisfaction surveys
Parent Satisfaction with BASIC
Parent Program
Of 9 respondents:
§ All would “strongly recommend” the program to a
friend or relative.
§ All felt “positive” [3] or “very positive” [6] about
achieving their goal in the program for child and family.
§ All were “confident” [5] or “very confident” [4] they
could manage current behavior problems.
§ All were “optimistic” [1] or “very optimistic” [8] about
good results from the program.
§All felt the parenting approach used to change child
behavior was “appropriate” [1] or “greatly appropriate”
[8].
                              Source: Tally sheet for parent BASIC satisfaction surveys
Parent Satisfaction with BASIC
Parent Program
   Response to Facilitators                      Response to Group

                                             § All participants felt “very
                                             supported” [6] or “supported”
                                             [3] by the group.
                                             § Eight of nine program
                                             participants would like to keep
                                             meeting as a group. (The one
                                             participant who did not want to keep
                                             meeting was a grandparent).

                                             §Seven felt it was “likely” or
Two facilitators:
•I feel the leader’s teaching was…           “somewhat likely” they would
•The leader’s preparation was…               continue meeting. The other
                                             two were “neutral”
     N=9 responses
                                     Source: Tally sheet for parent BASIC satisfaction surveys
Parent Satisfaction with BASIC
Parent Program
What did you see as the main benefit of the Incredible
Years program?
§ I have become so much better with my children in all the ways that
a father should be. I feel this will help me stay that #1 dad that I’ve
always wanted. Thank you very much.
§ Positive talk was the most beneficial for me. Also the skills taught
– how and when to ignore, using calming down techniques.
§ How easy it is to make small changes and have such wonderful
results. When the program is broken down the way it was,
everything makes so much sense.
§ Learning skills to improve communication, bringing parents into
the children’s setting really helped my kids. They have been so
proud and excited to have me here every Monday.
§ Consistency and reinforcing positive/expected behaviors.

								
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