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					Elements and the Periodic
Table

          Chapter 4
What will we learn today?
Today we will describe the
 atomic theory using Cornell
 Notes and a mini RAFT.
  1. Development of the atomic
  theory
2. Atom – what is it?
 3. smallest particle of an element
2. Atomic theory –what is it?
 3. A theory based on a series of
 models that developed over time
 as scientists conducted many
 experiments
2. Dalton’s Atomic Theory
 3. John Dalton was from
 England
 3. Chemist
 3. 1766-1844
3. Elements are composed of
atoms
3. Atoms cannot be divided
3. All atoms of the same
element have the same mass
3. Atoms of an element cannot
be changed into another
element
3. Compounds have ratios
  2. Thomson’s model
3. J.J. Thomson from England
3. 1854-1940
3. Determined atoms have
electrons
   4. negatively charged particles
3. Stated electrons were scattered
throughout the atom.
 2. Rutherford’s Model
3. Ernest Rutherford from New Zealand
3. 1871-1937
3. Gold foil experiment
3. Determined positively charged particles
were in the nucleus
3. Protons =positive charge
3. Electrons have little mass
3. Model = atom mostly empty space with
electrons orbiting the nucleus
Gold Foil Experiment
Rutherford Animation
http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/
  essentialchemistry/flash/ruther14.swf
Rutherford’s Model
What will we learn today?
Today we will describe the
 atomic theory using Cornell
 Notes and a video.
2. Bohr’s Model
 3. Niels Bohr from Denmark
 3. 1885-1962
 3. Electrons traveled in orbits
 such as planets
 3. Resembled the layers in an
 onion
2. Cloud Model
 3. 1920’s
 3. Electrons do not orbit the nucleus
 3. Electrons are found in a cloudlike
 region
 3. Movement of an electron is related to
 its energy level
     4. each electron has a specific
 amount of energy contained in different
 levels
Cloud Model
What will we learn today?
Today we will compare and contrast the
 modern atomic model with the historic
 models using Cornell notes and a Venn
 Diagram.
1. Modern Atomic Model
2. James Chadwick
  3. 1932
  3. English
  3. Discovered the NEUTRON
     4. in the nucleus and no charge
     4. Same mass as a proton
  3. Modern model is mostly empty space
3. The center of an atom is tiny
3. Nucleus contains protons and
neutrons
3. Electrons surround the nucleus in a
cloudlike region
2. Particle charges
 3. Protons = positive charge
 3. Electrons = negative charge
 3. Neutrons = neutral charge
 3. # of Protons = # electrons
 3. Elements do not have a
 charge
2. Particle Mass
 3. Protons = 1 amu (atomic mass
 unit)
 3. Neutrons = 1 amu
 3. Electrons = 1/1,836 amu
2. Atomic Number – what is
it?
 3. Number of protons in the
 nucleus of an atom
 3. # of p’s do not change
 3. Also means the # of
 electrons
1. Isotopes and mass number
 2. Isotopes – what is it?
     3. Atoms of the same element that
 have different numbers of neutrons
     3. Carbon-12 vs Carbon-13
 2. Mass number – what is it?
     3. Sum of the protons and neutrons
 in the nucleus of an atom
Credits
https://reich-
  chemistry.wikispaces.com/fall.2008.MM
  A.Brow.timeline
Google images
What will we learn today?
Today we will analyze the
 periodic table using Cornell
 Notes, a strategy of your
 choice, and by creating a class
 periodic table.
1. Organizing the elements
 2. Mendeleev’s periodic table
     3. Dimitri Mendeleev from Russia
     3. 1869 only 63 elements most were
 solid
     3. discovered a pattern that applied
 to the elements
2. Patterns of properties
  3. Used the melting point, density, and
  color along with the atomic mass
      4. the average mass of all the
  isotopes of an element
  3. He noticed a pattern of properties
  when arranging the elements in order
  of increasing atomic mass
  3. Constructed the first periodic table
      4. arrangement of elements showing
  the repeating pattern of their properties.
2. Predicting new elements
  3. Using the groups, he could predict
  the elements not discovered at that
  time.
2. The modern periodic table
3. Based on atomic #, not atomic mass
3. Approximately 117 elements
3. Properties of an element can be
  predicted from its location on the
  periodic table
2. Classes of elements
  3. Periods – what are they?
      4. Horizontal rows
      4. metals on the left
      4. nonmetals on the right
      4. Inert gases on the far right
      4. Semimetals in the middle
      4. 7 periods
3. Groups
   4. Vertical columns (up and down)
   4. AKA “Family”
   4. Contain elements with similar
characteristics
What we will learn today
Today we will Compare and Contrast the
 properties of metals and nonmetals
 using Cornell Notes and a Venn
 Diagram.
1. Properties of Metals and
nonmetals
2. Metals – what are they?
  3. Elements that are good conductors of
  electrical current and heat.
  3. Shiny and bendable
2. Properties of Metals
 3. Malleable – can be hammered or rolled into
 flat sheets or shapes
 3. Ductile – can be pulled out into a long wire
 3. Luster – shiny or glittering
 3. Thermal Conductivity – ability to transfer
 heat
 3. Electrical conductivity – ability to transfer
 electricity
 3. All of these are physical properties
2. Chemical properties of
metals
 3. Reactivity – ease and speed with
 which a substance reacts with other
 substances.
 3. Corrosion – Gradual wearing away of
 a metal due to a chemical reaction
2. Properties of nonmetals
3. Poor conductors of electric current and
  heat.
3. Dull and brittle
3. O, N, C, S, I
3. Diatomic molecule – molecule that
  consists of 2 atoms
  4. Ex: N2, O2
2. Chemical properties of
nonmetals
3. Gain or share electrons
3. Rust is an example
3. When nonmetals mix with metals
Chapter 4 Review
The ____ is the very small center
 core of an atom
Which particles in atoms have
a negative electric charge?

A.   Electrons
B.   Protons
C.   Neutrons
D.   Nuclei
How many neutrons does Na
 contain?
The elements in the first
column of the periodic table
A.   Have similar properties
B.   Are in the same period
C.   Have the same atomic mass
D.   Have very similar chemical symbols
What information in the periodic
table indicates the number of
protons in an atom?

A.   The position of the element in its
     column
B.   The element’s chemical symbol
C.   The element’s atomic number
D.   The element’s atomic mass
Most metals are NOT
A.   Ductile
B.   Good conductors of heat and
     electricity
C.   Liquid at room temperature
D.   Malleable
The elements in a group of the
periodic table have similar
characteristics.
True

Or

false
Which groups contain the
most metals?
A.   Semimetals
B.   Nonmetals
C.   Transition Metals
D.   Nobel Gases
In the periodic table, the most
reactive metals are found
A.   In group 1, the far left
B.   Group 18, the far right
C.   Groups 3-12
D.   Period 1, the top row
Mendeleev created the first
periodic table by arranging
elements in order of

A.   Decreasing atomic mass
B.   Increasing atomic mass
C.   Increasing atomic number
D.   Increasing melting points and
     densities
A column of elements in the
 periodic table is called a group,
 or _________.
Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine
are part of a family called
A.   Inert gases
B.   Semimetals
C.   Halogens
D.   Alkali Metals
Which of the following scientists
inferred that an atom’s positive
charge must be clustered in the
nucleus?

A.   Niels Bohr
B.   John Dalton
C.   Ernest Rutherford
D.   J.J. Thomson
What is the atomic number for
 He?
Which of the following
element is in a group by itself?
A.   Calcium
B.   Oxygen
C.   Hydrogen
D.   Helium
How did chemists change
Mendeleev’s periodic table in the
early 1900’s?
A.   They included chemical properties
     such as bonding power
B.   They included physical properties such
     as melting point and density
C.   They used atomic mass instead of
     atomic number
D.   They used atomic number instead of
     atomic mass
Which scientist stated that the
atomic model was like an onion?
A.   Bohr
B.   Rutherford
C.   Thomson
D.   Dalton
Protons have no charge; they
are neutral
True

Or

False
The modern periodic table is
organized according to atomic
mass

True

Or

False
The horizontal rows in the
periodic table are knowns as
groups.
True

Or

False
A material is said to be ductile
if it
A.   Can be pulled out, or drawn , into a
     long wire
B.   Can be hammered or rolled into flat
     sheets and other shapes
C.   Can transfer heat or electricity to
     another material
D.   Is a mixture of a metal with at least
     one other element
In an atom, the number of
protons equals the number of
A.   Nuclei
B.   Protons
C.   Electrons
D.   Neutrons
Each element is given a
 specific _____ that usually
 consists of one or two letters.
The two most common
alkaline earth metals are
A.   Copper and zinc
B.   Iron and silver
C.   Sodium and potassium
D.   Calcium and magnesium
The elements that do not
ordinarily form compounds are
a.   Elements in the carbon family
b.   Metals
c.   Halogens
d.   Inert Gases
What is an example of a diatomic
 molecule?
Test Tuesday!
Notebooks due Tuesday!
Review sheet is online!

				
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