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Elements of an Argument and Persuasive Techniques

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					ELEMENTS OF AN
 ARGUMENT AND
    PERSUASIVE
   TECHNIQUES
     Review and Quiz
WHAT SHOULD YOU BE ABLE TO DO?
Identify persuasive techniques and make
 inferences about the effect it has on the
 piece.

Identify and make inferences about the
 author’s claim and the type of support
 he/she uses.

Identify and make inferences about the way
 an author organizes his argument.
  Example: Claim followed by research to prove it.
  Or: Background information first, then claim.
EXAMPLE STAAR QUESTIONS
Claim: The author of this persuasive
 selection thinks that…

The author uses the first paragraph mostly
 to…

The author supports each argument with…

Which idea from paragraph 1 does the author
 base on an assumption?
QUICK REVIEW:
ELEMENTS OF AN ARGUMENT
CLAIM
SUPPORT
COUNTERARGUMENT
CLAIM
The writer’s position on an issue or problem
  Example: I believe teenagers in Brownsville
   should have a curfew at 10 o’clock p.m.

 The writer will spend the entire essay/editorial etc.
  supporting the claim that teens should have a
  curfew.

 He will use evidence to back it up.

 To find claim, ask yourself,
  “What am I being asked to do or think?”
WHAT IS THE CLAIM OF THIS AD?


                          Uncle Sam wants
                          people (everyone
                          really) to help in the
                          war effort.

                          “You should help in the
                          war effort.”
SUPPORT
Evidence or reasons provided by the writer in
 order to support his claim

Example:
Claim  Teens should have a curfew.
Reason 1: Too many teens are getting into
 trouble past 10 p.m.

Evidence to prove Reason 1: 53% of
 reported vandalism by teens occurred after
 the hours of 10 p.m. according to the police
 department.
How is it organized?
EXAMPLE
Example of an actual United Way Volunteer Ad
What is the claim? Why should you volunteer?
TYPES OF SUPPORT
Examples:
Statistics: Numbers, Charts, Graphs
  98% of people in Brownsville are Hispanic
  Only 25% of people in Brownsville ages 18-25
   have graduated from college.
  Hispanics are more likely to become diabetics
   than any other group.


Quotations: words that experts or others say
 Dr. Shultz says, “Wearing diabetic shoes is
 absolutely necessary for diabetics.”
TYPES OF SUPPORT
Facts: Things that can be proven
  Our community center offers several after
   school options for our teens


Anecdotes: Small stories of instances with
 the product.
  Little Jose went to Champion Soccer Camp last
   summer and came back a soccer super star!
  A mother used a certain cleaning product and
   her house has never been cleaner!
COUNTERARGUMENT
The opposing viewpoint.

The opposite idea from what the writer is
 trying to prove.

Example: “Giving teenagers a curfew will keep
  our kids from learning personal
  responsibility.”

 The BEST arguments anticipate (already know,
 or await anxiously) what the
 counterargument is, so they will address it
 and try to prove it wrong.
IMMIGRATION DEBATE




               Immigration workers who only try
             Immigrants areis dangerous for the
                          country.
                      to make a living.
PERSUASION TECHNIQUES
Appeals by Association
  Bandwagon
  Snob Appeal
  Testimony


Emotional Appeals
  Appeal to Pity
  Appeal to Fear
BANDWAGON

                   Tries to
                    convince you
                    that you will
                    be left out if
                    you do not
                    participate




            EVERYBODY’S DOING IT!
 SNOB APPEAL
  Appeals to those who want to feel important and rich.
  Items with SNOB APPEAL are not widely used and cannot
  be afforded by everyone, which makes them so enticing.




Discuss with your group how this ad for a Louis Vuitton bag is Snob Appeal.
TESTIMONY
Uses the endorsement
 of an expert or
 famous person to
 encourage people to
 be like them.

“Wolverine drinks milk,
 so you should too!”
EMOTIONAL APPEALS
Appeal to Pity
  Try to make you feel sorry for something or
   someone in order to motivate you to do
   something about their suffering.
   Example:
     Animal shelter commercials, “In the arms of the
      angel”
     Orphanage commercials
Appeal to Fear
  Try to scare you into doing or not doing something.
   Purchasing a certain gas mask in case of a terrorist
    attack.
APPEAL TO FEAR
Makes people afraid for their health, safety
 and security
APPEAL TO FEAR
APPEAL TO PITY
Taps into people’s compassion for others

Please help these defenseless puppies and
 kittens. They need a home. Everyone
 deserves a second chance.
GET READY FOR
     THE QUIZ
      WOOOOOO!!!!!!!
                 a. Stop pouring, start cleaning.
                 b. Tide gives you 6x the
                    cleaning power than the
WHAT IS THE   CLAIMother brand.
                 c. The other brand wastes too
OF THIS AD?         much water.
WHAT TYPE OF
SUPPPORT DOES THIS
AD OFFER WHEN IT
SAYS, “ECO-SHAPE
BOTTLE WITH LESS
PLASTIC, 30% LESS
PLASTIC IN FACT THAN
THAT AVERAGE
BOTTLE.”
a. Statistics
b. Facts
c. Quotations
 WHAT TYPE OF APPEAL IS USED?




A. Bandwagon
B. Appeal to Pity
C. Appeal to Fear
 THE PURPOSE OF THIS AD IS TO…




A. Remind people that drinking and driving has negative consequences.

b. Show people the improvements in synthetic limbs.

c. Persuade people to purchase a BMV brand car.
WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF
LINKING WOLVERINE TO
DRINKING MILK?

A. It claims that milk is
   popular, along with
   Wolverine.
B. It encourages young
   people to drink milk
   by associating it with a
   character they love.
C. It shows that
   Wolverine knows facts
   about milk, so kids
   should too.
#6
 The words on the ad says, “Milk has
 protein to help build muscle and a
 unique mix of nutrients to help you
 refuel.”

 Why would the advertisers include
 this information?

 A. To show that Wolverine is a
    smart character who knows
    about nutrition.

 B. To explain the differences
    between drinking milk and just
    water after a work out.

 C. To explain that there are also
    health benefits of drinking milk.
HOMEWORK
Find an AD online, in a newspaper or in a magazine.
  (You may also print it out or e-mail it to me if needed.)

It must use one of the appeals:
   Appeals by Association
     Bandwagon
     Snob Appeal
     Testimony

   Emotional Appeals
     Appeal to Pity
     Appeal to Fear

Identify what type of appeal is being used and
 explain it.

   Due Friday, February 1st!

				
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