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Chapter 6 Behavioral Views of Learning

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					              Chapter 6
     Behavioral Views of Learning


6a   Contiguity, Classical Conditioning, Model
     Learning, and Operant Learning


6b   Operant Learning: Positive Reinforcement,
     Negative Reinforcement, and Punishment
      So, what is learning?
    Since you will all be teachers it is critical that
    you can clearly define learning and be able to
    identify when it has occurred. So …

l   What is learning?

l   How will you know it has occurred?
Basic Misconceptions about Learning

l   Learning is NOT confined to the classroom; it
    happens everywhere.
l   Learning is NOT always the learning of appropriate
    behaviors or correct answer.
l   Learning does NOT always have to be planned or
    deliberate.
l   Learning does NOT always involve knowledge or
    skills.
Behavioral Definition of Learning



    Learning is a relatively
 permanent change in behavior
      due to experience.
    Comparisons of Learning Theories

l   Behavioral Learning - Focus on observable behavior with
    no distinction between learning & performance.
l   Neo-Behavioral Learning – Behaviorist who include mental
    states as “behavior”. Interested in the difference between learning
    & performance. Today most behaviorists are neo-behaviorists.

l   Social Learning – Learning through observation & modeling.

l   Cognitive Learning – Focus on changes in mental states and
    interested in difference between learning & performance.

l   Social-Cognitive Learning – Adds cognitive factors to social
    learning; interested in beliefs, perceptions, & expectation.
Four types of “Behavioral” Learning

l   Contiguity – Learning through association. (6a)
l   Classical Conditioning – In P250 we will use this
    to explain the learning of emotions and/or “automatic”
    responses. It’s more than Pavlov’s dogs. (6a)
l   Operant Learning – The key to classroom
    management and behavioral change. Learning from the
    consequences of our own behavior (mostly 6b but intro in 6a)
l   Model or Observation Learning – The
    learning that occurs when we watch others. We learn by
    watching others experience operant learning and/or watch
    role models (e.g., Michael Jordon or mom) (6a from CH9 pp.
    328-338)
    Types of Learning: Contiguity

  Whenever two or more sensations occur often
  enough they will become associated.

The simplest form of S à R is contiguity (Guthrie)

  How do most students study to memorize basic
  terminology ?
      Rehearsal is using contiguity … and it can
      be used without really thinking.
Type of Learning: Classical
Conditioning

  Classical Conditioning is the learning of
  involuntary (automatic) responses through the
  association of 2 pairs of SàR. In P250 we will
  focus on the learning of attitudes or feelings.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
Pair – Same place/same time for UCS & CS
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Conditioned Response (CR)
Pavlov’s Drooling Dogs: Color Coded


UCS       Meat
UCR      Drool to        Meat
PAIR      Meat            Bell

CS         Bell
CR       Drool to         Bell
Basic Rules to “Check your Work”


l   Does the UCSà UCR BEFORE learning?
l   Do the UCS & CS occur in the same place
    at the same time (i.e., DURING learning)?
l   Does the CS à CR AFTER learning with
    the presence of the UCS?
l   Are the UCR and the CR about the same
    (i.e., similar emotional reactions)?
Why does Randy feel relaxed listening to
   “Hot Town Summer in the City”?



       #5 This is the first half of
UCS            the pair
        #6 The reaction (emotion)     #5 This is the first half of
UCR     that should match the CR.             the pair
       #4 The 1st half of the pair    #3 The 2nd half of the pair
PAIR         is the UCS.                     is the CS.
       #2   What is the stimulus
CS          for “relaxed”?

CR     Start here – What is it that Randy is relaxed to?
 Why does Phil now hate history class?



       #5 This is the first half of
UCS            the pair
        #6 The reaction (emotion)     #5 This is the first half of
UCR     that should match the CR.             the pair
       #4 The 1st half of the pair    #3 The 2nd half of the pair
PAIR         is the UCS.                     is the CS.
       #2   What is the stimulus
CS          for “relaxed”?

CR     Start here – What is it that Randy is relaxed to?
Alfred’s mother is a librarian and when he was in middle school his mom used to make
him walk to the library after school every day so she could keep an eye on him. His
mom was very protective and all his friends used to tease him about visiting mommy at
the library. His friends followed him into the library and teased him when his mom
would make him stop by the desk and give her a kiss. Each afternoon he had to sit by
himself in the library and do his homework while waiting for his mom to get off work.
Usually he sat by himself in a totally quiet room for at least an hour - bored to tears.
Alfred couldn’t wait to move on to high school so he’d be far enough away from his
mom’s library that he didn’t have to go there after school. He hated going to the library.



  Years later Alfred is now taking P250 in college and he finds that he
  is very poor at self-regulating his behavior. He lives with a couple
  buddies in an apartment that is very noisy (his friends aren’t going
  to college) and he just can’t find the time or place to study for P250.
  He usually tries to study in the apartment but his friends are
  watching sports on TV, eating pizza and drinking beer, and every
  Thursday night they try to convince Alfred to go to the bars with
  them: usually their persuasion works and Alfred puts off studying
  until Friday morning. But now Alfred realizes he has to make some
  changes to do well in P250. He really enjoys the people in his peer
  mentor discussion group. They are fun and have all made
  improvements in their grades in class. When they invite Alfred to
  study with them on Thursday night in the library Alfred says,
  “Maybe some other time. How about meeting some place other than
  the library?” The group explain that they have reserved a room for
  their group for the rest of the semester and say that he’s welcome to
  join them on the 4th floor of the IUSB library any Thursday night
  from 8:00 until they go out for pizza around 11:00.
 Why would Alfred hate the Library?


UCS
UCR
PAIR
CS
CR
     Changing Alfred’s Attitude toward
                  Library
 What can we pair with the library that Alfred already enjoys?



UCS
UCR             Enjoys
PAIR                                      Library

CS              Library
CR              Enjoys                    Library
    With your partner discuss what
students are likely to hate about school

l   What happens that is likely to be boring?
l   What happens that is likely to lead to fear?
l   What is the impact of competition on most
    students? How do they react to it? Could we
    change that so all students are involved in
    the competitive “game” ?

l   What happens if we make everything “easy”?
  Universal Negative Respondent
      What is it that most students dislike in school?


UCS
UCR             Dislike
PAIR                                   School

CS             School
CR             Dislike                 School
     Universal Positive Respondent
 What could we introduce into your classroom to
 create a positive attitude toward your subject?


UCS
UCR           Enjoy
PAIR                            Reading, Math,
                                History, Science

CS         Reading, Math,
           History, Science

CR            Enjoy
                                Reading, Math,
                                History, Science
Applications of Classical Conditioning

l   Generalization – Generalizing across similar situation

l   Discrimination –         Responding differently to similar
                             but not identical situations


l   Extinction –      Gradual disappearance of a conditioned
                      response (e.g., Hot Town Summer in the
                      City no longer relaxing if …)
Return to Chapter 3 – How do we teach Life Skills ?

                  C.L.A.S.S.
    Connected Learning Assures Student Success


     Life Skills and Lifelong Guidelines
n   Perseverance           10.   Resourcefulness
n   Courage                11.   Patience
n   Integrity              12.   Effort
n   Friendship             13.   Organization
n   Caring                 14.   Pride
n   Responsibility         15.   Cooperation
n   Problem Solving        16.   Curiosity
n   Common Sense           17.   Sense of Humor
n   Initiative             18.   Flexibility
    Model or Observation Learning

l Presence of a Credible Model
l Observer Attends to Model's Behavior
l Observer Attends to Consequences of Model's
  Behavior
l Observer Exhibits (or Inhibits) a Behavior
  Similar to Model
  We learn by watching other who experience
  consequences or by watching role model.
How can we create these learning opportunities?
                 Social Cognitive Theory
                          (Read pages 328-338 in text)



l   Reciprocal determinism – Mutual effect of individual & environment
     –   Personal factors – beliefs, expectations, attitudes, knowledge
     –   Social environment – other people, resources, consequences
     –   Behaviors – individual choices, actions, responses

l   When personal factors (e.g., a student’s beliefs about their ability) are
    influenced by the social environment (e.g., a role model such as
    a teacher) it can impact the behavior and goals of individuals
    (e.g., a student self-efficacy increases so they believe they can succeed in
    school).
Operant Learning & Classroom Management
     The Consequences of Judy’s Behavior


 Judy is a girl in your 5th grade classroom who
 is “street wise” and often acts out her
 frustration of other members of the class.
 When Judy gets frustrate or doesn’t get her
 way she is likely to use inappropriate language
 or push and shove other children. When she
 acts this way, what could the consequences of
 her behavior be for her? How would other
 children and teachers react?
Necessary Conditions for Operant Learning



l   Antecedents – Stimuli that trigger behavior
l   Behavior – Observable actions that can be measured
l   Consequences – The results of behaviors
l   Behavior Change – Increase or decrease in frequency
Operant Learning: Consequences

All consequences fall into one of the following categories:


l   Presentation of a pleasant stimuli
l   Presentation of an unpleasant stimuli
l   Removal of a pleasant stimuli
l   Removal of an unpleasant stimuli
l   No consequence
Operant Learning: Behavioral Change

All behavioral change can be classified as either:
l   Increase in the frequency of an existing behavior
l   Decrease in the frequency of an existing behavior
l   Building a new behavior
l   Elimination of a behavior (zero frequency)
    Consequences & Behavioral Change

Consequences
l    Presentation of pleasant stimuli
l    Present an unpleasant stimuli
l    Remove a pleasant stimuli
l    Remove an unpleasant stimuli
Lead to What Change in Behavior?
Increase in the frequency of an existing behavior          1       4
Decrease in the frequency of existing behavior             2       3
Building a new behavior      1         4
Elimination of a behavior      To eliminate a behavior it is best to
                                extinguish the behavior: remove the reward

				
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