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ECON3508 October 107 2006 Poverty and Income Distribution

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ECON3508 October 107 2006 Poverty and Income Distribution Powered By Docstoc
					ECON 3508                                         Winter 2013
      Introduction to Economic
            Development

   The Millennium Development
              Goals
               [See Text, Chapter 1, pp. 23-25]


 Arch Ritter                                 February 7, 2013
See the Millennium Development Goals Report, 2012
       http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Resources/Static/Products/Progr
       ess2012/English2012.pdf


Introduction:
   UN Millennium Declaration (UN September 2000.)
   committed its signatories to strive to
      §reduce poverty,
      §improve health,
      §promote peace,
      §improve Human Rights, and
      §improve the environment.
   Specific measurable targets, to be achieved by
   2015;
  Most OECD and lower income countries were signatories
A Focus on the Neediest Countries is given top
  priority.
   This included:
       –38 countries in Africa,
       – 4 in East Asia/Pacific;
       – 2 in South Asia;
       – 6 Arab States;
       – 4 Latin American and Caribbean
         States, and
       – 5 in East Europe.
• How can they escape their poverty traps?
  This is easy to state but hard to implement.

• Included in the relevant policy areas are
       Investing in human development;
       Helping small farmers raise their productivity
       and thence their incomes;
       Investment in infrastructure in lagging areas;
       Promote non-traditional and especially small-
       scale enterprise (informal sector )
       Emphasize social equity and strengthen the
       “voice” of marginalized peoples (aboriginal
       peoples, rural peoples, and women and girls in
       some countries.)
       Environmental Sustainability
Millennium Development Goals and Targets
 for 2015
  – Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
      Target 1: 50% reduction in extreme poverty (Income
      below $1.00 per day.)
      Target 2: 50% reduction in hunger.
  – Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
      Target 3: 100% coverage for primary education for
      Males and Females
  – Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower
    Women
      Target 4: Eliminate gender disparities in education.
  – Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality
      Target 5 : reduce it by 67%.
– Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health
   Target 6: reduce it by 75%.
– Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other
  Diseases
   Target 7: Reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015.
   Target 8: Halt and reduce incidence of Malaria and
   other major diseases.
– Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability
   Target 9: Reduce by 50% those lacking access to safe
   water.
   Target 10: Incorporate Sustainable Development
   practices in all policies and programs’
– Goal 8: A Global Partnership for
  Development
   Target 12: Open rule-based International
   trading and financial systems’
   Target 13: Special treatment for the poorest
   countries re trade, debt, technology transfer
   Target 14: Special treatment for remote and
   land-locked countries.
   Target 14: Debt relief where needed.
   Target 15: Special access to
   pharmaceuticals for poorest countries.
   Target 18: Special access to IT for poorest
   countries
Implementing the Millennium
  Development Goals and Targets
For Low Income Countries:
  – focus on general poverty reduction and meeting
    “Basic Human Needs”
  – emphasize achievable goals and implementable
    policies;
  – focus on resource mobilization
For Middle Income Developing Countries:
  – focus efforts on intractable pockets of poverty
For International Financial institutions (IFIs):
  – put the Millennium Goals at the centre of their
    analytical, advisory, and financing activities;
  – support effective policy making in developing
    countries.
For Donor Countries:
  – developing countries should “own” their
    strategies for meeting the millenium goals, but
    with support from donor countries;
  – more and better utilized aid;
  – trade liberalization for exports of interest to
    developing countries;
  – end protectionist subsidies
       Note: the world failed in this endeavour at the
       Doha Round of trade negotiations
For NGOs:
  – participate in the design of strategies,
    participate in implementation as appropriate
  – serve as “watchdogs” re target and goal
    fulfillment.
Evaluation of MDG Approach


1. Are targets and goals realistic?   (YES)
 Is it too ambitious?              (NO)

2. Focus on measurable targets is
 laudable for focusing energies.

3. Emphasis on poorest countries is
 appropriate;
4. Will the focus on these targets lead to
   improvements or deformations of national
   objectives?

5. Will the MD approach help improve coordination
   among donors, IFIs and national governments?
                                     (YES)

6. Little is actually said re. Governance, despite its
    importance for the high priority countries.

7. Implementation: need for secondary and higher
    education is ignored
 MDG Goals
    and
Achievement:
  Poverty
 MDG Goals
    and
Achievement:
 Education
 MDG Goals
    and
Achievement:
  Gender
 Disparities




  Gender disparity
  is measured by
  the ratio of girls to
  boys enrolled in
  primary and
  secondary
  schools. Most
  regions are on
  track to achieve
  this target by
  2015.
MDG Goals and
 Achievement:
   Maternal
   Mortality
 MDG Goals
     and
Achievement:
Child Mortality
MDG Web Site:
http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/publications/mdg-report-2012.html




MDG Global Monitoring Report,2012
 – http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Resources/Static/Products/Progres
   s2012/English2012.pdf



Another MDG Site
 – http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/

				
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