ECON 3508 Winter 2013
Introduction to Economic
The Millennium Development
[See Text, Chapter 1, pp. 23-25]
Arch Ritter February 7, 2013
See the Millennium Development Goals Report, 2012
UN Millennium Declaration (UN September 2000.)
committed its signatories to strive to
§improve Human Rights, and
§improve the environment.
Specific measurable targets, to be achieved by
Most OECD and lower income countries were signatories
A Focus on the Neediest Countries is given top
–38 countries in Africa,
– 4 in East Asia/Pacific;
– 2 in South Asia;
– 6 Arab States;
– 4 Latin American and Caribbean
– 5 in East Europe.
• How can they escape their poverty traps?
This is easy to state but hard to implement.
• Included in the relevant policy areas are
Investing in human development;
Helping small farmers raise their productivity
and thence their incomes;
Investment in infrastructure in lagging areas;
Promote non-traditional and especially small-
scale enterprise (informal sector )
Emphasize social equity and strengthen the
“voice” of marginalized peoples (aboriginal
peoples, rural peoples, and women and girls in
Millennium Development Goals and Targets
– Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
Target 1: 50% reduction in extreme poverty (Income
below $1.00 per day.)
Target 2: 50% reduction in hunger.
– Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
Target 3: 100% coverage for primary education for
Males and Females
– Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower
Target 4: Eliminate gender disparities in education.
– Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality
Target 5 : reduce it by 67%.
– Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health
Target 6: reduce it by 75%.
– Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other
Target 7: Reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015.
Target 8: Halt and reduce incidence of Malaria and
other major diseases.
– Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability
Target 9: Reduce by 50% those lacking access to safe
Target 10: Incorporate Sustainable Development
practices in all policies and programs’
– Goal 8: A Global Partnership for
Target 12: Open rule-based International
trading and financial systems’
Target 13: Special treatment for the poorest
countries re trade, debt, technology transfer
Target 14: Special treatment for remote and
Target 14: Debt relief where needed.
Target 15: Special access to
pharmaceuticals for poorest countries.
Target 18: Special access to IT for poorest
Implementing the Millennium
Development Goals and Targets
For Low Income Countries:
– focus on general poverty reduction and meeting
“Basic Human Needs”
– emphasize achievable goals and implementable
– focus on resource mobilization
For Middle Income Developing Countries:
– focus efforts on intractable pockets of poverty
For International Financial institutions (IFIs):
– put the Millennium Goals at the centre of their
analytical, advisory, and financing activities;
– support effective policy making in developing
For Donor Countries:
– developing countries should “own” their
strategies for meeting the millenium goals, but
with support from donor countries;
– more and better utilized aid;
– trade liberalization for exports of interest to
– end protectionist subsidies
Note: the world failed in this endeavour at the
Doha Round of trade negotiations
– participate in the design of strategies,
participate in implementation as appropriate
– serve as “watchdogs” re target and goal
Evaluation of MDG Approach
1. Are targets and goals realistic? (YES)
Is it too ambitious? (NO)
2. Focus on measurable targets is
laudable for focusing energies.
3. Emphasis on poorest countries is
4. Will the focus on these targets lead to
improvements or deformations of national
5. Will the MD approach help improve coordination
among donors, IFIs and national governments?
6. Little is actually said re. Governance, despite its
importance for the high priority countries.
7. Implementation: need for secondary and higher
education is ignored
is measured by
the ratio of girls to
boys enrolled in
regions are on
track to achieve
this target by
MDG Goals and
MDG Web Site:
MDG Global Monitoring Report,2012
Another MDG Site