Education and Skills amongst the youth - National Youth by hcj

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									 Education and skills
amongst South African
        youth

  • Sharlene Swartz, Stephen Taylor, Arvin
     Bhana, Duncan Scott, Nothile Dlamini
            and Mohamed Vawda
                                         Motivation
        1. National Youth Policy: Education as one of
           four “pillars”

        2. South African Schools Act: Education is
           envisaged to contribute to “the eradication
           of poverty and the economic well-being of
           society”

        3. Social and individual benefits to education
           – especially access to the labour market.
Social science that makes a difference
                              Policy background
      1. Glaring divisions and inequalities in education
         under Apartheid
      2. 1994: Racially separate administrations brought
         together under a unified DoE
      3. Policies promoting education for democracy
         and transformation: SA Schools Act (1996),
         Curriculum 2005, etc.
      4. Higher ed and post-school programmes to
         improve literacy and skills, e.g. FET, ABET,
         learnerships, adult literacy campaigns
      5. Education funding reforms.
Social science that makes a difference
                Figure 1: Non-personnel spending




Social science that makes a difference
                                         Source: Department of Education (2009a)
                Figure 1: Non-personnel spending




Social science that makes a difference
                                         Source: Department of Education (2009a)
                Figure 1: Non-personnel spending




Social science that makes a difference
                                         Source: Department of Education (2009a)
   The status of education
and skills amongst the youth

       • 31% in education
     • 36% in employment
      • 32% not employed
Figure 2: The activities of the youth
 Figure 2: The activities of the youth




High enrolment
Figure 2: The activities of the youth




     Over-age enrolment
   Figure 2: The activities of the youth




Large numbers not in
education, not employed
Figure 3: Narrow unemployment by age category
    (older people more likely to be employed)
                         Why is youth unemployment
                                  so high?
 1. High age of first job (males 24, females 26)
 2. Reluctance of youth to initiate self-
    employment (4% vs 11%)
 3. High duration of unemployment spells (50%
    longer than 3 years)
 4. Gender dimension...


Social science that makes a difference
Figure 4: Unemployment by age and gender
         (age stronger than gender)
Enrolment in education

•High in 7-15, drops off 16-18
•Lower enrolment among coloured
youth
•Reasons beyond poverty – cultural
explanations, gangs, employment
alternatives
             Figure 5: Enrolment of
a) 7-15 year olds and b) 16-18 year olds by race




         Source: General Household Surveys (2002-2009)
 Table 1: Educational attainment and enrolment rates amongst
                         disabled youth


                         Mean Years of education     Enrolment rate
Type of Disability            (ages 21 - 35)         (ages 14 - 17)

none                              10.15                 90.58%

sight                             8.41                  82.02%

hearing                           7.42                  82.03%

communication                     4.90                  54.77%

physical                          7.65                  71.42%

intellectual                      5.58                  69.02%

emotional                         6.22                  61.14%

multiple                          7.69                  73.29%

Total                             10.05                 90.20%




                     Source: Community Survey 2007
                           Main reasons for dropping
                                 out of school
       1. Financial constraints (declining perhaps due
          to increased social grants and no fee schools)




Social science that makes a difference
Figure 7: Percentage of those dropping out that cite a lack of
               money for fees (ages 14 – 17)




           Source: General Household Surveys (2002-2009)
                           Main reasons for dropping
                                 out of school
       1. Financial constraints (declining perhaps due
          to increased social grants and no fee schools)
       2. Attitudes: “education is useless or
          uninteresting”
       3. Pregnancy and family commitments (for
          females)
       4. Low quality in the early grades



Social science that makes a difference
Figure 6: Progression of learners from Gr7 – Gr12 (2005 – 2010)
Figure 6: Progression of learners from Gr7 – Gr12 (2005 – 2010) and
                      Gr8 - Gr12 (2005 -2009)
Figure 6: Progression of learners from Gr7 – Gr12 (2005 – 2010) and
     Gr8 - Gr12 (2005 -2009) and by public / independent
                                Matric outcomes
   1. Pass rates provide a mixed signal
   2. Rising numbers passing matric since 1995 is a
      positive trend
   3. Numbers passing mathematics is a concern
   4. The numbers achieving university
      endorsements rising moderately but still too low




Social science that makes a difference
   Figure 8: Cross-country comparison of educational attainment
                        (15 – 35 year-olds)




Sources: Gustafsson (2011: 14) using Labour Force Survey 2009Q3 and Demographic Household Surveys since 2000
Figure 9: Higher Education Gross Enrolment Ratios by gender, 2000-9
 (young women increasing each year – 25% higher than young men)




            Sources: Department of Basic Education, Education Statistics in South Africa, 2006 – 2009, Statistics
            South Africa, Mid-year Population Statistics 2006 -2009
Figure 10: Higher Education Gross Enrolment Ratios by race, 2006-9
           (black and coloured – lagging white and Indian)




           Sources: Department of Basic Education, Education Statistics in South Africa, 2006 – 2009, Statistics
           South Africa, Mid-year Population Statistics 2006 -2009
Figure 11: Cross-country comparison of educational attainment
                     (15 – 35 year-olds)
               So what’s the problem? Quality...




Sources: Gustafsson (2011: 14) using Labour Force Survey 2009Q3 and Demographic Household Surveys since 2000
                The quality of education being
                    received by the youth
    1. SA last in TIMSS 2003 in maths and science
       (grade 8)

    2. SA last in PIRLS 2006 in reading (grade 5)

    3. SA below the average within the region
       according to both the 2000 and 2007 SACMEQ
       surveys.

Social science that makes a difference
Figure 12: Grade 6 reading achievement by region




                 Source: SACMEQ 2007
Figure 13: Grade 6 maths achievement in regional perspective




                     Source: SACMEQ 2007
              Poor children in SA perform less well
               than equally poor children in other
                      SACMEQ countries!
1. Van der Berg (2007) showed using the
   SACMEQ 2000 survey
2. Measure of poverty same in all countries
3. SA schools better resourced on average
4. Spaull (2011) confirms with SACMEQ 2007:
      • poorest 25%: SA 14th/15 in reading and 12th in
        maths.
      • rural areas: SA 13th in reading and 12th in maths.

Social science that makes a difference
    Figure 14: Median numeracy scores with interquartile range
(i.e. Lower limit is 25th percentile, upper range is 75th percentile)




               Source: Taylor, 2011, using National School Effectiveness
                 Implications of low quality
                education as a poverty trap

  1. Educational inequalities evident very early in
     primary school

  2. They persist and are evident in matric outcomes
     and access to post-school education

  3. This affects employability and one’s expected
     earnings

Social science that makes a difference
Figure 15: Narrow unemployment rates amongst the youth
         (aged 14 – 35) by education, 1995 - 2010
                             Returns to education in the
                                   labour market
   1. Less years of schooling = lower rates of
      employability and earnings
   2. No signal of productivity for those without matric
      (55% youth) – pre-matric standardised
      qualification needed?
   3. Higher levels of higher education = higher returns
   4. Years of education explains earnings but the
      quality of those years is also very important.
   5. Racial employment and wage gaps à due to
      lower quality of education + different attainment
      levels between the race groups.
Social science that makes a difference
                                         Conclusions
   1. Improved and almost universal access to
      primary and early secondary education
   2. This conceals the low quality of schooling being
      received at these levels
   3. Consequently, low access to higher education,
      especially for black and coloured youth
   4. Since only 45% of youth achieve a matric pass
      – need for alternative post-school educational
      opportunities


Social science that makes a difference
Table 2: Enrolments in Public ABET institutions, learner-educator
    ratios and learner-school ratios by province, 2006 - 2009


 Province                  2006               2007              2008              2009

 Eastern Cape              45354             43724             39181              35673

 Free State                22098             20670             16984              16725

 Gauteng                   62917             85170             83242              74534

 KwaZulu-Natal             12002             12948             20912              30450

 Limpopo                   33803             29718             36619              45863

 Mpumalanga                22583             24814             28259              26538

 Northern Cape             5532               8818              5788              5967

 North West                16183             29311             24352              23245

 Western Cape              31138             37561             35281              38905

 SA                       251610            292734             290618            297900

 SA LER                   13.5216             15.2              14.9                19

 SA LSR                  115.6296           118.2286            117.1             124.4

Source: Department of Basic Education, Education Statistics in South Africa, 2006 - 2009
Table 3: Enrolments in Public FET colleges, learner-educator ratios
         and learner-school ratios by province, 2006 - 2009


  Province                  2006              2007              2008              2009
  Eastern Cape             30129             20173             40080             37597
  Free State               14661             14224             30986             14941
  Gauteng                  130388            94434            104423            125672
  KwaZulu-Natal            65073             77431             85811             85848
  Limpopo                  22908             17037             25516             35797
  Mpumalanga               33778             36463             35904             28102
  Northern Cape             8959             10666              7288             10067
  North West               17743             14318             33400             31941

  Western Cape             37547             35933             54645             50510
  SA                       361186           320679            418053            420475
  SA LER                  50.89994            53.6              72.7              67.2
  SA LSR                  7223.72           6413.58            9290.1            8581.1

  Source: Department of Basic Education, Education Statistics in South Africa, 2006 -
  2009
                            Conclusions (cont.)
   5. Attempts to address inequalities through post-
      school training and labour market interventions
      will be limited by massive pre-labour market
      inequalities/differential school quality.
   6. Thus, an urgent need to improve quality in
      schools that poor youth attend.
   7. Since inequalities are evident early in primary
      school, interventions are necessary as early as
      possible, including Early Childhood
      Development (ECD).

Social science that makes a difference
                  Omissions
1. Time on task by          • 1-5 are drivers of
   teachers                   quality of schooling
2. Availability of          • This chapter
   extramural activities and considers the quality
   importance                 received and
3. Language issues            achieved by youth
4. Social and health issues • 4 Best covered in
   in school                  Health and Social
5. Effectiveness of school    Cohesion?
   governing bodies

								
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