Chapter 2_ Defining Communication as an Element of Culture by hcj

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									Defining Communication as an Element
         of Culture  Chapter 2

n   Is effective communication the same in US
    culture and in the Asian culture?

n   What distinguishes intercultural communication
    from other forms of communication?

n   What skills does a competent intercultural
    communicator possess?
Communication is derived from Latin “to share
with” as in sharing thought, hopes, knowledge.


  n   Communication and culture is inseparable.
  n   Communication requires coding and symbols that
      must be learned and shared.
  n   Every cultural pattern and every single act of
      social behavior involves communication.
  n   Transmission models:
      n   Communication is a dynamic process.
      n   Variables in the process are interrelated and influence
          each other.
        Components of Communication
n   Source
n   Encoding
n   Message
n   Channel
n   Noise
    n   External noise: sights, sounds, and other stimuli.
    n   Internal noise: thoughts and feelings that interfere
        with the message.
    n   Semantic noise: how alternative meanings of the
        source’s message symbols can be distracting.
    Components of Communication (cont’d)
n   Receiver
n   Decoding
n   Feedback.
     n   It makes communication a two-way or interactive
         process.
n   Context: the environment in which the
    communication takes place.
     n   Helps define the communication.
     n   Relates the the social relationship between the source
         and receiver.
Other Definitions of Communication
n   Definitions of communication from many Asian countries
    stress harmony.
n   Societies influenced by Confucian history and tradition:
    China, N. & S. Korea, Singapore, and many East Asian
    countries with large communities.
n   Confucianism emphasizes virtue, selflessness, duty,
    patriotism, hard work, and respect for hierarchy.
n   Confucius set up an ethical-moral system to govern all
    relationship in the family, community, and state.
n   Confucianism guides social relationships.
           Five Effects of Confucianism
           on Interpersonal Relationship
n   Particularism:There is no universal pattern of rules
    governing relationships.
     n Status, intimacy, and context create different
         communication rules for diverse people.
n   Role of Intermediaries: Use 3rd party to avoid direct
    confrontations and resolve disputes
n   Reciprocity: Gratitude and indebtedness are important
    parts of Chinese culture.
n   Ingroup/outgroup distinction: Ingroup members engage
    in freer and deeper talk and many find difficult to develop
    personal relationship with outgroup members.
n   Overlap of personal and public relationships.
    Intercultural Communication Defined

n   Intercultural communication: Refers to face-to-face
    interactions among people of diverse cultures.
     n Relates to source and receiver are in different
         contexts and subgroups.
     n It is defined as communication between persons who
         “identify themselves as distinct from” others in a
         cultural sense (Collier & Thomas, 1988).
     n The study of intercultural communication was
         needed as recognized by Edward T. Hall’s Silent
         Language.
       Applications of Communication
                  Theories
n   Uncertainty Reduction Theory: during the
    initial phase of interaction with another person
    your primary communication goal is reduce your
    uncertainty about that person.
n   Coordinated Management of Meaning:
    emphasizes the social nature of communication
     n Rules for interpreting the words and actions
         used.
     n Rules for deciding how to behave.
               Intercultural Ethics
n   Western Ethics: (autonomy, justice, responsibility
    and care.
n   African Ethics: Stress the well-being of the
    community and economic considerations over
    political rights.
n   Buddhist ethics: Value is places on patience,
    compassion, self-sacrifice, kindness, and love
    which are to be pursued for the betterment of the
    person, if not in this life, then in the next.
n   Hindu ethics: to end human suffering through
    active intervention in this world to make it better.
      Four ethical principles to guide
         intercultural interactions
n   Respect all
n   Do not mislead or deceive
n   Encourage people of other cultures to
    express themselves in their uniqueness
    regardless of popularity.
n   Identify with people of another culture
    emphasizing commonalities of beliefs &
    values rather than differences.
       Intercultural Competence
n   Personality Strength (self-concept, self-
    disclosure, self-monitoring, & social relaxation)
n   Communication Skills: Competent in verbal and
    nonverbal behaviors, empathy, identity
    maintenance
n   Psychological Adjustment: Be able to acclimate
    to new environments and handle the feelings of
    “culture shock.”
n   Cultural Awareness: Understand the social
    customs and social system of the host culture.

								
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