Bullying Prevention in Elementary Schools - PBiS

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					Bullying Prevention in
Elementary Schools
Session B2




 Jan Morgan, Wauconda CUSD 118 (IL)
 Brianna Stiller, Eugene School District 4-J (OR)
 Steve Romano, Illinois PBIS Network
    What is Bullying?
“Bullying” is repeated aggression, harassment, threats
or intimidation when one person has greater status or
power than the another.
What Does it Look Like?
•   Physical aggression
•   Repeated acts of isolation
•   Name calling
•   Cyber bullying
•   Rumors
•   Threats
•   Comments about race, gender, socio-economic status, disability,
    sexual orientation

                               2
   What are Characteristics of
   Bullying?
• Bullying is behavior, not a trait or
  diagnosis

• Bullying behavior occurs in many forms,




                                                  Scott Ross, University of Oregon
  and locations, but typically involves
  student-student interactions.
   Bullying is seldom maintained by feedback
    from adults

• What rewards Bullying Behavior?
   Likely many different rewards are effective
   Most common are:
       Attention from bystanders
       Attention and reaction of “victim”
       Self-delivered praise
       Obtaining objects (food, clothing)
     Six Features of Universal PBIS that
     Contribute to Effective Application of
     Bullying Prevention:
1.    The use of evidence based instructional principles to
      teach expected behaviors to all students. (Behavioral
      lesson plans from Matrix)
2.    The monitoring and acknowledgement of students for
      engaging in appropriate behavior. (Three tiers of
      acknowledgements: high-frequency, intermittent, long term)
3.    Specific instruction and pre-correction to prevent
      bullying behavior from being rewarded by victims or
      bystanders. (Direct instruction of school-wide expectations)
4.    The correction of problem behaviors using a
      consistently administered continuum of consequences. (T-
      Chart)
5.    The collection and use of information about student
      behavior to evaluate and guide decision making. (Data)
6.    The establishment of a team that develops, implements,
      and manages. (Universal Team)
Implementing Bullying Prevention: 3
       Phases for Students
  • Exploration Phase
    Teach respect; Build consensus (through student survey
     and student forums)

  • Installation Phase
    Select stop signal

  • Implementation Phase
    Teach stop, bystander stop, stopping, and help routines
   For Faculty/Staff:
   Core Features of an Effective Bullying
   Prevention Effort
1) Agreement on logic/need for bullying prevention
   effort
2) Strategy for teaching students core skills
3) Strategy for follow-up and consistency in
   responding
4) Clear data collection and data use process
5) Advanced support options
6) Plan for effective implementation of bullying
   prevention.
   Implementing Bullying
Prevention: 4 Phases for Staff
• Staff Exploration Phase
  • Monitor ODR data, student climate survey, and
    faculty/family reports
• Staff Installation Phase
  • Team trained, orientation, facilitate student forum
• Staff Implementation Phase
  • Build curriculum, teach to students, schedule boosters,
    inform families
• Staff Full Implementation Phase
  • Collect and use data (ODRs, Updated student climate survey,
    etc.)     and develop training capacity
 Staff: “Installation Phase”
 Faculty Response Procedure
 (con’t)
               Faculty Response Procedure
                 for when students “talk”

When a Student reports disrespectful behavior:
  "Did you tell ______ to stop?"
     If yes: "How did ____ respond?”
     If no: Practice the 3 step response (stop-walk-talk).


  "Did you walk away?"
     If yes: "How did ____ respond?”
     If no: Practice the 3 step response.

  “Okay, I will take it from here.”
                     Prevention in Bullying Positive Behavior Support Planning Guide: Moving from Discussion to Action
This planning guide is designed for use by teams planning to implement bullying prevention efforts as part of their existing school-wide
positive behavior support system. The guide defines steps for the school team and district leadership team that will increase the likelihood
that the bullying prevention effort will be implemented with fidelity, sustained, and a benefit to students, families and faculty.
                                                         School Building Planning Team
                                                                          In Place
         Action                          Criterion                   Partially In Place                Who?                     By When?
                                                                        Not In place
1. Faculty/Staff        Team defined to lead implementation
      Readiness         of BP-PBIS
                        All faculty/staff have read the BP-PBIS
                        manual
                        Build consensus: monitor
                        faculty/family reports, ODR data,
                        Student Climate Survey data (ES,
                        MS, HS), and student forums data
                        (MS, HS)
                        "Stop" signal selected

                       “Stopping “ routine selected

                       All faculty/staff have received BP-PBIS
                       orientation training
2. Curriculum Delivery Schedule developed for student BP
                       training.
                       BP-PBIS lessons delivered to all
                       students
                       Plan developed for BP-PBIS orientation
                       for students who enter during the year.

3. Follow-up/ Booster Follow-up lessons scheduled to occur
                      during two month period after initial
                      student training.
                      Follow up lessons delivered at least
                      twice after initial training, including
                      practice in applicable settings.
                                                                  In Place
       Action                     Criterion                   Partially In Place   Who?   By When?
                                                                Not In place
4. PBIS team       BP-PBIS set as a standard item on the
                   PBS team agenda



5. Coaching        Plan developed for coaching and
                   feedback for playground supervisors

                   Coaching for playground, lunch, hall
                   supervisors provided at least twice,
                   and as needed after.
6. Evaluation/     Quarterly review to assess if BP-PBIS is
      Monitoring   being used as intended (fidelity)



                   Monthly review of office referral and
                   incident reports related to bullying
                   behaviors (physical aggression,
                   bullying/harassment, fighting)


                   Collect and study Student Climate
                   survey data at least annually



                   Social Validity: ongoing review of
                   efficiency and impact with families,
                   faculty, students
                                                          District Leadership Team


                                                                       In Place
          Action                      Criterion                    Partially In Place   Who?   By When?
                                                                     Not In place


1.Bullying Prevention
  orientation for New
  Faculty               Fall orientation for all new faculty




2.Visibility/District
  updates


                        Report to District
                        administration or board at
                        least annually on: a) number of
                        schools using BP-PBIS, b)
                        fidelity of implementation, c)
                        impact on student behavior.




3. External Coaching


                        District has individual(s) trained to
                        conduct staff orientation/
                        training/coaching in BP-PBIS
Bullying & Harassment
Ø30% of youth in the United States are
 estimated to be involved in bullying as
 either a bully, a target.
ØStaff are likely to underestimate the
 extent of harassment and bullying. One
 study showed:
Ø58% of students perceived teasing,
 spreading lies or rumors, or saying mean
 things to be problems.
ØOnly 25% of teachers perceived these
 behaviors to be problems.


                         Nansel et al. (2001). Bullying Behaviors Among U.S.
                         Youth. JAMA.
 Adults
   only




           Scott Ross, University of Oregon
see the
  tip of
   the
iceberg.
Do Sweat the Small Stuff!!
The majority of incidents are low level – name
  calling; exclusion; low levels of physical contact
  (pushing; shoving; etc.)

There is research to show that high rates of low
  level behaviors are associated with a greater
  probability of high intensity incidents

Ignoring low level incidents is an invitation to
  escalate social aggression.
                                                 Tertiary Prevention:
                                                  Behavior Support
                                                Plans for Perpetrators
                                                  and/or Recipients
                                  ~5%

                                                Secondary Prevention:
                                  ~15%
                                                  Intensive Practice
                                                   Safety Plans for
                                                      Recipients
   Primary Prevention:                                Mediation
  School Wide Program
(Bully Prevention in PBIS)
     Student Forums
      Adult Coaching




                             ~80% of Students
Bully Prevention in PBIS
 Critical Features of Bully Prevention in PBIS:
   Reduce interactions that reinforce social aggression
      Target Recipient Behavior; Perpetrator Behavior; and
        Bystander Behavior
   Teach students skills to interrupt and report disrespectful
     behavior
      Establish a School-Wide Stop Signal
      Teach Student Strategies for using and responding to the
        Stop Signal
      Teach adults how to support students
   Deliver the intervention with sufficient intensity to maintain
     positive effects
      Faculty Orientation


1. Staff Orientation/Alignment

2. Active Listening/Reflective statements

3. Role Play Taking Reports
Choose a Signal
Put together a Student Advisory Committee
 (especially for grades 4-8)
Student Advisory Committee chooses a signal and may
 help with lesson delivery




   20                  Scott Ross, University of Oregon
Bully Prevention in PBIS – Elementary Program

One Primary Lesson -- 50 minutes -- delivered to all
 students the same day
   Class discussion of disrespectful behavior
   Introduction of Stop Signal
   Role Playing
Follow Up Lessons as needed
   Gossip; Rumor Spreading
   Exclusion
   Cyberbullying
Coaching from supervisory personnel is ongoing
 and critical
Lesson Planning
The lessons are scripted, and there are many tips for
 how to respond to “what ifs”
Determine:
   Who will teach the lessons
   How far apart the lessons will be taught
Skilled Facilitation is important
   Make the role plays realistic. If the scenarios and responses
    are trivial or not congruent with how students interact with
    one another when no adults are present, the students will
    think the program is silly. Be provocative; the students
    must be actively engaged
Recipient Response
If someone treats you in a way that does not
 feel respectful

   Deliver the School Wide Stop Signal

   If the person does not Stop, walk away

   If the person still does not Stop, report to a
    school adult
Perpetrator Response


It is likely that every student will be asked to stop by
 someone at some point in the school year. When this
 happens, they should do the following things
   Stop what they are doing
   Take a deep breath
   Close the loop (“OK” or “Sorry”)

These steps should be followed even if the person
 being asked to stop doesn’t think they were doing
 anything wrong or did not intend their behavior to be
 offensive.
Adult Coaching: Accepting Reports
   When problem behavior is reported, adults follow a specific response:

       Reinforce the student for reporting the problem behavior (i.e. "I'm
           glad you told me.")

       Ask who, what, when and where.

       Ensure the student’s safety.
           Is the problem still happening?
           Assess severity of the incident
           Assess likelihood of retaliation
           Devise Safety Plan if needed

       Ask the Student if he/she Used the Stop Signal -- Coach as
           needed
Coaching Perpetrators

If the problem behavior included harassment or
 physical assault, complete an Office Discipline
 Referral and turn in to office

For chronic offenders, implement a reminder, warning,
 consequence correction sequence (timeout on the
 bench or an office referral, depending severity/frequency)
Checking In -- Continued Follow-Up

For chronic victims of bullying or harassment

    On a regular basis, an adult should check in with
     students to determine if the problem behaviors have
     ceased.

    Continue to reinforce students for confiding and seeking
     assistance
Differentiate Reporting from Tattling
    “Reporting” is when you have tried to
     solve the problem yourself and you
     have used the "stop” signal first.
    
    Tattling is when you do not use the
     "stop" and "walk away" steps before
     "talking" to an adult

    Tattling is when your goal is to get the
     other person in trouble
                                                Baseline          Acquisition      Full BP-PBS Implementation

                                                                                                                 Rob

                                                                                                                        School 1



     Number of Incidents of Bullying Behavior                                                                   Bruce




                                                                                                                                   Scott Ross, University of Oregon
                                                                                                                Cindy
                                                                                                                        School 2



                                                                                                                Scott




                                                                                                                Anne
                                                                                                                        School 3




                                                                                                                 Ken




29                                                         3.14                 School Days          1.88       .88         72%
                    22% decrease


     21% increase




                                         Scott Ross, University of Oregon
30                  BP-PBS, Scott Ross
                    22% decrease


     21% increase




31                  BP-PBS, Scott Ross
Implementation: What We’ve Learned
  You need a team (PBIS Team) to monitor implementation


  Deliver the intervention with sufficient intensity (keep the
   conversation going)
    ◦ Make it visible

  Facilitate active participation from the students and keep it
   real!


  Solicit feedback from the staff and maintain staff involvement
Stop, Walk, Talk!



 Say,    Walk away   Talk to an
“Stop”                 adult
Fidelity of Implementation
The purpose of fidelity of implementation checklists
 are to:

   Track the progress of implementation of the
    intervention
   Provide a reminder of the steps that staff take in
    responding to bullying behaviors
   Assess whether or not the intervention is being
    delivered as intended
Fidelity of Implementation
Faculty Self-Assessment: Fidelity assessed
 using a 5-item checklist
  Completed 2-3X by teachers and supervising
   staff

Implementation Checklist: Completed by
 coordinating team to monitor implementation
 of all components
Implementation Checklist
Faculty Self-Assessment
Student Survey
Purpose:
  Assess students’ perceptions of their school
   environment and their responses to bullying
   and harassment behaviors.
  It may also be used to collect pre- and post-
   intervention data, to assess if
   implementation of Expect Respect has an
   effect on the way students’ view school safety.
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40
                                                                               Pre-Post Surveys in 25 elementary schools




                                                                   Pre-BPPBS

                                                      Post-BPPBS
Middle School Case Study




                      Good, McIntosh, & Gietz, 2011


                                              41

				
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