BUBBLE POWER

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					   SEMINAR
     ON
BUBBLE POWER
THE REVOLUTIONARY
      NEW
 ENERGY SOURCE
        BY:
              BHUSHAN.C
              ROLL.NO.09
              B.E(E&TC)
INTRODUCTION
n   Sonofusion Research team from various
    organizations have joined forces to create
    acoustic fusion technology energy consortium
    (AFTEC) to promote the development of
    sonofusion.
n   It was derived from a related phenomenon,
    sonoluminescence.
n   Sonofusion involves tiny bubbles imploded by
    sound waves can make hydrogen nuclei fuse-and
    may one day become a revolutionary new energy
    source.
SONOLUMINESCENCE
n   When a gas bubble in liquid is excited by
    ultrasonic acoustic waves, it can emit short
    flashes of light suggestive of extreme
    temperatures inside the bubble.

n   These flashes of light, known as
    ‘sonoluminescence’, occur as the bubble
    implodes, or cavitates.

n   Chemical reactions occurs .
     THE IDEA OF SONOFUSION

n   Technically known as acoustic inertial confinement
    fusion.

n   In this piezoelectric crystal attached to a liquid-filled
    flask send pressure waves through the fluid, exciting
    the motion of tiny gas bubbles.

n   High temperatures and pressure speculated at the
    bubble core .

n   This leading to conditions suitable for thermonuclear
    fusion.
EXPERIMENTAL SET UP
BASIC REQUIREMENTS
n   Pyrex flask
n   Vacuum pump
n   Piezoelectric crystal
n   Wave generator
n   Amplifier
n   Neutron generator
n   Neutron and gamma ray detector
n   Photomultiplier
n   Microphone & speaker
HOW SONOFUSION WORKS

n   Action of vacuum pump.

n   Fill the flask with deuterated acetone.

n   For initiation an oscillating voltage of 20kHz
    applied to the ring.

n   Fire a pulsed neutron generator.
ACTION IN THE FLASK

Stage (1)

Neutrons flying through
the flask create a bubble
cluster in the deuterated
acetone liquid.
    Stage (2)


n   The negative pressure in
    the liquid makes the
    bubbles swell 100000
    times in size (from nano
    to millimeter-scale).
Stage (3)


n   The liquid pressure
    turns positive and
    compresses the
    bubble, causing them
    to implode with great
    violence.
Stage(4)

n   The implosion creates
    an instantaneous
    pressure of 10 trillion
    kilopascals and
    temperature of more
    than 100 million
    degree C, making the
    deuterium fuse.
         FUSION REACTION




n   Deuterium-Deuterium fusion has two probable
    outputs, helium and a 2.45-MeV neutron or tritium
    and a proton.
n   The energy of 2.45MeV neutron can be harnessed in
    a reactor to create water vapor &drive an electricity
    generator.
         EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT
       TABLETOP NUCLEAR FUSION
               DEVICE
n   We gather two kinds of evidence that the
    deuterium is fusing.

n   The first is by measuring levels of another
    hydrogen isotope tritium

n   The second is neutron emissions detected by
    the neutron detector.
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
OTHER APPROACHES

n   Mainly two types:

       Ø Laser beam technique.



       Ø Magnetic confinement fusion
          ADVANTAGES

n   It is self sustaining.
n   Easily control.
n   Produce more energy than it consumes.
n   Low cost.
n   Easily available raw materials.
n   Environmental friendly.
          APPLICATIONS
n   The technology might one day, in theory, lead to a new
    source of energy. It may result in a new class of low cost
    energy.

n   Compact detectors for security applications.

n   To analyze molecular structure of materials.

n   Machines that cheaply manufacture new synthetic
    materials & efficiently produce tritium, which is used for
    medical imaging to watch dials.
FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

n   Fully self-sustained.




                    neutrons
Contd…


n   To create a full-size electricity producing
    nuclear generator.
CONCLUSION

n   For more than half a century,
    thermonuclear fusion has held out the
    promise of cheap, clean and virtually
    limitless energy.
REFERENCE

n IEEEspectrum ,MAY 2005.
n www.purdue.edu

n www.iter.org

n www.washington.edu
THANK YOU

				
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