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					MANUFACTURING
                         Introduction
§ Consumers are people who buy and use the items made in factories – soap,
  food, shoes, cars, and books
§ Industrial revolution in late 1700s – new methods of manufacturing
§ The first factories in the world made textiles in England and Scotland
  between 1750 and 1800
§ Factory’s power usually came from rivers that turned water wheels
§ James Watt later designed a steam engine that could operate machines in
  factories
§ Manufacturing is the application of physical and chemical processes to alter
  the geometry, properties, and/or appearance of a starting material (raw or
  semi finished) to make parts or products
§ Manufacturing also includes assembly of multiple parts to make products
§ A sequence of operations adds value to the material by changing its shape or
  properties                                                                2
           Introduction




                                   Tools & Machines
                     Information
                                   Materials



                                   Energy
                                   Capital
            People




                                                      Time
Starting                      Manufacturing                  Processed
Material                        Process                        Part




                                                                         3
             Manufacturing Industries
§ An industry/company may not span the whole cycle of manufacturing –
  crude raw material to the finished product
§ Industry consists of enterprises and organizations that produce or supply
  goods and services
§ Industries can be categorized as basic producers, converter or fabricator and
  service industries
§ The first three categories form a connecting chain
§ Basic producers cultivate and exploit natural resources and transform these
  into raw materials – e.g. steel producers
§ Converters take the output of the basic producer and transform these raw
  materials into various industrial products and some consumer items – e.g.
  producers of sheet-metals and plastics
§ Fabricators fabricate and assemble final products – e.g. manufacturers of
  automobiles, appliances and garments
                                                                            4
            Manufacturing Industries
§ Service industry works in parallel with the other three and constitutes the
  service sector of the economy

              Basic Producers    Converters and Fabricators            Service


                Agriculture     Aerospace         Appliances      Repair/Maintenance
                 Petroleum      Automotive      Pharmaceuticals       Education
                  Fishing       Beverages         Publishing            Hotel
                  Mining        Chemicals           Textiles           Tourism
                 Forestry       Electronics     Tire and Rubber     Transportation




                                                                                       5
            Manufacturing Industries
§ Another classification of manufacturing firms may be by the quantity of the
  products they make
§ Job shop production, batch production and mass production




                                                                          6
         Resources for Manufacturing
§ Companies use a complex but coordinated setup of all the basic resources
§ People
   – Large companies employ a huge workforce because they manufacture several products
     at the same time
   – People to put forward the requirement of a new product
   – Research engineers and design engineers/drafters
   – Development engineers decide the steps of manufacturing the product
   – They make a prototype (a test version of the product ) of the new product before going
     onto the full scale or mass production
   – Production engineers implement the plan given by development department
   – Hundreds of laymen workers work in the production department
   – These workers may be working on or repairing and maintaining the machines
   – Skilled and qualified people are required for quality control
   – Planning, managing warehouses, dispatching etc
   – Marketing and distribution of the product in the local and international markets
                                                                                       7
          Resources for Manufacturing
§ Information
   –   Trends in the market
   –   Different type of materials, their costs and quality standards
   –   Mechanical drawings of different parts
   –   Knowledge of manufacturing processes
   –   Companies may launch new research projects in collaboration with universities
§ Materials
   – It is not always a raw material – materials in the natural state, e.g. iron ore, trees, and
     cotton
   – Steel sheets come from iron ingots made from coal, limestone and iron ore
   – Companies often make a trade-off between the cost and the quality of a material



                                                                                               8
         Resources for Manufacturing
§ Tools and Machines
   – A tool changes the shape of material or fastens it together
   – Hand tools are those that use the power of our hand or arm – hammer and pliers
   – A power tool uses a small motor and is usually held in our hands – Electric drills
   – Jigs and fixtures facilitate the process of manufacturing – devices used to locate and
     hold work pieces.
   – Machines are usually operated by electric motors – bending, cutting, drilling, grinding,
     and hammering
   – Modern manufacturing processes run under program and feedback control




                                                                                          9
                                A jig used in carpentry shop
          Resources for Manufacturing
§ Energy
   –   Mostly in the form of electricity
   –   Thermal power – electricity from fossil fuels, i.e. coal, oil and natural gas
   –   Own power source or near the government power supply – low transmission costs
   –   A chemical plant can use its waste heat energy to generate steam – co-generation
§ Capital
   – Buy land, build factories, purchase equipment, pay workers, maintain machines, and
     advertise their products
   – A company may sell shares of stock
   – Capital may also come from a venture capitalist
   – Venture capital is money used to finance the costs of starting a new company
§ Time
   – Productivity is how quickly and cheaply a product is made
   – F. W. Taylor suggested the idea of scientific management – study every movement that
     a worker made
                                                                                          10
                    Industrial Materials
§ Four basic categories – metals, ceramics wood and polymers
§ Other useful materials are natural rubber/leather, glass, cotton, silk and wool
§ Criteria for selecting the right material – properties of the material, its
  deterioration-rate and its cost
§ Manufacturing process that can be used to make products depend on the
  mechanical and physical properties of the materials
§ Metals
   – Alloys are composed of two or more elements
   – Metals can be divided into two basic groups: (1) ferrous, and (2) nonferrous
   – Steel contains 0.02 to 2.11 % carbon. It may also have manganese, chromium and nickel
     to enhance the properties of the metal
   – Cast iron is an alloy of iron, carbon (2 to 4 %) and silicon (0.5 to 3 %)
   – Gray cast iron is used in blocks and heads of internal combustion engines
                                                                                     11
                    Industrial Materials
§ Ceramics
   – Compounds of metallic (or semi metallic) and nonmetallic elements – oxygen, nitrogen,
     ad carbon
   – Traditional ceramics – clay for brick, tile and pottery, silica for glass products and
     alumina and silicon carbide for abrasives used for grinding
   – Newer ceramics – tungsten carbide and titanium carbide for cutting tools and grinding
     abrasives
   – Crystalline ceramics are formed from powders and then sintered
   – Sintering – heating to a temperature below the melting point to achieve bonding
     between the powders




                                                                                      12
                  Industrial Materials
§ Wood
  – Natural wood can be classified into two forms – hardwood and softwood
  – Hardwood – trees that lose their leaves in winter, such as maple, oak and walnut
  – Softwood – evergreen trees such as fir, pine and redwood
  – Plywood is made by gluing together a number of thin veneers or plies of softwood or
    hardwood. There is always an odd number of veneers
  – Hardboard is made from wood fiber extracted from chips and pulped wood waste – a
    cheaper option than plywood




                           Plywood                Hardboard                        13
                   Industrial Materials
§ Polymers
   – A compound formed of repeating structural units
   – They consist of carbon plus one or more other elements such as hydrogen, nitrogen,
     oxygen, and chlorine
   – Thermoplastic polymers soften when heated and when cooled, they are hard again –
     polyethylene bags, PVC pipes and nylon
   – Thermoset polymers char and burn when heated – plastic cups and dishes made of
     melamine.




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posted:7/5/2013
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