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INTRODUCTION TO EXPLOSIVES

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INTRODUCTION TO EXPLOSIVES Powered By Docstoc
					INTRODUCTION TO
EXPLOSIVES
Types of Energetic Materials

 Pyrotechnics
 Propellants
  n   Unconfined, referred to as Propellants
  n   Confined, referred to as Low Explosives
 Explosives
  n   Primary
  n   Secondary
       w Cap Sensitive
       w Blasting Agent
Types of Explosions
  1. Mechanical
  2. Chemical
  3. Nuclear
Types of Explosions
 HIGH ORDER vs. LOW ORDER
  n   Applies to High Explosives
  n   Functions as designed vs. fails to fully detonate


 CAUSES OF LOW ORDER DETONATIONS
  n   Deterioration of Explosives
  n   Lack of Continuity in Explosives
  n   Inadequate Initiation
Explosive Propagation

 Deflagration
  n   Thermal Radiation perpetuates the reaction
  n   Subsonic Reaction
 Detonation
  n   Chemical Decomposition characterized by
      the presence of a shock wave
  n   Supersonic Speed of Reaction
Explosive Effects

  HEAT / FIRE
  n   Fireball generated by reaction
  n   Heat accompanying fireball
  FRAGMENTATION
  n   Fragmentation of container for explosives and
      other nearby objects
  PRESSURE
  n   Gas generated by conversion of solid energetic
      material to gaseous state
Explosive Properties
Pressure
  Positive Pressure
  n   Short Duration
  n   High Pressure Peaks
  n   Out from Seat of
      Blast
  Negative Pressure
  n   Long Duration
  n   Low Pressure
      Difference
  n   In Towards Seat of
      Blast
Positive And Negative Pressure
Explosives Characteristics

  Density
  n   Weight per unit volume
  Brisance
  n   Shattering Power
  Velocity of Detonation
  n   Speed of reaction
  Sensitivity
  n   Ease of initiation from Impact, Friction or Blasting
      Cap
Velocities of Detonation




 * Velocity depends upon confinement, density, booster and charge diameter
   Explosives Initiation
       A THREE STAGE EXPLOSIVE TRAIN




Typically uses small amounts of highly sensitive explosives to initiate
larger amounts of less sensitive explosives.
Initiation Systems
Initiation Systems
Non-Electrical: Burning

              Safety Fuse or Time
              Fuse
               n   Construction
                   w Black Powder Core
                   w Layers of Interwoven Cotton
                     and/or Jute fibers
                   w Tar
                   w Wax or Plastic
Initiation Systems
Non-Electrical: Burning

  Safety Fuse
   n Appearance

     w Typically is
       monochromatic
     w May have plastic
       coat or wax coat
       over textiles
Initiation Systems
Non-Electrical: Burning

  Fuse Detonators
   n   Shell
        w Aluminum Alloy
   n   Primary Charge:
        w Lead Styphnate/Lead
          Azide Mixture (typical)
   n   Base Charge:
        w PETN or RDX
Initiation Systems
Electric Detonators
  TYPES OF INITIATORS
  n   Match
  n   Bridgewire
  n   Exploding Bridgewire
  TYPES OF DELAY
  n   Pyrotechnic
  n   Electronic
Initiation Systems
Electric Detonators
  INSTANTANEOUS
   n   SEISMIC
        w High precision instantaneous detonator

  SHORT PERIOD DELAY
   n   Typically delay periods of 25-100 ms per interval
  LONG PERIOD DELAY
   n   Typically delay periods of 250 - 1000 ms per
       interval
Detonators
Electric Match
 Utilize a thin wire dipped into
 pyrotechnic mixture and
 coated with lacquer
 Predominant type of electric
 detonator currently in
 production
Detonators
Bridgewire
 Use thin wire in loose pack of pyrotechnic
 material
 Higher precision than match, but more difficult
 to manufacture
Detonator Construction
Shell
  ALUMIMUM
  n   Most Common
  BRONZE
  n   Used for Permissible
      Applications
  COPPER
  n   Used for Permissible
      Applications
  PAPER
Detonator Construction
Leg Wires
 Insulation
  n   Protect leg wires against short circuits
 Conductors
  n   Copper
  n   Tinned Copper
  n   Iron
  n   Tinned Iron
Detonator Construction
Plug and Shell Markings

  PLUGS
  n   Plastic or Rubber
  n   Premolded or
      injected
  MARKINGS
  n   Warning Statements
  n   Delay Markings
       w Stamped on base
Detonator Construction
Other Components
 DELAY TUBES
  n   Steel or Lead
  n   Contain Pyrotechnic Delay Compound
 Primary Explosives
  n   Lead Azide
  n   Lead Styphnate
  n   Diazodinitrophenol (DDNP or Diazo)
 Secondary Explosives
  n   PETN
  n   RDX
Detonator Construction
Identification Points
•Crimp Style
•Leg Wire Colors
•Closure Plug Material & Construction
•Explosive Materials Used
•Shell Material
•Physical Dimensions
Initiation Systems
Non-Electric Shock Tube Detonators
Initiation Systems
Non-Electric Shock Tube Detonators
  Shock Tube
   n   External Layers
        w Polyethylene
   n   Internal Layer
        w Surylyn (tm)


  Explosive Composition
   n   HMX
   n   Aluminium
   n   1 lb/6,500 ft.
Initiation Systems
Non-Electric Shock Tube Detonators

  NONEL CAP CONSTRUCTION
Propellants
Propellants
Black Powder

  History
  n   Oldest Explosive Known
  n   Used as both propellant and explosive
  Composition
  n   Potassium Nitrate, Sulfur, Charcoal
  Appearance
  n   Granular Black Powder
  n   Four Grain Sizes
       w Fg, FFg, FFFg, FFFFg
Propellants
Pyrodex

  History
  n   Subsitute for Black Powder
  n   Equal on Volume Basis
  n   Less Corrosive
  Formulation
  n   Perchlorate Based formulation
  Use
  n   Small arms
  n   Equivalent sizes to Black Powder and in Pellet
      form
Propellants
Smokeless Powders

  History
  n   Single Base developed in 1884
  n   Double Base (Ballistite) developed in 1886.
  n   Double Base (Cordite) developed in 1888.
  n   Developed to replace Black Powder
  n   Used as propellant for ammunition from
      small arms to cannon
                 Propellants
             Smokeless Powder

Types
n   Single Base - Nitrocellulose (NC) base
     w Small Arms Ammunition
n   Double Base - Nitroglycerine (NG) and
    Nitrocellulose (NC) base
     w Small Arms and larger ordnance ammunition
n   Triple Base - Nitroglycerine, Nitrocellulose and
    Nitroguanadine base
     w Military rockets
                     Propellants
                 Smokeless Powder
Physical Appearance
n   Extruded Propellants
      w Usually in the form of a cylinder, length greater
        than diameter
n   Flake or Disc Propellants
      w Extruded Propellants cut into thin wafers. Width
        greater than length
n   Ball Propellants
      w Spherical shape, sometimes flattened
n   Sheet-Cut Flake or Ribbon Cut Propellants
      w Material rolled flat and cut into diamond or
        square shape
Propellants/Pyrotechnics
         Improvised Low Explosives
 Potassium Chlorate Mixtures
  n   KCl03 And Sugar
       w Burns inefficiently and less powerful than Black
         Powder
  n   Flash Powders

 Potassium Perchlorate Mixtures
  n   Flash Powders
       w Typically used in fireworks compositions
Explosives
Pure Explosive Compounds
  Organics                  Inorganics
  n   Carbon/Hydrogen       n   Do NOT have
      Bonds form basis of       hydrocarbons
      molecule                  forming structure of
                                molecule.
                            n   Usually ionic acids or
                                bases, or salts
                            n   Usually primary
                                explosives
Pure Explosives Compounds
Organics

  Aromatic                       Aliphatic
   n   Monosubstituted           n   Nitrate Esters
       Trinitrobenzenes (TNBs)        w Nitroglycerine
        w TNT                         w Ethylene Glycol
        w TNB                           Dinitrate (EGDN)
        w Tetryl                      w Pentaerythritol
        w Picric Acid                   Tetranitrate (PETN)
   n   Polysubstituted TNBs           w Methyl Nitrate
        w Trinitroresorcinol     n   Nitramines
        w Lead Styphnate              w Cyclonite or RDX
        w TATB                        w Octogen (HMX)
Pure Explosive Compounds
Inorganics

  Fulminates               Ammonium Nitrate
   n   Mercury Fulminate
   n   Silver Fulminate
  Azides
   n   Lead Azide
   n   Silver Azide
Explosives
  Commercial Explosives
  n   Manufactured products used in explosives industry
  Military Explosives
  n   Demolition charges and common ordnance in use
      by military forces of U.S.
  Improvised Explosives
  n   Compounds which can be manufactured by
      individual or group
Commercial High
Explosives
 Over 5 billion pounds used per year in U.S.
 Most of it is Ammonium Nitrate based bulk
 explosive
 Used in less than 5% of all bombing incidents
 Commercial high explosives are designed for
 safety in manufacturing, storage, and handling,
 consistency and predictability of performance,
 low cost, and shelf life as a secondary concern
Commercial High
Explosives
 Dynamite
 n First commercially sucessful high

   explosive product
 n Invented by Alfred Nobel in 1866

 n Most widely used explosive from 1860’s

   to 1940’s
 n Wide range of powers available across

   various types
Commercial High
Explosives
 Dynamite
 n   Straight Dynamite - Nitroglycerine added to
     Kiselguhr (inert earth)
 n   Gelatin Dynamite - Nitrocellulose added to
     Nitroglycerine (also known as Blasting
     Gelatin)
 n   Ammonia Dynamite - Ammonium Nitrate
     replaces Kiselguhr and adds energy,
     reduces cost, less water resistant
Commercial High
Explosives
Dynamite
n   Ammonia Gelatin - Adds nitrocellulose to
    Ammonia dynamite to form gelled product, more
    expensive, more water resistant.
n   Semi-Gelatin Dynamite - Less than ideal amount
    of Nitrocellulose added product. Less expensive
    than gelatin dynamite, almost as good water
    resistance.
n   Permissible Dynamite - Approved for
    underground blasting with reduced flame and
    fumes. Specialized products typically used in
    coal mines.
Commercial High
Explosives
  Dynamite
  n   Packaging
       w Convolute Paper Shell




       w Spiral Wound Paper Shell
Commercial High
Explosives
                        BINARY
Composition:
 n   Ammonium Nitrate & Nitromethane
Packaging
 n   Plastic Tubes (see right)
 n   Plastic Bags
Performance
 n   VoD: approx. 18,000 fps
Uses:
 n   Limited Construction, Farm Use
Commercial High
Explosives
        WATER GEL/SLURRIES
 Developed as Non-Nitroglycerine alternative
 to dynamite
 Used in bulk (non-cap sensitive) formulations
 starting in 1958
 Used in packaged (cap sensitive) formulations
 starting in 1970
 Consists of Oxidizer, Fuel, Water, Thickener,
 Gelling Agent and Sensitizer
 Less sensitive, more economical, and more
 efficient than dynamites
Commercial High
Explosives
       WATER GEL/SLURRIES
 Packaged in Plastic Film Cartridges
 (chubs)
 Can be insensitive at low temperatures
Commercial High
Explosives
              EMULSIONS
 Introduced as Blasting Agents in 1968
 Extremely fine Ammonium Nitrate particles
 suspended in fuel and water and stabilized
 against separating with emulsifying agent
 More efficient, powerful, and stable than
 water gels
 Equivalent to dynamites in many formulations
 Less sensitive than dynamites to heat, shock,
 friction and more economical to manufacture
           Commercial High
             Explosives
                EMULSIONS
Packaged in either paper shells (as
dynamites) or plastic film cartridges
Creamy appearance of material
n   May be colored white, gray or pink
    depending on manufacturer
Commercial High
Explosives
                   BOOSTERS
  High Power Explosive(s) mass
  produced to set off less sensitive
  bulk explosives
  Usually TNT cast with other, more
  sensitive explosives (PETN or
  RDX)
  Usually has detonating
  cord/detonator wells precast into
  explosive
  Blasting Cap or Detonating Cord
  Sensitive
Commercial High
Explosives
          DETONATING CORD
 Textile Fibers wrapped
 around explosive core
 Usually PETN, but may
 use RDX, HMX or other
 explosives for special
 applications
 Usually multi-colored
 fiber combinations
 Various diameters from Commercial 50 gpf Det Cord
 7.5 gpf to 400 gpf
Commercial High
Explosives
           BULK EXPLOSIVES
 Loaded by pneumatic blower or screw drive
 from transport truck directly into hole.
 Most common use form of commercial
 explosives in United States
 Usually classified as Blasting Agent
 Usually Ammonium Nitrate based
 Less powerful than cartridged explosives
 Lower water resistance (in some types)
Commercial High
Explosives
  Bulk Loading Operations




  Blasting Operations
Commercial High
Explosives
                BULK EXPLOSIVES
  ANFO (Ammonium Nitrate /Fuel Oil)
  n   94% Ammonium Nitrate, 6% Fuel Oil
  Emulsions and/or Water Gels
  n   Greater power and water resistance than ANFO
  Heavy ANFO (Mixture of Emulsion and ANFO)
  n   More water resistance, greater power than ANFO,
      less than bulk Emulsions
Improvised Explosives

  INTRODUCTION
  n   A suitable oxidizer and suitable fuel,
      properly mixed, can form an improvised
      high explosive
Improvised Explosives

  Acetone Peroxide
  n   Acetone, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Hydrochloric
      Acid
  n   Extremely Sensitive to heat, shock and friction
  Hexamethylene Triperoxide Diamine (HMTD)
  n   Hexamine (heating tablets), Hydrogen Peroxide
      and Citric Acid
  n   Extremely Sensitive to heat, shock and friction
Improvised Explosives

 Ammonium Nitrate Base
 n   Cold Pack
      w Ammonium Nitrate and Aluminum Powder
 n   ANNIE
      w Used by some foreign terrorist groups in lieu of other high
        explosives
 n   HOMEMADE C-4
      w As described in underground literature, mixture of Ammonium
        Nitrate and Nitromethane
      w Actually similar to binary explosive
Improvised Explosives

  Ammonium Nitrate Base
  n   Ammonium Nitrate and Charcoal (88/12)
       w Provided in Anarchist Cookbook
  n   Other mixtures with fuel source
Improvised Explosives

  Other Compounds
  n   Liquid Oxygen and Carbon Black (Charcoal)
       w Used commercially during the 1950s
Improvised Explosives

 POTASSIUM CHLORATE
  n   POOR MAN’S C-4
      w Mixture of KClO3 and Petroleum Jelly
      w Approximately 90/10 mixture of ingredients
        Improvised Explosives

General Considerations
n   Any unknown material should be treated with
    extreme caution
n   Improvised explosive mixtures can be more
    sensitive than commercial equivalents due to
    poor quality control
n   Bulk recovered suspect materials should be
    destroyed under court order as soon as
    possible
     w Preserve small samples for laboratory analysis
Improvised Explosives

  Sources of Information
  n   Internet
       w Usually information is of poor quality with
         incomplete safety instructions and inaccurate
         directions
  n   “Underground Publications”
       w May be more accurate, but still provides
         incomplete safety information
       w Quality varies depending upon publication
Military Explosives

  Explosives used by the military can be
  broken down into two classifications by
  use
  n   Demolition Materials
  n   Ordnance
  Military Explosives are designed for long
  shelf life, high shattering power
  (brisance), and insensitivity to impact
Military Explosives
  Trinitrotolulene (TNT)
  n   Packaged in cast 1/4 lb, 1/2 lb and 1 lb
      blocks with adapters
  n   Used for general demolition purposes
  n   Cardboard packaging with metal end plates
Military Explosives
  Military Dynamite
  n   RDX / TNT Mixture packaged similarly to
      commercial dynamite products
  n   Used for general demolition purposes
  n   Being phased out of military supply
      channels
Military Explosives
  Composition C-4
  n   Plastic demolition explosive which started
      development in WWII
  n   Composition 91% RDX, 9%
      polyisobutylene
  n   Plastic film wrapper with tape backing
Military Explosives
  Sheet Explosives
  n   Explosives such as RDX and/or PETN
      combined into molten rubber mixture to
      form a thin flexible sheet of explosive
  n   Military uses two variants:




       Flex-Ex                   Detasheet
Military Explosives
Hand Grenades
n   Mk II Fragmentation (Pineapple)
     w TNT Filler
     w Cast Serrations on Exterior
     w Uneven Fragmentation

n   M26 Fragmentation (Lemon)
     w Comp B Filler
     w Pre-notched wire for
       fragmentation
     w Difficult to throw well
Military Explosives
  Hand Grenades
  n   M67 Fragmentation (Baseball)
       w Comp B Filler
       w Prenotched Fragmentation in Body
Military Explosives

  Rifle Grenades
     w Designed to slip on muzzle
       of rifle and be fired with
       blank cartridge
     w Obsolete, but training
       versions may be
       purchased at gun shows
       and filled with improvised
       explosive
Military Explosives
 Military Pyrotechnics
  n   M8 Smoke Grenade
      w White Screening Smoke



  n   M18 Smoke Grenade
      w Colored Screening/Signaling
        Smoke
Military Explosives
  Incendiary Grenades
  n   Thermite
      w Iron Oxide/Aluminum Filler
      w Burns at over 1200 deg F
      w Used for destroying equipment


  n   White Phosphorus
      w Used to signal and/or initiate fires
      w White phosphorus spontaneously
        burns upon exposure to air.
Military Explosives
  Mines
  n   M18 Claymore
       w Directional Mine
       w 1.6 lb Composition C-
         4 Main Charge
       w Steel Ball Bearings as
         Fragmentation
       w 60 degree
         fragmentation fan
OTHER EXPLOSIVES
 Explosive Mixtures
 n   Mixture of two or more pure explosives
      w Blends include:
         n   Pentolite (PETN/TNT)
         n   Composition B (RDX/TNT)
         n   Octol (HMX/TNT)
         n   Amatol (Ammonium Nitrate/TNT)
         n   Ammonal (Ammonium Nitrate/TNT/Aluminum)
Blasting Accessories



        Electric Blasting Machines




           Safety Fuse Igniters
Blasting Accessories
Reference Materials
 Military Manuals
  n   TM 9-1300-214: Military Explosives
  n   FM 5-250: Explosives and Demolitions
 Commercial Sources
  n   Explosives Engineering by Paul Cooper
  n   Introduction to the Technology of Explosives -
      Paul Cooper and Stanley Kurowski
  n   Explosives, 4th edition - Rudolph Meyer
  n   Blasters’ Handbook - International Society of
      Explosives Engineers

				
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