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NAPLaN Persuasive Writing Hot Tips Department of Education and

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					                       Supporting
                Persuasive
                 Writing:
                              the
                    NAPLaN
                          context




Consultation Draft October, 2010
Introduction

This resource supports teachers with a structured, explicit approach to the
teaching of persuasive writing, specifically in relation to the NAPLaN context.
This resource includes analysis of persuasive writing texts, a pedagogy to
support students’ text construction, templates for student writing and
resources such as teaching posters that can be displayed in classrooms.
These materials and the accompanying professional learning will continually
be improved in response to feedback.

Background
This resource is based on the ongoing Text Construction and Text Analysis
Research Project commenced in 2006, involving teachers from a range of
schools, ESL Regional Consultants and University consultants.

The Text Construction and Text Analysis Research Project has been exploring:
 what happens in the teaching and learning process - from before students
   construct a text, to after a text has been assessed and analysed
 the link between teaching practice and student writing
 strategies for supporting the development of student competence in
   writing for a range of purposes and contexts
 embedding explicit teaching of language and literacy in classroom
   teaching.

More recently the research has centred around understanding the NAPLaN
testing conditions as specific conditions for writing. A critical feature of the
NAPLaN writing context is that students are required to complete the task on
an unknown topic/context within a set time limit. Based on the findings of the
Research Project, students can be supported to improve their performance
through explicit teaching and scaffolding of persuasive writing in similar
conditions.

We hope you find these resources helpful to understanding and supporting
your students’ writing of persuasive texts.




Giuseppe Mammone                               Pam Boyle
ESL Regional Consultant                        ESL Regional Consultant
Western Adelaide, & Eyre And Western           Eastern Adelaide & Adelaide Hills




October, 2010




                                                                                   1
Contents
                                                                              Page
Introduction                                                                    1
Contents                                                                        2
Naplan 2011 Writing                                                            3
   Change Of Form Of Writing                                                  4
   Sample Writing Task                                                        4
   Descriptions Of The Writing Criteria                                       5



Supporting Students With The Naplan Context                                     6
   Understanding The Context                                                   6
   Aligning Teacher And Student Understandings                                 6
   Time Management                                                             7
   A Teaching And Learning Cycle                                               8
   Naplan Persuasive Writing Hot Tips                                          9


Reproducible Resources For Classroom Use                                       10
   My Persuasive Writing Plan                                                 11
   My Persuasive Writing Plan Template                                        12
   Naplan Writing Guidelines                                                  13
   Time Management Proofreading And Editing                                   14



Teaching Resources                                                             15
   Sample Teaching And Learning Cycles For Persuasive Writing                16-17
   Using Rhetorical And Cohesive Conjunctions With Junior Primary Learners    18
   Suggested Pre Teaching Scripts                                            19-20
   Suggested Post Teaching Script                                             21
   Student Sample Pre Teaching Text (To Be Included)
   Student Sample Post Teaching Text (To Be Included)
   Model Texts                                                                22-33
   Moving From Whole Text To Language                                          34
   Text Analysis                                                               35
   Argument Rubric                                                           36-42
   Whole Class Text Analysis Findings                                          43
   Text Analysis And Scales                                                    44
   Extra Resources And Support
                                                                                45
   Aligning A Scope And Sequence To Differentiated Teaching And Learning
                                                                                46


Glossary                                                                      47-51

Acknowledgements                                                               52




                                                                                    2
NAPLAN 2011 Writing

Change of form of writing (genre)
Extract from the NAPLaN website accessed 27th Sept 2010
< http://www.naplan.edu.au/verve/_resources/NAPLAN_2011_Writing_Fact_Sheet.pdf>

Students learn to write a number of forms of writing at school. The three main forms of
writing (also called genres) taught at school are narrative, informative and persuasive.

In previous NAPLAN Writing tests, students in Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 were required to write
a story, which is one type of narrative.

In the 2011 NAPLAN Writing test, students in Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 will write a persuasive
text.

Persuasive writing is writing in which the writer needs to convince someone of his or her
point of view or opinion. For example, a student may be asked whether reading books or
watching TV is better. The student would present his or her opinion on this topic and
would include reasons for that opinion. In writing this way, the student is attempting to
persuade the reader to agree with his or her opinion.

The decision to change from a narrative to a persuasive task was taken by all Australian
Education Ministers at a Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development
and Youth Affairs (MCEECDYA) meeting on 15 April 2010.

The change has come about for two main reasons. Firstly, persuasive writing is used
increasingly as students progress through school. Testing this form of writing means that
NAPLAN is testing a broader range of what is taught in the curriculum. Secondly, the
change of genre means that the task is less predictable.

NAPLAN test provide a point-in-time picture of how a child is progressing. Teachers have
a full understanding of their students’ ability to write persuasively and the NAPLAN test
serves to provide additional feedback.

Persuasive writing will be marked in a way that closely parallels the marking of narrative
writing.

The NAPLAN website (www.naplan.edu.au) has further information about the change of
writing task in 2011. A sample persuasive writing task, the skill focus for each of the
assessment criteria and responses to frequently asked questions are available.

All education systems across Australia have been notified of this change. Principals will
communicate this change to their schools and teachers will support their students so
that they are familiar with this form of writing before the NAPLAN tests in May 2011.




                                                                                       3
NAPLaN Marking Criteria
Extract from the NAPLaN website accessed 27th Sept 2010
< http://www.naplan.edu.au/writing_2011_-_domains.html>

In the 2011 NAPLAN Writing test, students will write a persuasive text. A sample task is
provided on the following page.

Please note:
* The same task is used for students in Years 3, 5, 7 and 9. However, the lines in the
response booklet for Year 3 students are more widely spaced than for Years 5, 7 and 9.

Students’ writing will be marked by assessors who have received intensive training in the
application of a set of ten (10) writing criteria.


Sample Writing Task




                                                                                      4
Descriptions of the writing criteria

Persuasive genre

 Audience              The writer’s capacity to orient, engage and persuade the reader

 Text structure        The organisation of the structural components of a persuasive text
                       (introduction, body and conclusion) into an appropriate and effective
                       text structure

 Ideas                 The selection, relevance and elaboration of ideas for a persuasive
                       argument

 Persuasive            The use of a range of persuasive devices to enhance the writer’s
 devices               position and persuade the reader

 Vocabulary            The range and precision of contextually appropriate language
                       choices

 Cohesion              The control of multiple threads and relationships across the text,
                       achieved through the use of grammatical elements (referring words,
                       text connectives, conjunctions) and lexical elements (substitutions,
                       repetitions, word associations)

 Paragraphing          The segmenting of text into paragraphs that assists the reader to
                       follow the line of argument

 Sentence              The production of grammatically correct, structurally sound and
 structure             meaningful sentences

 Punctuation           The use of correct and appropriate punctuation to aid the reading of
                       the text
 Spelling              The accuracy of spelling and the difficulty of the words used




                                                                                          5
Supporting students with the NAPLaN context

Understanding the context

A critical feature of the NAPLaN writing context is that students are required to
complete the task on an unknown topic/context within a set time limit.

The prompt may be familiar.


Aligning teacher and student understandings

Key evidence from the Research Project suggests that where student and teacher
understandings about the writing task and its assessment are not aligned, then
the text constructed by students can deviate significantly from their actual
knowledge and skills.

Students need support in understanding and making connections with the
purpose, structural features of the genre, and how language patterns are shaped
by audience, identity and attitude. The language choices depend on where the
text is based on the following continua:

                                              Audience

close                                                                  distant
familiar                                                         NAPLaN marker
                                              Identity


novice eg student writer                                  expert eg literary author

                                              Attitude

unconvincing                                                            convincing
non-engaging                                                              engaging


The language choices need to be appropriate for the audience, be cognisant of
the desired identity and express an appropriate attitude. Failure to do so will
impact on the student NAPLaN result.

The explicit teaching of the NAPLaN marking criteria should be an integral part of
the teaching and learning cycle.




                                                                                      6
Time management
The teaching of time management skills is crucial to the text construction
process, including text construction for the NAPLaN writing task.        It is
recommended that students practise planning, writing, proofreading and editing
within set time limits. (See time management page 14)

Planning for writing the text
The planning stage of writing should be taught explicitly. This includes generating
key ideas/information about the topic, writing notes or using a graphic organiser
within a genre structure template. This should be practiced within a time limit.
(See writing plans pages 11-13).

Writing
Students should be taught to write what can be best managed in the time. This
may include writing less or limiting the number of arguments. It should also
include practising writing within a time limit so students know what they can
complete within the time constraint.

Proofreading and Editing Techniques
Explicit teaching of proofreading and editing techniques should take place. This
needs to include the whole text level, paragraph level and word level.
Furthermore, the focus should make connections between purpose, structure,
grammar, spelling and punctuation.

Once again, as students will only have 5 minutes to proofread and edit their text,
decisions need to be made around a much narrower and achievable persuasive
writing text. (See proofreading and editing page 14)




                                                                                      7
A Teaching And Learning Cycle

A teaching and learning cycle (TLC) is used to scaffold genre writing. Scaffolding moves
students from being highly supported in the learning process to becoming independent,
gradually withdrawing teacher support as students become increasingly able to complete
a task alone.

The TLC that is used typically involves four stages: building the students’ field of
knowledge, deconstructing model texts and their contexts, joint construction of texts and
independent construction.


This can be represented as:

                                Building the field   Modelling /
                                                     Deconstruction




                                Independent          Joint construction
                                construction




In organising the teaching, learning and assessment program according to the teaching,
learning cycle the following understandings are used:



 In Building the Field, the main objective is to connect with the prior knowledge of
 the students, develop cultural understandings and the everyday and technical
 language related to the topic.

 In Modelling/Deconstruction, the main objective is to develop students’
 understandings of the purpose, structure and language features of the target
 genre.

 In Joint Construction, the teacher and students construct the genre together.
 Through this process, the teacher scaffolds students’ choices and at the same
 time moves them towards independent construction.

 In Independent Construction, students independently construct the genre as the
 summative task for this teaching, learning and assessment program.


The teaching and learning cycle is useful as a framework for teaching because it:
  provides a rationale for decisions about the type and sequence of teaching and
   learning activities
  involves considerable talk about texts, contexts, values and purposes as well as
   schematic structure, language features and grammatical patterns supports students
   to make informed choices in the independent construction.


                                                                                       8
NAPLaN Persuasive Writing Hot Tips

Focus areas for teachers:
 teach the persuasive writing genre using a teaching and learning cycle
    –    provide students with opportunities to develop understandings and make
         connections with the purpose, structural features, and how language
         patterns are shaped by audience, identity and attitude
 teach the NAPLaN persuasive writing marking criteria
    –    get students to practice writing to topics (prompts
 teach time management
    –    practise writing to time (5min planning, 30min writing, 5min proofreading
         and editing)
 practise reading and discussing writing instructions
 teach planning skills for writing
    –    practise planning within a 5 min. time limit
 teach writing to the task
    –    practise writing a one page persuasive text with one or two arguments and
         reasons for and/ or against
    –    teach variation in language (emotive language, intensification,
         foregrounding, naming words, describing words, use of similes,
         metaphors, interesting verbs, circumstances - place, time, manner, tense
         consistency)
    –    practise writing within 30 min
 teach proofreading and editing techniques
    –    practise editing within 5 min
 reassure students before, during and after the experience
 monitor student wellbeing

Key messages for students:
 listen to teacher instructions and ask questions
 remember that the purpose of persuasive writing is to convince the reader to
    accept an opinion. Sometimes it also tries to get the reader to do something
    to create change
    –   make your persuasive text convincing (believable, emotive and to the
        point)
    –   teachers are your audience, so you need to use appropriate language and
        grammar
 plan your text (5min planning, 30min writing, 5min proofreading and editing)
    –   a one page text with title, statement of position, arguments, elaboration,
        conclusion/summary
 write to the topic
    –   write a convincing text for the NAPLaN markers (1 - 2 pages)
    –   make sure you finish within the time limit (only 2 - 3 arguments and
        reasons)
 use a range of appropriate language to convince the audience
 use a new paragraph for each argument
 leave a line between each paragraph
 proofread and edit your work
    - use appropriate punctuation
    –   you only have 5min to check spelling, punctuation, paragraphs
 do your best
 remember, you can talk to your teacher about how you are feeling
                                                                                     9
   Reproducible
  Resources for
  Classroom Use
The following pages can be
   printed as posters for
     classroom display
       or student use.




                             10
             My Persuasive Writing Plan
NAPLaN Persuasive Writing has a time limit, so it needs to be much
shorter than under normal writing conditions.

 The main purpose of an argument is to convince the reader of your
  opinions or point of view

 You need to express a clear, firm position or opinion

 You need to use appropriate language to persuade the reader

 The reader/marker of your argument is a teacher you don’t know,
  so use formal language that is appropriate for teachers

 You may like to include an appeal for action in your conclusion e.g.
  “I urge all students to …”

 Topics for a persuasive text could include:
      “Animals should not be kept in zoos.”
      “Reading books is better than watching television.”
      “Homework is a waste of time.”
      “All schools should show students how to recycle.”
      “School canteens should not sell junk food.”


                     Plan Your Writing
You have 5 minutes to plan your writing. Plan quickly

    think about the topic

    use the Writing Plan

    write your plan in dot points

    plan the introduction, arguments and conclusion

    re-read the prompt

    review the plan



                                                                         11
                       My Persuasive Writing Plan
TITLE:


INTRODUCTION: (State your opinion, provide some background information and preview your arguments.)




ARGUMENT 1: (State your first argument, give your reasons and evidence.)




ARGUMENT 2: (State your second argument, give your reasons and evidence.)




 ARGUMENT 3: (State your third argument, give your reasons and evidence.)




 CONCLUSION: (Restate your opinion and summarise your arguments.)




                                                                                               12
              NAPLaN Writing Guidelines
You have 30 minutes to write your argument.

Paragraphing:
 start a new paragraph for the introduction, each new argument
  and the conclusion
 leave a line between each paragraph
 use different paragraph beginnings e.g.

I firmly believe                Firstly            In addition
It is my firm belief            Secondly           Furthermore
                                Thirdly            Finally
                                                   In conclusion
Sentence construction:
 write in sentences (dot points should only be used in your plan)
 use different sentence beginnings
 use a range of modality that expresses obligation and certainty e.g.
  should, must, never, necessary, essential
 use words about feelings and emotions e.g. angry, travesty,
  disgrace
 use intensifiers and adjectives e.g. extremely harmful, vitally
  important
 use a range of conjunctions e.g. therefore, consequently, for
  instance, including, furthermore
 avoid repetition
 if possible quote experts e.g. scientists, dieticians.

Punctuation:
 use capital letters, commas, full stops, question marks etc.

Spelling:
 say the word
 chunk the sounds
 write the word, think about the spelling

                                                                         13
        Time Management, Proofreading and Editing


The teacher will explain the writing task.
You can ask questions.

Time management

You have 5 minutes to plan your writing:
 re-read the prompts
 think about the topic
 plan quickly and plan the introduction, arguments and conclusion
 write your plan in dot points

You have 30 minutes to write your persuasive text:
 write in sentences and paragraphs
 remember to use appropriate language

    Proofreading and Editing

You have 5 minutes to proofread and edit your persuasive
text:

   Check your spelling and punctuation
   End sentences with a full stop
   Use speech marks if you are quoting someone
   Check tenses
   Check sentence beginnings and interesting language: have you
    used a variety of sequencing words to join and order evidence,
    opinion words, to state beliefs, feeling words to persuade


       Be realistic about what changes can be made in the time.




                                                                     14
    Teaching
    Resources
 The following pages are
examples for teacher use




                           15
Teaching Learning Cycle 1

Topic – Energy reduction

In developing a broader teaching and learning cycle, it is highly recommended that the
following elements in the template below are included.

Pre teaching text construction
Before commencing the teaching cycle ask the students to write an argument on energy
reduction. (See script on pages 19-21) The analysis of the student texts will inform the
content of the teaching and learning cycle.




         Plan an experience eg energy audit     Focus on explicit teaching of
          at school                               persuasive writing aligned to NAPLaN
         Discuss experience                      writing conditions and marking criteria
         Record findings                        Read and discuss model texts (p22-33)
         Identify actions eg how we can         Text analysis with a focus on purpose,
          reduce energy consumption               audience, identity, attitude and
         Build vocabulary about the topic        structure
         View videos, posters etc.              Text analysis focus on language
         Explore a range of topics including     features
          teacher driven and student driven      Reassemble a cut up text into the
                                                  correct sequence



     At the end of the teaching and              Teacher and students jointly
      learning cycle ask students to write an      construct a text about the reduction
      argument “Schools should use less            of energy at home
      energy” under NAPLaN conditions eg.         In groups construct a text about
      with time constraints for planning,          reduction of energy at school or at a
      writing, proofreading and editing.           shopping centre (eg group 1 writes
      (See script on page 21 and                   the introduction, group 2, 3, 4 write
       template on pages 24-25)                    an argument each and group 5
                                                   writes the conclusion




                                                                                            16
Teaching Learning Cycle 2

Topic: Why we should wear shoes / Why we should wear sunhats in the playground




  Why do we wear shoes at school?      Discuss different types of shoes.
  What other shoes can we wear at      Look at magazine pictures of shoes.
   school?                              Group shoes according to different
  What home shoes do we not wear at     criteria such as colour, purpose, size.
   school?
  Teacher models written answers to
   these questions on board.




                                        Write text heading on board. ‘Why
                                         must children wear shoes at school’?
  Ask students to write the text       Ask students to turn question into
   without giving any support.           statement of obligation to make
                                         opening sentence for text
                                        Ask students for first reason. What
                                         word can we use to begin?
                                        Recast students’ language to come
                                         up with an appropriate sentence (see
                                         sequence document) and supporting
                                         argument.
                                        Model rhetorical conjunctions
                                         ‘firstly’, ‘secondly’, ‘finally’.
                                        Recast students’ suggested
                                         reiteration of belief.
                                        Repeat the joint construction with
                                         less input from the teacher on ‘why
                                         children must wear sunhats in the
                                         playground’ .




                                                                                   17
     Using Rhetorical and Cohesive Conjunctions with junior primary learners
     Teaching rhetorical conjunctions (structural conjunctions) like firstly, secondly and finally in opinion writing
     can be taught to very young children. In the structure of an argument, these conjunctions organise the text.

     Example
     Use the Teaching Learning cycle to gather information about shoes.

     A.       Which shoes do you like?
              What shoes are you wearing today?
              Let’s classify shoes? – How? coloured ones/black ones/brown ones ; lace-ups/sandals/gym
              shoes? What other categories or ‘classes’ can students come up with. eg. size, brand.

     B.       Why do you wear shoes at school?
              Do you wear shoes at home? Which home shoes should people not wear at school? eg. party
              shoes, thongs(flip-flops), slippers, gum boots, crocs, etc.

     Write on board ‘Why must you wear shoes at school?’
     After brainstorming and writing notes on board show learners how to construct an opinion essay prompting
     students to give you answers.

     Probing question                              Suggested text                          Further questions and
                                                                                                comments
Let’s turn the question into      All children must wear shoes at school.
a statement.
What is our first reason?         Firstly shoes protect your feet.
What word could I begin
with?
Will the shoes protect your       Firstly wearing shoes protects your feet.               This is a general
feet if you are not wearing                                                               statement. It is called
them? Ha! Ha!                                                                             a topic sentence.
How could we make sure
our readers understand                                                                    Why has protect now
that?                                                                                     got an s on the end?
                                                                                          Explain.

What do the shoes protect         There may be glass or stones that cut your feet.        This is an explanation
feet from?                                                                                and adds to the topic
                                                                                          sentence.
What is our next reason? If       Secondly shoes look nice and are part of the            There are really two
we are writing this reason        school uniform.                                         sentences here. Which
next, what word can we use                                                                is the joining word? If
to mean next after ‘firstly’?                                                             you make the second
                                                                                          sentence separate
                                                                                          what must you add to
                                                                                          it? (They or Shoes).
What is our last reason?          Finally good shoes help your feet to grow well.
What word can we begin
with? Lastly; Finally.
How can we finish? What do        I believe all children must do what their teachers
we believe?                       and parents say and wear their shoes.
Repeat a joint construction     ‘Why must children wear sun hats at school?’
with
At a later stage show learners how to move the tenor of the text by taking out second person pronouns (you,
your) and writing more objectively.




                                                                                                                    18
Suggested teacher script for pre teaching student text construction
Example 1

We are going to be learning about how to write an argument about reducing
energy and climate change. To help me in planning, today you will be writing
an argument about reducing energy and climate change. Some of you know
lots about reducing energy and climate change and others are still learning.
That’s okay. Therefore, some of you will be able to write more, and others less.
Over the next term/ weeks you will be learning how to write excellent
arguments; the things you need to plan and do to produce a really good
argument. Then, when we have finished learning about arguments you will
again write an argument on the topic reducing energy and climate change
and it will be much better than the one you write today.
The purpose of an argument is to argue or persuade on an issue, taking a
firm position about the topic, in this case the need for energy reduction.
All kinds of writing have a structure (parts). Make sure you include all the
parts.
I would like you to write the argument as a scientist would.
The audience/readers of your argument will be teachers you don’t know.
I would also like you to have a serious attitude in your writing because the
need to reduce energy consumption is a serious matter.
To do this you need to think about the language that you will use.
You will have 5 minutes to plan your writing. When planning, write your ideas
in dot points.
You will have 30 minutes to write your argument. Use your plan to help you
with the structure, ideas and language.
You will have 10 minutes to proofread and edit your argument. When you
proofread and edit, read your text carefully, check your spelling, punctuation
and language.

During the various abovementioned stages, remind students about time
management and what each part of the writing process involves.

Once students have finished, give encouragement for their effort and
reassurance that their post teaching text will be much better than the pre
teaching text.

Modify the information and process to suit the student cohort.




                                                                                   19
Suggested teacher script for pre teaching student text construction
Example 2


We are going to write an argument about whether reading books is better than watching
T.V. Some of you will know lots about writing arguments and others less. That’s ok. Over
the next few weeks you will be learning how to write excellent arguments; the things you
need to plan and do to produce a really good argument. Then, when we have finished
learning about argument writing you will again write an argument on the topic of whether
reading books is better than watching T.V. and it will be much better than the one you
write today.

The purpose of an argument is to argue or persuade on an issue, taking a firm position
about the topic, in this case whether or not reading books is better than watching T.V.

Every type of writing has a structure, or parts (for example, a beginning, a middle and an
end). Make sure you include all the parts.

The audience (or readers) of your argument will be teachers you don’t know, so when you
write, use language that is suitable for teachers.

You will have 5 minutes to plan your writing. When planning, write your ideas in dot
points.

You will have 30 minutes to write your argument. Use your plan to help you with the
structure, ideas and language.

You will have 10 minutes to proofread and edit your argument. When you proofread and
edit, read your text carefully, check your spelling, punctuation and language.

During the various abovementioned stages, remind students about time management
and what each part of the writing process involves.

Once students have finished, give encouragement for their effort and reassurance that
their post teaching text will be much better than the pre teaching text.

If necessary, modify the teacher instructions above to suit the student cohort and topic,
but keep a written record of your instructions if they differ from those above.




                                                                                       20
Suggested teacher script for post teaching student text construction

After all the teaching and learning about writing arguments that we have done, I
am now going to ask you to write another argument about whether reading books
is better than watching T.V. You now know a lot more about writing arguments
about the topic than you did at the beginning. You have all made so much
progress. Your argument will be much better than the first one that you wrote.

The purpose of an argument is to persuade the reader of you opinion, or to
convince them of your point of view, taking a firm position about the topic, in this
case whether or not reading books is better than watching T.V.

Every type of writing has a structure or parts. Make sure you include all the parts.
The audience (or readers) of your argument will be teachers you don’t know, so
when you write, use language that is suitable for teachers.

You will have 5 minutes to plan your writing. When planning, write you ideas in dot
points.

To do this you need to think about the language that you will use.

You will have 30 minutes to write your narrative. Use your plan to help you with
the structure, ideas and language.

You will have 10 minutes to proofread and edit your argument. When you
proofread and edit, read your text carefully, check your spelling, punctuation and
language.

During the various abovementioned stages, remind students about time
management and what each part of the writing process involves.

Once students have finished, give encouragement for their effort and
reassurance that their post teaching text will be much better than the pre
teaching text.

Modify the information and process to suit the student cohort.




                                                                                       21
Model Text 1


We should use less energy at school

Our weather is changing.

We use too much electricity.

Some people leave lights on and I will not leave lights on.

When we leave lights on we waste electricity.

Don’t leave lights on.




                                                              22
Model Text 1


Title: We should use less energy at school

   Text Structure and                        Text                Language features
    whole text level
       comments

Introduction:              Our weather is changing             Use of technical
                                                               language eg Nouns:
Statement of topic and     We use too much electricity         weather, electricity.
position                                                       First person pronouns
(state your position and                                       ‘we, our, I’ to
summarise your                                                 personalise the
arguments)                                                     persuasive text.


Series of arguments:       Some people leave lights on and I   Action Verbs: leave,
                           will not leave lights on.           waste
(generally two
elaborated arguments    When we leave lights on we waste       Modality: will not
supported by reasons or electricity                            leave… indicating
evidence)                                                      certainty.

                                                               Conjunctions: and,
                                                               when.

                                                               ‘Some people’ is used
                                                               giving the writer
                                                               authority.


Conclusion:                Don’t leave lights on               Using a command to
                                                               invoke action, Don’t.
(recommendation)
                                                               Contraction: do not to
                                                               don’t.




                                                                                        23
Model Text 2

We should use less energy at school to reduce climate change

We should use less energy at school because our climate is changing and
we have to do something. We are using too much energy.

When energy is made by burning coal, the smoke goes into the air. This
changes our climate.

Last week we did our energy audit and found out that we can use less
energy.

I saw lights on when there was nobody in the room. We are wasting energy
by not switching off lights.

We will save energy if we switch off lights.

We can all do something. We can switch off computers and lights when we
are not using them.

Everyone can help reduce energy and save our world.

We should all use less energy.




                                                                           24
Model Text 2

Title: We should use less energy at school to reduce climate change

Text Structure and whole                 Text                              Language features
  text level comments
Introduction:              We should use less energy at       Topic words ‘energy’ and ‘climate’ used to
                           school because our climate is      introduce opinion.
                           changing and we have to do
                                                              Use of causal conjunction ‘because’ to
Statement of topic and     something. We are using too
                                                              expand information.
position                   much energy.
                                                              ‘Too much energy’; intensifier used in noun
(state position and
                                                              group to express intensity of personal
summarise arguments)
                                                              belief.
Series of arguments:       When energy is made by burning     Use of a circumstantial clause of manner
                           coal, the smoke goes into the      using time conjunction ‘when’ to introduce
                           air. This changes our climate.     the first argument.
(generally two                                                Use of reference word ‘this’ to link next
elaborated arguments                                          sentence.
supported by reasons or    Last week we did our energy        Time words ‘Last week’ used to link
evidence)                  audit and found out that we can    student research, from audit, to the
                           use less energy. I saw lights on   arguments.
                           when there was nobody in the       First person pronouns ‘we, our, I’ to
                           room. We are wasting energy by     personalise the persuasive text.
                           not switching off lights.          Use of technical language eg Nouns: coal,
                                                              climate, audit, energy, computers. Verbs:
                                                              reduce,
                           We will save energy if we switch
                           off lights.                        Action verbs: switch off, use, did, changes,
                                                              burning(non-finite)
                                                              Sensing/mental verbs: saw, found out
                                                              (phrasal verb with different meaning from
                           We can all do something. We
                                                              to find)
                           can switch off computers and
                                                              Relational verbs: are, is.
                           lights when we are not using
                           them.                              Passive voice: is made
                                                              Present tenses: switch off, changes, are
                                                              wasting
                                                              Past tenses: did, made (irregular verbs)
                                                              Future tense: will save
                                                              Modality: should, have to do, indicating
                                                              obligation: can, indicating possibility; will,
                                                              indicating certainty.

Conclusion:                Everyone can help reduce           Creating the appropriate tenor through the
                           energy and save our world.         use of the noun ‘Everyone’. This gives
(restate position and
                                                              authority to the writer.
summarise arguments
and give                                                      Use of verbal group eg. can help reduce
                           We should all use less energy.
recommendation or
                                                              Re-use of should for closing obligation
prediction)




                                                                                                           25
Model Text 3
Schools should use less energy to reduce climate change

Schools should use less energy because the more energy that is produced
the more the climate will change. There is much that can be done to save
power and reduce energy consumption in schools.

Firstly, most of our energy is made by burning coal, which causes air
pollution and affects our climate. A number of experts are telling us that we
have to do something about climate change because the future of our
planet is at stake.

Secondly, people are using too much energy and the more energy that is
generated, the more the climate will change. This is because most of the
world’s energy production is through coal fired power stations which are
major contributors to climate change.

Finally, too much energy is wasted in schools. Students at our school have
been doing energy audits to find out how we use energy. The audit showed
that lights, computers and air conditioners were left on in rooms when no-
one was there.

I believe that we can all save energy if we think more about saving power
and switch electrical equipment off. Our school audit showed that we could
use less energy. If we reduce energy use, we will reduce climate change.

Let’s save our climate by using less energy!




                                                                            26
 Model Text 3
Title: Schools should use less energy to reduce climate change

     Text Structure                             Text                               Language features

Statement of belief,        Schools should use less energy because         Fore grounding of ‘Schools’ and
sometimes called a          the more energy that is produced the more      use of ‘Ther e’ to introduce
position statement          the climate will change. There is much that    position and proposal.
with a summary of           can be done to save power and reduce
proposal. This macro        energy consumption in schools.                 Use of word sets throughout for
theme (main theme) is                                                      cohesion eg energy, power; and
introduced in the                                                          use, consumption, and electrical
‘Introductory’                                                             equipment, lights, computers and
paragraph                                                                  air conditioners.

                                                                           Use of rhetoric and idiom eg. at
                                                                           stake, major contributors
                            Firstly, most of our energy is made by
                                                                           Use of rhetorical conjunctions to
Staged text with hyper      burning coal, which causes air pollution and
                                                                           stage the texts and present each
theme (topic sentence)      affects our climate. A number of experts are
                                                                           argument eg Firstly, finally.
for each paragraph          telling us that we have to do something
which presents a            about climate change because the future of     Use of increasing technical
further argument to         our planet is at stake.                        language which includes
support position                                                           nominalisations eg coal, pollution,
statement.                                                                 climate change, experts, audit.

After each argument is      Secondly, people are using too much            Longer noun groups eg the
presented the following     energy and the more energy that is             world’s energy production.
clauses and sentences       generated, the more the climate will           Use of first person pronoun ‘we’,
give reasons and            change. This is because most of the world’s    ‘our’ to engage audience.
evidence.                   energy production is through coal fired
                            power stations which are major                 Use of a range of verbs eg Action
Each of these               contributors to climate change.                verbs to use, Relational verbs is,
sentences (and                                                             are, causes, affects relational
clauses) is ‘signposted’                                                   verb used metaphorically; Saying
with theme words eg A                                                      verbs eg to tell.
number of experts, the      Finally, too much energy is wasted in          Use of passive voice eg is made,
future, people, this, too   schools. Students at our school have been      is generated.
much energy etc             doing energy audits to find out how we use
                            energy. The audit showed that lights,          Use of present tenses mostly eg
                            computers and air conditioners were left on    are telling, are using, have been
                            in rooms when no-one was there.                doing
                                                                           Use of future tense to predict eg
                                                                           will change
                                                                           Use of modality (obligation) eg.
                                                                           have to do.
                                                                           Use of causal conjunctions to
                                                                           expand information eg because,
Reiteration of belief       I believe that we can all save energy if we
                                                                           Use of mental verbs to restate
statement ie thesis         think more about saving power and switch
                                                                           belief statement eg believe, think
backed up by research       electrical equipment off. Our school audit
summary from audit.         showed that we could use less energy. If we    Modality to explain expectation of
Future projection of        reduce energy use we will reduce climate       results eg could use.
possible outcome.           change.
                                                                           Projection achieved through ‘if’
Call to action              Let’s save our climate by using less energy.   statement with ‘then’ ellipsed.
                                                                           Tenor indicates writer expects
                                                                           readers to join the cause. This is
                                                                           called hortatory language.



                                                                                                              27
Model Text 4

A reduction in energy use at school will reduce our impact on climate change

Most scientists around the world now agree that climate change is real and
there is an urgent need to take action to save our planet from the
catastrophic consequences of climate change.

A major cause of climate change is the production of energy through coal
fired power stations which are major contributors to carbon dioxide dumping
into the atmosphere, causing global warming and thus contributing to
climate change.

A recent audit of energy use at school, conducted by the Student Action
Climate Change Group, has revealed that significant reductions in energy
consumption are possible.

The students discovered a range of practices that require urgent attention,
including lights being left on when rooms are devoid of students and staff,
electrical appliances being used inefficiently, and sporadic consideration
and awareness of the amount of energy being consumed.
Is there a need to have lights on at recess time, and the dishwasher
switched on partially loaded? Some students involved in the audit are
predicting that a focus just on the use of lights can potentially make a huge
difference.

Everyone can play a part in the reduction of energy use at school. The
changes in practices which are being suggested include: turning off lights,
using natural lighting, turning off appliances, staff becoming more frugal
with the dishwasher, and what’s wrong with wearing more clothes rather
than continuous use of air conditioners for heating?

In summary, there is enough evidence to suggest that a reduction in the
consumption of energy at school can be achieved. Through the reduction of
energy use, we will reduce our impact on climate change quite significantly.

We must start reducing energy consumption now!




                                                                              28
Model Text 4
Title: A reduction in energy use at school will reduce our impact on climate change

     Text Structure         Text                                                   Language features

                            Most scientists around the world now        Foregrounding of human participants
Introduction:
                            agree that climate change is real and       Most scientists.
Statement of topic and      there is an urgent need to take action
position                                                                Use of saying verb ‘agree’ with ‘that’
                            to save our planet from the
(state your position                                                    to project the opinion (climate change
                            catastrophic consequences of climate
and summarise your                                                      is real, urgent need to take action….)
                            change.
arguments)
                                                                        Use of technical language eg Noun
                            A major cause of climate change is the
Series of arguments:                                                    groups: An urgent need, catastrophic
                            production of energy through coal fired
                                                                        consequences, climate change,
                            power stations which are major
(generally two                                                          production of energy, coal fired power
                            contributors to carbon dioxide dumping
elaborated arguments                                                    stations, carbon-dioxide global
                            into the atmosphere, causing global
supported by reasons                                                    warming.
                            warming and thus contributing to
or evidence)                                                            Verbs: achieved
                            climate change.
                                                                        Nominalisations: eg cause,
                            A recent audit of energy use at school,
                                                                        production, need, reductions,
This text has been          conducted by the Student Action
                                                                        consumption, attention,
written by an ‘expert’      Climate Change Group, has revealed
                                                                        consideration, awareness,
for an audience who         that significant reductions in energy
                            consumption are possible.                   Action Verbs: save, dumping,
understand climate
                                                                        conducted,
change and the level of     The students discovered a range of
technical language.         practices that require urgent attention,    Saying Verbs: are predicting,
Because the                 including lights being left on when         Mental Verbs: discovered,
technicality of this text   rooms are devoid of students and staff,     Relational Verbs: is, causing,
is carried in               electrical appliances being used            contributing, revealed, require,
nominalisations there       inefficiently, and sporadic consideration   involved, becoming
is greater range of         and awareness of the amount of energy
relational verbs.           being consumed. Is there a need to          Use of rhetorical questions to engage
                            have lights on at recess time, and the      reader.
                            dishwasher switched on partially            Modality: can be achieved… are
This text is                loaded? Some students involved in the       possible, can…make, indicating
grammatically simple        audit are predicting that a focus just on   possibility; will reduce, indicating
because it does not         the use of lights can potentially make a    certainty
have a lot of               huge difference.
compound and                                                            Conjunctions: only ‘and’.
complex sentences           Everyone can play a part in the             Passive voice: being used (to qualify
made up of more than        reduction of energy use at school. The      previous noun appliances), being
one clause. But it is       changes in practices which are being        consumed (to qualify previous noun,
lexically (words)           suggested include: turning off lights,      energy), are being suggested.
complex.                    using natural lighting, turning off
                            appliances, staff becoming more frugal      Verb tenses: Predominantly present
                            with the dishwasher, and what’s wrong       tense because this text states and
                            with wearing more clothes rather than       elaborates a current issue.
                            continuous use of air conditioners for
                            heating?

                                                                        Use of rhetorical conjunction in
Conclusion:                 In summary, there is enough evidence        summary to stage the concluding
                            to suggest that a reduction in the          statements.
(Reiteration of opinion     consumption of energy at school can be      Circumstance of manner through the
backed up by students’      achieved. Through the reduction of          reduction of …. to present the
research through            energy use, we will reduce our impact       prediction, we will reduce……
audit.                      on climate change quite significantly.      Indefinite ‘a’ to definite article ‘the’ is
Recommendation ie                                                       a cohesive devise of reference as in a
call to action)             We must start reducing energy               reduction, the reduction.
                            consumption now!                            Tenor indicates writer expects readers
                                                                        to agree and join the cause. This is
                                                                        hortatory language.
                                                                                                                29
Model Text 1
                                                         Cowandilla Primary School
                                                         21 Jenkins Street
                                                         Cowandilla SA 5033


October 20, 2008

Letters to the Editor
Advertiser Newspapers
GPO Box 339
Adelaide SA 5001



Dear editor

Our climate is changing and we have to help.

I have been learning about waste, water, energy, and now biodiversity.

When we learn, we go outside with a map and look at things in the school.

We also go to places. We went to the dump and the river. I had fun.

Lots of rubbish is thrown away. Lots of lights are left on.

We make energy by burning coal. The smoke is no good.

Please help our world before it is too late.


From




                                    The big truck at the dump




                                                                                     30
Model Text 2
                                                       Cowandilla Primary School
                                                       21 Jenkins Street
                                                       Cowandilla SA 5033

October 20, 2008

Letters to the Editor
Advertiser Newspapers
GPO Box 339
Adelaide SA 5001


Dear editor

Our climate is changing and we have to do something.

We have been learning about climate change this year. Our teachers have been helping us to
learn about waste, water, energy, and this term we are going to learn about biodiversity. I have
learnt lots about climate change, and we have to do something about it.

At school, we have been doing things about waste, water, energy and biodiversity. We go outside
with a map and look at what we are doing at school and what we need to change. We went to the
dump, where they recycle things, along the river, to the power station, and to see the big
windmills. I had lots of fun there.

There is too much rubbish thrown away at school. We waste too much water. I think that we
should not waste water because it is not raining enough. We use too much energy and forget to
turn off the lights. When the sun is out we should not turn on the lights and we must remember
to switch off the computers.

We make energy by burning coal. When we burn coal the smoke goes in the air and this is no
good. Every time we use energy we have to make more. We should use the sun instead.

A man with a solar car and a man with an electric car came to our school. These are good things.
We have rainwater tanks at our school and are planting plants. All of these things that we are
doing will help save our environment.

Everyone needs to help save our world before it is too late.

From




                                                                                                   31
Model Text 3
                                                        Cowandilla Primary School
                                                        21 Jenkins Street
                                                        Cowandilla SA 5033


October 20, 2008

Letters to the Editor
Advertiser Newspapers
GPO Box 339
Adelaide SA 5001


Dear sir/madam

Climate Change is happening, and urgent action is needed to make sure that we continue to
survive.

This year students at Cowandilla Primary School have been learning about climate change. The
topics that we have been working on include waste, water, energy, and this term we will be
looking at biodiversity. Students have been doing lots of learning about climate change, and this
has helped us understand that we have to do something about it.

Our school has done lots of things about waste, water, energy and biodiversity. We have done
eco-auditing of the way we do things at school, as well as things at home and how they cause
climate change. To help us learn about waste, water, energy and biodiversity, students have
visited a landfill dump, a recycling centre, a trip along the Torrens Catchment, the River Murray at
Mannum, the river mouth, Pelican Point Power Station, the Starfish Hill Wind Farm, and done
many other things such as researching.

We are wasting a lot of things and not doing enough recycling. Lots and lots of water is being
wasted. When the weather comes on at night they keep telling us that it is not raining enough.
We should not water our gardens as much. Many of the things that we buy need electricity to run
and this means that we use far too much energy at home.

Most of the energy in the world is made by burning coal, which gives off smoke, that pollutes our
environment and causes climate change. Therefore, the more energy we use, the more energy
we have to make and because we are making it by burning coal, it is causing climate change. I
am unhappy that we are making our energy this way and not using the sun instead. We should
produce and use more solar energy.

We are all doing things that cause climate change and so we all need to help. Earlier this year
the solar powered car and the electric car came to our school. Our school also has put in
rainwater tanks, water pipes under the ground to water our oval, and we are planting many
plants.

I would like everyone to help and do something to stop climate change. Let’s do it now!




Yours sincerely

The students of Cowandilla Primary School.




                                                                                                  32
Model Text 4
                                                        Cowandilla Primary School
                                                        21 Jenkins Street
                                                        Cowandilla SA 5033

October 20, 2008

Letters to the Editor
Advertiser Newspapers
GPO Box 339
Adelaide SA 5001

Dear sir/madam

How long will it take for us to accept that Climate Change has and is happening, and that urgent
action is required to ensure the survival of humanity?

During the course of this year students at Cowandilla Primary School have undertaken extensive
learning about climate change, with a particular focus on waste, water, energy, and currently
biodiversity. This has enabled fellow students to attain a broad understanding of and about
climate change, and the urgency of collective community action to halt the potential global
devastation that scientists are indicating will occur.

Our school has undertaken a scientific approach to the exploration of waste, water, energy and
biodiversity. This has involved eco-auditing of school practices, as well as researching broader
community practices relating to climate change. In order to build our field knowledge and explore
the interconnectedness of these topics, students have visited a landfill dump, a recycling centre,
undertaken a tour of the Torrens Catchment, the River Murray at Mannum, the river mouth,
Pelican Point Power Station, the Starfish Hill Wind Farm, as well as a multitude of
experimentation and research.

People are wasting non-renewable resources at incredible rates. Non-recyclable rubbish has and
is increasing at unsustainable levels. Our irrigation practices are wasting water at ever increasing
levels. At the same time, scientists have revealed that a 1% decrease in precipitation equals a
4% decrease in run off for our catchments. Do we need to have front and back lawns?
Consumerism has reached the point where households now have huge amounts of energy
hungry appliances, and one would think that the level of lighting that is used indicates that we
have had a reduction in sunlight.

Most of the world’s energy is produced by coal-fired power stations. The burning of fossil fuels is
the major contributor of greenhouse gases, which in turn is causing global warming. Therefore,
the more energy that is consumed, the more that fossil fuels need to be burnt to produce energy,
which in turn increases atmospheric pollution, thus leading to increased climate change. It
saddens our school community that this is happening whist we now have the capacity for
alternative energy production.

Our school recognises that we are part of the climate change problem and have undertaken to
explore both knowledge as well as solutions. Earlier this year we invited a visit by the inventor of
the solar powered car, Louis Palmer from Switzerland and more recently we invited the creator of
the local electric car, Dickson Beattie. The school has installed rainwater tanks, solar panels,
subsoil irrigation and we are planting indigenous plants.

On behalf of our students, we urge the entire community to accept responsibility for our earth,
reminding everyone that we share it with other living things and we need to maintain it for the
children of the future. Let’s take action on climate change now!

Yours sincerely
The students of Cowandilla Primary School.

                                                                                                  33
MOVING FROM WHOLE TEXT TO LANGUAGE

Genre                 Register
(understanding)       (considerations)

                      Awareness of the contextual variables that will impact on the
                      language choices and meaning. In different contexts
                      consideration to (Who is present? Where am I?, What is the
                      focus of the interaction?/What’s happening?) are essential
                      to the successful achievement of purpose.
Purpose:              Audience:              Identity:          Attitude:
What is the           Who is the text        What identity will What attitude will
communicative         being written for?     the text take on?  the text take
purpose of the                                                  positive–
text?                                                           negative?

What structural       What language         What language         What language
features do I need,   choices will I need   choices will I need   choices will I need
to make the text      to make for my        to construct the      to make to
work?                 audience?             chosen identity?      express my
                                                                  attitude?


                      Who is going to       Who am I going to     How do I
                      read/assess my        write as/be in the    want/need to
                      text?                 text?                 make the
                                                                  reader/marker
                                                                  feel?


                              These are expressed through

Genre                 Register

Structure             Field                 Tenor                 Mode

The structural        The language for      The language for      The language for
features of the       expressing ideas      interacting with      creating spoken
text                  and experiences       others                and written texts




                                                                                        34
                                        Text Analysis
Whole text level:

Audience (Who is it for?)
Appropriate to the audience as per writing task

Appropriate                                                                Inappropriate

Identity (Who is speaking/writing?)
Appropriate as per writing task

Appropriate                                                                Inappropriate

Attitude of the writer (How does the writer make you feel?)
Appropriate as per writing task

Appropriate                                                                Inappropriate

Contextual understandings/conceptual understandings
Relevant to the topic

Evident                                                                       Not evident

Genre structure
No evidence of genre structure – uses basic structure – uses expanded structure - uses
logically more refined structure

Language choices:
Has the language choices required to achieve the purpose
Simplistic-formulaic-expanded-complex–refined
Mostly spoken like – more written like– very written like - written like
Uses a varied range of describers, circumstances, reference items, intensifiers, linking and
binding conjunctions, relative pronouns, modality and nominalisation - broad forms
Uses more varied foregrounding
Uses voice appropriately (one – many)
Moves from subjectivity – objectivity appropriately
Uses colloquial and idiomatic language, rhetorical conjunctions, and reported speech and
direct speech appropriately
Paragraph level
Not evident - some evidence of paragraphs- evidence of paragraphs- consistent evidence of
paragraphs and uses subheadings
Sentence level
Begins to construct sentences – writes simple sentences - expands sentences– complex
sentences – sophisticated sentences – refined sentences
Word level
Everyday – specialised – technical
Begins to copy - narrow range - repetitive- some specialised and technical - varied - larger
range - uses specialised and technical vocabulary - more varied - extended range - uses a
broad range of specialised and technical vocabulary - sophisticated



                                                                                            35
          Argument rubric

      Student’s Name
      Year Level                                Assessment Date

           Genre                     Field                        Tenor                     Mode
Scale 4     Writes an                Uses vocabulary that        sentences                Organises
Rec           elementary                  reflects their           Includes adverbs:          sentences in
              argument (with              knowledge of the           much faster, so           logical order
              support)                    concept of opinion: I      quickly                 Some control of
            Writes a simple              think…                   Uses narrow range          tense (past,
              statement of opinion    Uses mainly                   of evaluative             present, future):
            Gives two supporting         commonsense                language: nice, good      played, wear
              reasons                     language and begins                                Spells with some
            Writes a simple              to use some                                          accuracy many
              conclusion                  technical language                                   common
            Uses some                                                                         classroom words
              reference items: we,                                                           Experiments with
              us, him, her, it                                                                 punctuation
            Uses conjunctions
              and, but to expand
              information
Scale 5     Writes a simple            Uses commonsense            Uses a small range       Begins to
Year 1        argument including         language confidently         of evaluative             foreground using
              a topic and an            Uses with some               vocabulary: very          organisational
              opinion statement, 2       confidence a limited         important, best,          connectives:
              or 3 supporting            range of technical           love, like                Firstly, Secondly,
              reasons and a              vocabulary:                                            Lastly
              simple conclusion          uniforms, the no hat                                  Uses primary
              using a proforma           rule                                                   tenses - present,
            Uses linking               Uses a small range                                     past, future - for
              conjunctions: and,         of comparatives:                                       most common
              then, but, so; and         bigger, more                                           regular verbs
              the binding                important                                             Begins to use
              conjunction because                                                               basic punctuation:
            Uses a range of                                                                    full stop, capital
              reference items: me,                                                              letters
              him, it, they                                                                    Spells common
                                                                                                classroom words
                                                                                                accurately
                                                                                               Writes legibly




                                                                                                            36
      Argument rubric

      Student’s Name
      Year Level                                        Assessment Date

          Genre                      Field                       Tenor                       Mode
Scale 6    confidently writes a      Uses everyday and          Begins to use              Foregrounds using
Year 2       brief argument               a range of technical      modality: might,            the organisational
           uses a range of               vocabulary                must, maybe, I              connectives: Firstly,
             linking eg and,              confidently: weight,      think, I know               Secondly, Finally
             then, but, or, so            excursion, the taste    Chooses vocabulary         Uses primary
           uses binding              Uses a narrow                that is appropriate         tenses - present,
             conjunctions to              range of adjectives       for the situation           past, future - for
             form compound                to expand noun            and audience: footy         common regular
             sentences eg                 groups: counters          instead of football,        verbs and most
             because, when,               (two, many),              or football instead         common irregular
             before, after                describers (blue,         of footy                    verbs
           uses connectives to           huge), & classifiers    Uses a range of            Begins to gain
             organise text eg             (wooden,                  evaluative                  control of
             First, Secondly              Australian)               language: I think           secondary tenses: I
           begins to use             Occasionally uses            the whole class             am writing…’
             reference items eg           qualifiers: the fish      enjoyed the               Spells accurately
             ‘Eating lollies can          in the sea…               excursion                 Uses basic
             make holes in your       Begins to use                                            punctuation
             teeth. This means            simple                                                regularly: capital
             you will need ….’            nominalisations:                                      letters, full stops
                                          height, happiness,
                                          education
Scale 7      with some               Uses longer noun             May begin to use           May foreground the
Year 3        confidence, writes a        groups                     common                      connectives in
              logically organised     Uses a small range            colloquialisms or           slightly different
              argument in short,          of technical               idioms: I think it is       ways: In the first
              simple paragraphs           vocabulary in              crazy that…                 place, Also, In
             uses wider range of         familiar educational      Uses elementary             addition
              connectives eg              fields: recycling,         expressions of             Uses present tense
              Next, Also                  pollution                  modality: could,            accurately
             uses linking            Uses qualifiers               should, perhaps,           Shows better
              conjunctions and,           regularly: The             luckily, usually,           control of
              then, but, or, so           children in the            sometimes                   secondary tenses: I
             uses binding                class…                    Maintains the               had wanted to
              conjunctions if,        Uses some                     appropriate level of        see…
              when, after                 nominalisation:            formality                  Uses basic
             accurately uses             height, happiness,         throughout the text         punctuation
              reference items eg          education                 Uses a small range          consistently: capital
              ‘Eating lollies can     May include some              of evaluative               letters, full stops,
              make holes in your          acronyms: SA,              language: I was             question marks
              teeth. This means           Qantas, SNR-7              upset when I found         Spells most words
              you will need ….’       Uses a wider range            out…                        learned in the
                                          of comparatives:                                       classroom
                                          nastier, more                                          accurately
                                          important, worst




                                                                                                              37
      Argument Rubric

      Student’s Name
      Year Level                                                Assessment Date

          Genre                     Field                       Tenor                       Mode
Scale 8    with greater             Begins to use              Begins to use              Begins to
Year 4       confidence                  vocabulary beyond         common                      foreground using
             constructs                  the immediate             colloquialisms or           a variety
             arguments in                personal and school       idioms                      connectives:
             logically ordered           experiences               appropriately:              Firstly or In the
             paragraphs              Begins to make more          Vicious dogs should         first place
           uses linking                 delicate choices of       be put down               Uses basic
             conjunctions                meanings: disgusting    Begins to make               punctuation
             appropriately               rather than yukky         language choices            consistently and
           uses common              Begins to use                appropriate to the          begins to use
             binding                     reported speech           audience ie                 commas and
             conjunctions            Uses mental verbs            language that is            apostrophes
             appropriately eg if,        regularly: think,         less likely to offend:      regularly
             since, when                 know, believe, plan       large rather than fat     Spells technical
           begins to use            Uses more                  Uses a range of              and less common
             relative pronouns           expressive noun           evaluative                  words accurately
             eg which, that,             groups: A bigger,         expressions: the          Uses correct
             who                         more exciting Skate       best                        tenses (including
           uses reference               Park                    Uses simple forms            secondary tenses)
             items accurately        Uses circumstances           of language                 regularly and
             eg ‘Our school has          of manner: carefully      expressing                  accurately
             a No Hat rule. This     Uses common                  modality: should,         Organises texts in
             means that…’                nominalisations: The      could; just, only,          simple logically
                                         difference between…       needs to                    ordered
                                                                                               paragraphs on the
                                                                                               basis of a change
                                                                                               of topic and writes
                                                                                               a topic sentence
                                                                                               for each
                                                                                               paragraph
Scale 9      Independently            Uses more varied           Uses a greater           Foregrounds a
Year 5        constructs                vocabulary: mental          degree of accuracy         variety of
              arguments in              processes                   when expressing            connectives to
              logically ordered         (considered,                modality: should,          begin a new
              paragraphs                reckoned); noun             could, just, only          paragraph
             Demonstrates an           groups (the dolphins       Chooses confidently      Demonstrates
              understanding of          in the Port River);         from a range of            developing control
              the purpose of            and circumstance of         vocabulary                 of punctuation:
              arguments ie to           manner (quickly)            appropriate to             commas for lists,
              persuade others          Expands noun                maintain tenor in a        apostrophes for
              of a point of view        groups by using more        text: stuff, junk,         basic contraction
             Forms complex             delicate language           rubbish, litter,           and possession
              sentences using a         choices: The wide,          pollution                Uses primary and
              range of binding          white beaches              Chooses a narrow           secondary tenses
              conjunctions:            Uses qualifiers: The        range of                   consistently and
              because, if, since        wide, white beaches         colloquialisms and         correctly
             Uses reference            of Adelaide                 idioms: The coach        Organises texts in
              items                    Uses direct and             changed his mind…          longer, logically
              appropriately in          reported speech with       Uses evaluative            ordered
              increasingly              a high degree of            terms: ridiculous,         paragraphs with
              complex                   accuracy                    wonderful                  an introductory
              sentences: The                                                                   paragraphs and
              government                                                                       topic sentences
              decided to... This
              decision …

                                                                                                            38
      Argument Rubric

      Student’s Name
      Year Level                                                         Assessment Date

           Genre                      Field                      Tenor                     Mode
Scale 10      Independently             Expands noun              Chooses more              chooses Chooses
Year 6         constructs                 groups by using            delicately from a          appropriately what
               arguments in which         more precise               range of                   to foreground in
               the argument is            adjectives: The most       vocabulary                 longer independent
               sustained and              exciting, wonderful        appropriate for the        constructions of
               concluded                  game in the world          situation: male,           text so they are
              Begins to use             Begins to make             gentlemen, man,            coherent;
               connectives to join        more delicate              guy, bloke                 foregrounds one or
               paragraphs:                choices of                Chooses a small            two different words
               Another                    vocabulary: action         range of                   for the topic:
               argument...                verbs (played,             colloquialisms and         Friendship and
               Therefore, However         competed); noun            idioms: She                Having friends…
              Forms complex              groups (players,           barracks for the       Constructs a more
               sentences using            athletes);                 Port                       complex
               relative pronouns:         circumstance of           Uses evaluative            introduction and
               which, that, who           manner (carefully)         language: The              series of reasons
              Uses text reference       Uses a range of            hardworking                and evidence
               items that can refer       common technical           people of             Uses commas
               to large segments          verbs, nouns and           Salisbury…            appropriately after
               of a text (these,          phrases                                          foregrounding phrases
               those, this): This        Uses direct and                                  of time and place: In
               chain of events            reported speech                                  addition, negative
               made the dog go            confidently and                                  stereotyping leads to…
               crazy                      accurately
Scale 11      Constructs well-          Continues to make         Includes words           Constructs longer
Year 7         organised, longer          more precise               that make                 and more complex
               and complex                vocabulary choices:        interpersonal             texts
               examples of                more rangers               comment:                 Foregrounds a
               analytical or              patrolling the area        unfortunately,            variety of topic
               hortatory                 Uses a range of            seldom                    words and
               arguments                  common technical          Uses a wider              dependent clauses
              Foregrounds                verbs, nouns and           range of                  of cause: Because
               dependent phrases          phrases:                   colloquialisms and        the council
               and clauses:               conservation,              idioms                    changed the
               Because the                decision, importance       appropriately: She        parking zone,
               council changed           Uses a small range         had the nerve to          motorists have
               the parking zone,          of nominalisations:        say...                    incurred more fines
               motorists have             The reason this           Uses evaluative           Begins to use
               incurred more fines        action is needed...        language: bravery,        passive voice: The
              Forms complex                                         honesty                   program was taken
               sentences using                                                                 off the air…’
               binding                                                                        Demonstrates with
               conjunctions and                                                                support greater
               relative pronouns                                                               control of commas,
               with some                                                                       speech marks,
               accuracy: because,                                                              apostrophes
               since, after, that,
               which, who




                                                                                                            39
      Argument Rubric

      Student’s Name
      Year Level                                                         Assessment Date

           Genre                     Field                       Tenor                     Mode
Scale 12      Constructs a longer      Uses a range of            Expresses own            Foregrounds a wide
Year 8         argument with             more specific               viewpoint and             range of
               various stages            technical words             speaks or writes          conjunctions
               which combines           Makes more delicate         with limited              confidently and
               information from          choices from range          confidence from           accurately:
               more than one             of verbs, nouns and         the viewpoint of          Consequently,
               source                    circumstances:              another person            Nevertheless
              Confidently and           scanned, thick-            Uses a small             Uses a wider range
               accurately                rimmed glasses,             range of complex          noun groups as
               constructs well-          carefully                   forms of language         alternatives to
               formed complex           Uses a range of             expressing                conjunctions: The
               sentences using a         increasingly abstract       modality (ie              main factor instead
               range of binding          and technical               degrees of                of Firstly
               conjunctions              nominalisations (ie         certainty or             Foregrounds
               (whenever) and            words that have             obligation)               circumstance of
               relative clauses:         been formed by              accurately and            cause: Because of
               Without enough            changing verbs,             appropriately in          the increased
               memory the                adjectives or               most contexts:            amount of carbon
               computer can              conjunctions into           Perhaps we might          dioxide, scientists…
               crash which is            nouns) with                 be able to change        Foregrounds with
               always frustrating        increasing                  mindsets…                 some confidence
                                         confidence: growth,         (modality)                abstract noun
                                         risk, capability           Uses more                 groups: The
                                                                     delicate evaluative       destruction of the
                                                                     language:                 panda’s habitat is
                                                                     important reason          due to…
                                                                     becomes                  Uses rhetorical
                                                                     compelling reason         questions: And
                                                                                               what is the main
                                                                                               factor in global
                                                                                               warming?
                                                                                              Makes appropriate
                                                                                               choices
                                                                                               consistently and
                                                                                               independently for
                                                                                               commas in lists and
                                                                                               apostrophes for
                                                                                               basic contractions
                                                                                               and possession




                                                                                                           40
      Argument Rubric

      Student’s Name
      Year Level                                                          Assessment Date

            Genre                      Field                      Tenor                      Mode
 Scale 13      Constructs longer         Maintains a               Expresses own             Uses accurately
Year 9          arguments,                 consistent level of        viewpoint and              and with some
                sustained and              technicality,              speaks or writes           confidence less
                concluded, well            becoming more              from the viewpoint         common
                supported with             independent in using       of other people,           conjunctions:
                evidence,                  highly technical           expressing                 Subsequently,
                combining                  vocabulary                 appropriately their        Moreover
                information from          Chooses from a wide        varying certainties:      Places conjunctions
                several sources            range of verbs,            quotes others              in second place:
                and beginning to           nouns and                  views on global            Success, on the
                acknowledge those          circumstances:             warming                    other hand, is…
                sources                    peered, specs,            Combines                  Uses a wider range
               Uses complex               cautiously                 language                   of noun groups as
                relative clauses          Uses a range of            elements that              alternative to
                with some                  abstract and               express modality:          conjunctions: The
                confidence: Without        technical                  Unfortunately, we          principal reason for
                enough memory,             nominalisations:           will never get to          the increase in
                computers can              accumulation,              see the changes…           homelessness…
                crash, which is            opportunity                                          Foregrounds
                frustrating and                                                                  circumstance of
                usually results in a                                                             cause: Due to the
                loss of work and                                                                 economic impact…
                money                                                                           Foregrounds
               Uses text reference                                                              dependant clauses:
                items confidently:                                                               As there is plenty of
                All of the above                                                                 sunlight in
                reasons indicate…                                                                Australia…
                                                                                                Foregrounds
                                                                                                 abstract noun
                                                                                                 groups with greater
                                                                                                 confidence: The
                                                                                                 recovery rate of
                                                                                                 some athletes…
                                                                                                Uses rhetorical
                                                                                                 questions: Can we
                                                                                                 see the solution for
                                                                                                 the homeless?
                                                                                                Uses commas
                                                                                                 appropriately
                                                                                                 between describers




                                                                                                              41
      Argument Rubric

      Student’s Name
      Year Level                                                          Assessment Date

            Genre                      Field                      Tenor                     Mode
 Scale 14      Confidently uses          Acknowledges              Expresses own            Uses accurately
Year 10         possible variations        arguments set in           viewpoint and             and confidently a
                to the structure of        different times and        speaks or writes          wider range of less
                argument: begins           places                     from the viewpoint        common
                with a description        Confidently uses a         of other people,          conjunctions:
                of an imagined             wide range of verbs,       expressing                Conversely, In fact
                scenario as a              nouns and                  appropriately their      Places less
                dramatic way of            circumstances:             varying                   common
                introducing the            peeked, bifocals,          uncertainties and         conjunctions in
                reasons supporting         tentatively                values: critiques         second place The
                an argument on            Uses confidently a         global warming            eye, in particular, is
                nuclear waste              wide range of              policies from other      Uses longer
                storage                    abstract and               perspectives              abstract noun
               Acknowledges               technical                 Uses patterns of          groups as
                sources of                 nominalisations:           evaluative                alternatives to
                information                beliefs, assumptions       language                  conjunctions: The
               Uses a range of                                       effectively in            primary argument
                dependent clauses                                     arguments to              for an increase is...
                confidently: The                                      position readers in      Foregrounds
                research team,                                        relation to values:       circumstances of
                having seen the                                       The importance of         cause with abstract
                test results,                                         this event in the         concepts: Because
                stated…                                               experiment…               of the distressing
               Uses the range of                                    Combines                  circumstances of
                reference items                                       language                  the homeless…
                confidently: such as                                  elements that            Foregrounds
                in Such examples                                      express modality:         abstract noun
                of abuse show the                                     The potential             groups with
                need to…                                              effect of this is         confidence The
                                                                      to…                       recovery rate of
                                                                                                some athletes, The
                                                                                                potential effect of
                                                                                                this is a reduction
                                                                                                in cost
                                                                                               Begins to use semi-
                                                                                                colons, colons and
                                                                                                dashes




                                                                                                              42
                   Whole Class Text Analysis Findings
Whole text level
Positives


Teaching focus



PD focus


Paragraph level
Positives



Teaching focus



PD focus


Sentence level
Positives



Teaching focus



PD focus


Word level
Positives



Teaching focus



PD focus




                                                        43
                       Text Analysis And Scales

Classroom teacher                           Year         Genre
Student’s name      Year    Scale   Focus area/s for improvement
                    level




                                                                   44
Extra Resources and Support

Further resources for teachers can be accessed through their ESL Regional
Consultants. A series of PD Shorts will be offered on the various elements of this
resource with a particular focus on classroom applications.

Below is an example of content that will be explored.


Achieving Communicative Purposes

The following overview summarises the stages involved in achieving
communicative purposes for spoken and written texts.

Purpose                                    Audience
1. There is a desire/need in relation to   Understanding how the audience of the
an audience                                text shapes the language choices.

I want/need to explain something to …..
I want/need to persuade someone to…..
I have to report on …..
I want to entertain ……
(These are genres)
                                           Clarity of audience
Clarity of purpose                         The audience for the NAPLaN narrative
NAPLaN argument - To persuade              are teachers that I don’t know, who will
                                           be making a judgement on my text.
Identity
2. Who does the writer of the argument need to be in order to achieve the
purpose/make it happen? (eg scientist/personas)

Attitude
3. What attitude will help to achieve the purpose/make it happen?
emotionally engaging (creating a sense of urgency for action)

4.Register
(field - language for expressing ideas and experiences, tenor - language for
interacting with others, mode - language for creating spoken and written texts)
Are the language choices appropriate?

5. How do I make it happen? Alignment – connecting abovementioned elements
(1 – 4)
These should be taught as part of the teaching and learning cycle
Provide opportunities to practice writing for the NAPLaN
Make it fun

6. Assessment – meeting NAPLaN criteria or scale

7. Future teaching and learning
Informed by NAPLaN results and analysis




                                                                                      45
Aligning a scope and sequence to differentiated teaching and learning

    Communicative                             Persuasion
       Functions
Genres                     Argument     Discussion         Debate
Content driven topics      Reducing energy consumption
eg energy




Contextual driven topics   More water for farmers
eg farming




Student driven topics      Less homework
eg homework




Audience                   Principal
(writing to a range of
audiences)




Identity                   Chairperson SRC
(taking on a range of
roles in writing)



Attitude                   Serious
(expressing a range of
attitudes in writing)




                                                                        46
     GLOSSARY FROM THE ESL SCOPE AND SCALES
active voice:    Refers to the organisation of a clause so the “do-er” of the action comes first, eg “The
                 children washed the windows” as opposed to “The windows were washed by the children”
                 which is in the passive voice. Refer to passive voice.

agreement:       Describes the relationship between two elements of the language where the form of one
                 determines the form of another. One type of agreement is subject-verb agreement where,
                 for example, a plural subject requires a plural verb (“Chairs were smashed”) and a singular
                 subject requires a singular verb (“A chair was smashed”). Note that in clauses of the type
                 “There is …”, agreement occurs with the first element in the participant immediately
                 following the verb, eg “There is a table and two chairs in that room”, “There are two chairs
                 and a table in that room”

antonym:         Words having the opposite or contrasting meaning to a given word.

circumstance:    The element of a clause (expressed by adverbial phrase/group or prepositional phrase)
                 which gives information about the process in a clause. This information is about when,
                 where, how, why, with what, or with whom the process occurred, eg
                 (place) She knocked the clock off the shelf
                 (time) She knocked off early.
                 (with whom) He left with his friend.
                 (how - means) She left by car.
                 (how - comparison) He opened it like an expert
                 (how - quality) She opened it carefully.
                 (why) The man died of heart failure.

clause:          A unit of meaning grouped around a verb/process: often referred to as the basic building
                 block of language.

                 (independent - always finite)       I finished my work.
                 (independent - 2 finite clauses)    I had something to eat // and then I finished my work.
                 (dependent and finite)              I finished my work even though I was tired.
                 (dependent and non-finite)           I finished my work after having something to eat.
                 (dependent, finite and included)     My boss, who's moving to another department
                                                      soon, is having a farewell party.
                 (dependent, finite and included)     I had something to eat and then, even though I
                                                      was tired, finished my work.
                 (dependent, non-finite and included) I had something to eat and, being tired, went to bed.

                 A dependent clause is in a relationship of dependency with either another dependent
                 clause or an independent clause. A sentence must have at least one independent clause.
                 “Because we ran out of petrol, (dependent) we had to walk to the town” (independent) We
                 had to walk to the town (independent) because we ran out of petrol (dependent) after the
                 fuel line got a leak” (dependent)

                 Included clauses are separated by commas from the clauses they interrupt.

cohesive         Grammatical tools or linguistic structures which tie together elements of a text, making it
resource:        cohesive. These include:
                 conjunctions that join sentences: Therefore, However
                 pronouns that link to other parts of the text: The house was incredible. You should’ve seen
                 it
                 synonyms and antonyms: The tenants were not happy at all. So the landlord and all of the
                 residents of the building gathered in the office below.

colloquialism:   An informal, slang or non-standard expression usually used where the speaker feels the
                 tenor of a situation allows it (eg We went like the clappers).




                                                                                                           47
conjunction:    A word whose primary function is to join two parts of the language together and indicate
                the relationship between them. Conjunctions can relate bits of language in different ways:
                - additive: and
                - comparative: though
                - temporal: after
                - consequential: since
                They also function to join clauses at different levels:
                - to join clauses to make a sentence: linking and binding conjunctions
                - to sentences : cohesive conjunctions
                - to join paragraphs to organise the text: rhetorical conjunctions
                Linking conjunctions join two clauses forming a relationship of independence, eg “We
                bought the car on Saturday but we couldn’t pick it up until Tuesday”.
                Binding conjunction join two clauses forming a relationship of dependence (hence the
                notion of ‘binding’), eg “We went and bought the car after we’d asked the bank for a loan”.
                The bound clause can be moved to the front of the sentence, eg “After we’d asked the
                bank for a loan, we went and bought the car”.

binding         A large set of conjunctions (eg because, if , as, since) that join two clauses forming a
conjunctions:   relationship of dependence (hence the notion of ‘binding’). The sentences formed are often
                labelled complex sentences (eg We went and bought the car after we’d asked the bank for
                a loan).
                The bound clause can be moved to the front of the sentence (eg After we’d asked the bank
                for a loan, we went and bought the car).
                Compare with ‘linking conjunctions’.

connectives:    A broad term to describe elements of the language that join various parts together; for
                example, the different kinds of conjunctions and elements that act like conjunctions (eg
                One of the reasons … instead of Firstly, …).

dependent       A clause which is in a relationship of dependency with either another dependent clause or
clause:         an independent clause. (Note that a sentence must have at least one independent clause.)
                For example: Because we ran out of petrol (dependent), we had to walk to the town
                (independent); We had to walk to the town (independent) because we ran out of petrol
                (dependent) after the fuel line got a leak (dependent).

describer:      A word (usually an adjective) in a noun group whose function is to describe the quality of
                the head word of the group (eg The pretty flowers were sitting in a pot, We drove down the
                long and winding road).

embedded        A clause that is embedded in another, acting either as:
clause:         - a qualifier in a noun group: “The woman who won the race is my mother” or as
                - a participant itself: “Winning the race has been a life-long goal”, “Being good isn’t easy”
                "What I need is a massage"
                - a nominal group in a Circumstance: " Because of what he did, he was forced to resign.
                An embedded clause is rank shifted and functions at the rank of group.

euphemism:      This refers to expressions which are used to refer indirectly to topics or things that are
                culturally constructed as taboo or difficult to say directly (eg to pass away instead of to die,
                the C word instead of cancer).

foreground:     Make the focus or the orientation by placing at the beginning of a sentence, paragraph or
                text, eg
                - foregrounding the time: “After five minutes, place the mixture in the oven”
                - foregrounding the process: “Place the mixture in the oven after five minutes”
                - foregrounding the non-human participant in the process: “The mixture was placed in the
                oven after five minutes” "Evaporation is a process …."
                - foregrounding the human participant in the process: “We placed the mixture in the oven
                after five minutes”
                Foregrounding appropriately is one of the requirements for a text to be coherent.
                At the text level foregrounding refers to the theme of the whole text, usually found in the
                introductory paragraph, which foregrounds what the rest of the text will be about.
                At the paragraph level foregrounding refers to the theme of the paragraph, usually found in
                the topic sentence.

                                                                                                               48
formulaic:        This refers to expressions that are so common at certain stages of an exchange that they
                  can be memorised and used almost instinctively, eg “Good morning”, “Bye”, “Excuse me”,
                  “Thank you”, “How’re ya going?”.
idiom:             This refers to an expression that has a meaning that differs from its literal one (eg raining
                   cats and dogs). Idioms also include slang and euphemisms.
intonation:       The distinctive patterns of the pitch, tune or melody of a clause (eg the rising tone contour
                  of a question as opposed to the falling tone contour of a statement).
                  Punctuation can be defined as the ‘written form of intonation’, hence the importance to
                  consider intonation when teaching punctuation.
linking           A small set of conjunctions (and, or, so, but) that join two clauses forming a relationship of
conjunctions:     independence (eg We bought the car on Saturday but we couldn’t pick it up until Tuesday).
                  They can also be used to join words within a group.
metaphor:          An expression which replaces a congruent meaning with a more figurative one (eg The
                   news hit me right between the eyes instead of the more congruent I was shocked by the
                   news).

modality:         This refers to the elements of the language that express the speaker’s judgement or
                  assessment of certainty, obligation, usuality and inclination.
                  These include:
                  modal finites may, might, should, could: “That might be the one”
                  mood adjuncts really, probably, certainly, always, never: “She always wins” "It's probably
                  him"
                  comment adjuncts (expresses some degree of modality about the whole clause): “Perhaps
                  you could sign here”, Unfortunately, I fell at the last hurdle. Luckily, I don't have to sit for
                  the test again.
                  attributive relational clauses “I am certain he’s the one”, “I can certainly help”
                  nominalisations “The likelihood of your winning is nil, mate”
                  mental processes I think, I believe, I hope, I think: “I think I’d better go” “I believe that’s
                  right”
                  or a combination of these “I suppose I could have said that”, “I always have to help” “I
                  would probably help”, “I always have to help” “I wonder if you could possibly see your way
                  clear to signing this for me”

nominalisation:   The process of changing verbs, adjectives or conjunctions into nouns, eg
                  “The crowd applauded wildly” can have its process nominalised and so get “The crowd’s
                  wild applause was breathtaking”.
                  "Because the river was broad we were not able to cross it" can have the adjective
                  nominalised and so get "The river's breadth prevented the crossing"
                  " The street flooded because of the rain, " can have the conjunctions nominalised and so
                  get "The result of rain was flooding."

noun group:       A group of words in which the head word is a noun and all the other words serve to specify,
                  or enumerate or describe or classify or qualify that noun,
                  “Some of     the       beautifully wrapped Christmas presents under the tree had been
                  opened”
                  enumerates specifies describes                classifies head word qualifies

                  A describer (or epithet) is a word (usually an adjective) in a noun group whose function is to
                  describe the quality of the head word of the group, eg “The pretty flowers were placed”
                  “We drove down the long and winding road”

                  Epithets can have an attitudinal aspect: That bloody officer; a brilliant first novel.
                  Epithets can also have intensifiers, which alter the degree of the epithet, and are
                  expressed with adverbs "a somewhat unlikely person" "a quite stunning view"

                  A classifier classifies the Thing. More than one classifier can be used (with no punctuation
                  between them) and can be realised by adjectives (degradable bags), nouns (bird house) or
                  verbs (distilling process)

                  A qualifier is the element of the noun group that comes after the head word and whose
                  function is to qualify the head word, eg
                  “A verb that contains a preposition is often a phrasal verb”
                  “The house at the end of the street was said to be haunted”


                                                                                                                49
participants:      The things (animate and inanimate things and abstract phenomena) directly involved with
                   the process of the clause. They can be expressed as a nominal group or embedded clause
                   eg “The woman brushed her hair away from her face” “The test tube was heated slowly”
                   “The reasons for the changes were not presented” “I can’t accept your excuses” "What the
                   man broke was the clock"
                   The participant can also be an attribute expressed by an adjective " She is incredible"

passive voice:     Refers to the organisation of a clause so the “done to” rather than the “do-er” of the action
                   comes first, eg “The car was washed by the children, wasn’t it?” as opposed to “The
                   children washed the car, didn’t they?” which is in the active voice.
                   The passive voice is used when:
                   a) the speaker/writer wishes to foreground the goal of the action, eg
                   “The dried ingredients are added to the mixture” “The car gets serviced at the garage”
                   “Taxes were raised after the election”
                   b) the actor (doer of the action) is unimportant (the one who adds the mixture), or unknown
                   (the one who services the car) or wishes to remain unknown (the one who raises the taxes).

phrasal verbs:     Verbal groups which contain a preposition but still have only one meaning and where the
                   process or meaning of the verbal group changes with the deletion or change of preposition:
                   “She put her off just as she was getting ready to swing” (distracted)
                   “They put out the fire before it could spread” (extinguish)
                   “Put up your hand” (raise)
                   “The things I have to put up with” (endure)

processes:         The verbal group of a clause that express the processes of:
                   action(material, behavioural): kicked, ran, drove, smiled, sneezed, listened
                   sensing (cognition, affection, perception): believe, think, know, realise, hope, feel, hate,
                   enjoy hear, see, notice, feel, like, worry
                   saying (verbal): told, said, replied, exclaimed
                   relating (identifying, attributive, possessive, existential): are, is, become, turn into, mean,
                   represent, consist of, has, includes

qualifiers:        The element of the noun group that comes after the head word and whose function is to
                   qualify the head word. Qualifiers can be either an embedded clause (eg A verb that
                   contains a preposition is often a phrasal verb) or a prepositional phrase (eg The house at
                   the end of the street was said to be haunted).
                   See also ‘noun group’.

reference items:   One kind of cohesive resource where a pronoun is used as a substitute for a noun group.
                   Pronouns include items such as I, me, he, she, they, you, these, this, it, their, them.
                   Other reference items include the definite article (The election), determiners (don't do that)
                   and comparative forms (that's better).
                   See also cohesive resources.

relative clause:   A clause which begins with a relative pronoun (who, which, that, whose, whom), eg
                   “The lift, which had only just been fixed, stopped between menswear and furniture”
                   “The lift got fixed after about an hour, which was one hour too late for me”
                   Such non-defining relative clauses are included clauses.
                   Defining relative clauses such as in "The man who gave me the money was my brother" are
                   embedded clauses which modify the head noun.

rhetorical         These are conjunctions (eg Firstly, In addition, Finally) whose function is to join large parts
conjunctions:      of a text in a way that organises the text. They come at the beginning of the stages of a
                   genre.

rhetorical         Expressions that have the usual grammatical structure of questions but whose function is
questions:         not to seek information but instead to give information and even help to organise the text.
                   For example, What is the government’s policy on drugs in schools could be used in a formal
                   oral presentation to inform the audience that the speaker is now going to speak about the
                   government’s policy on drugs in schools. They are not asking the audience to give them the
                   answer.

simile:            An expression where on thing or idea is likened to another and usually introduced with like
                   or as (eg My skin felt like parchment, The moon was as big as a beach ball).

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synonym:       A word with a similar meaning to another, eg house, home, dwelling, abode, residence.
               As the example illustrates, synonyms are best examined as a continuum so that nuanced
               differences can be explored.

tense:         The setting in time of a clause.
               The primary tenses are the past, present and future; for example:
                   past: I ate, I said
                   present: I am eating, I know what you mean
                   future: I will eat, I’m going to have it later.
               Secondary tenses are those that are a combination of the primary tenses; for example:
                   the present happening in the past: I was eating my dinner
                   the past happening in the present: I have eaten my dinner
                   the past happening in the past: I had eaten my dinner.

verbal group   A verb or group of verbs that encode the process (eg study, was studying, will be studying,
               would have been studying, tried to study).




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Acknowledgements
Thanks to the support and inspiration provided by
Dr Peter White, University of New South Wales
Dr John Walsh, University of South Australia
Staff who participated in the Text Construction and Text Analysis Research Project
at:
       Cowandilla Primary School, in particular, Principal - Julie Hayes,
       Assistant Principal - Katrina Sexton
       Richmond Primary School, in particular, Principal - Lindy Brooke,
       ESL teacher - Carol Jones
All staff who participated in the trial of these resource materials and related PD Shorts
at:
       Allenby Gardens PS           Kaurna Plains School          Settlers Farm PS
       Cowandilla PS                Keithcot Farm PS              Streaky Bay AS
       Cummins AS                   Pennington JP                 Victor Harbor PS
       Elizabeth Vale PS            Richmond PS                   William Light R-12 School

ESL Regional Consultants:
       Pam Boyle                    Camilla Karaivanoff           Sabrina Walker
       Dick Doyle                   Giuseppe Mammone              Richard Waugh
       Stella Emberson              Jackie Morgan                 Ross Hamilton
       Joan Richards

Others:
       Rosie Antenucci, Manager, ESL Programs
       Karyl Martin, Manager, ESL General Support
       Tammy Williams, Curriculum Consultant, Eyre & Western Region




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