Are subdivided into
which are the
which are the
Physical properties of transition metals depend on their
Transition metals are mostly hard solids at room temperature
and have high melting and boiling points.
The properties of the transition metals rely upon the
ability of the unpaired d electrons to move into the outer
The higher the number of unpaired electrons in the d level, the
harder the metal and higher the melting and boiling points.
Formation of Ions and Colors!
Metal ions of metal compounds have partially filled d electrons
sublevels. This means that there are unpaired electrons in the
The electrons in the sublevels absorb visible light of certain
wavelengths which gives the commpound its color.
Exceptions: Compounds that have empty d sublevel or a
completely filled and stable sublevel. These comounds don’t
absorb wavelengths because they don’t have unpaired
electrons in the outermost electron level. Therefore, these
compounds are white.
v From left to right: copper-based compound, cobalt-based compound,
manganese-based compound, iron-based compound, nickel-based compound,
and vanadium-based compound.
The two countries with the highest number of transition elements:
Nickel, Copper, Niobium, Gallium, Tantalum, Cobalt, Copper, Tin, Niobium, Tantalum, Gold,
Zinc, Cadmium, and Cesium. and Tungsten.
Magnetism and Metals
Magnetism: The ability of a substance to be affected by a magnetic
A moving electron creates a magnetic field. Since paired electrons
spin in opposite directions, their magnetic fields cancel out.
Diamagnetism: When the substance either doesn’t change or is
repelled a little bit by the magnetic field because all the electrons of
the ion or atom are paired.
Paramagnetism: When the electron is attracted to the magnetic field
because there is an unpaired electron in the outer orbital of the ion or
Most substances are temporary magnet where their magnetic
properties disappear when the magnetic field is removed.
Sources of Transition Metals
All metals except copper, silver, gold, platinum, and
palladium can be found in nature because they easily react
with other elements.
They are found in nature combined.
•The transition metal found in the most amount of countries is Manganese.
•It can be found in Brazil, Gabon, France, South Africa, and Austrailia.
Copper: used in electrical wiring, pennies, anything that has to do with electricity.
Iron: used to make steel, used in the kitchen (cast iron), in blood, bridges,
Neodymium: Used in lasers and really strong magnets.
Europium: Used to create phosphors, little lasers of red we use in television.
Cerium: Its oxide is used for cleaning ovens, and other surfaces, used for cigarette
Uranium: Nuclear power (atomic bombs), ammunition, shield against radiation, x-
Plutonium: Nuclear power (atomic bombs), nuclear reactors, highly toxic.
Americium: Smoke detectors, fuel for nuclear rockets.
F-Block elements are divided.
From period 6, the elements are called the lanthanide series
because they follow the element lanthanum
From period 7, the elements are called the actinides series
because they follow the element actinum.
Inner Transition Metals
Silvery metals with high melting points.
They are found mixed together in nature and are really hard
They are radioactive elements.
Only three are found in nature and the rest are synthetic
elements known as transuranium elements.
Transuranium elements are created in particle accelerators or
They decay quickly. (with the exception of plutonium-239).