7.3 Properties of d-Block and f-Block Elements - Clark Magnet High

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7.3 Properties of d-Block and f-Block Elements - Clark Magnet High Powered By Docstoc
					          Transition Elements:
— Are subdivided into
    — D-block elements,
      which are the
      transition metals
    — F-block elements,
      which are the
      inner transition
      metals.
Atomic Properties
            Physical Properties
— Physical properties of transition metals depend on their
  electron configurations.
     — Transition metals are mostly hard solids at room temperature
       and have high melting and boiling points.

— The properties of the transition metals rely upon the
  ability of the unpaired d electrons to move into the outer
  valence level.
     — The higher the number of unpaired electrons in the d level, the
       harder the metal and higher the melting and boiling points.
   Formation of Ions and Colors!
  — Metal ions of metal compounds have partially filled d electrons
    sublevels. This means that there are unpaired electrons in the
    outermost level.
  — The electrons in the sublevels absorb visible light of certain
    wavelengths which gives the commpound its color.




— Exceptions: Compounds that have empty d sublevel or a
  completely filled and stable sublevel. These comounds don’t
  absorb wavelengths because they don’t have unpaired
  electrons in the outermost electron level. Therefore, these
  compounds are white.
  v From left to right: copper-based compound, cobalt-based compound,
manganese-based compound, iron-based compound, nickel-based compound,
                      and vanadium-based compound.
                        Real-World Connection
           The two countries with the highest number of transition elements:




               Canada:                                           Zaire:
Nickel, Copper, Niobium, Gallium, Tantalum,    Cobalt, Copper, Tin, Niobium, Tantalum, Gold,
        Zinc, Cadmium, and Cesium.                             and Tungsten.
         Magnetism and Metals
— Magnetism: The ability of a substance to be affected by a magnetic
  field.
— A moving electron creates a magnetic field. Since paired electrons
  spin in opposite directions, their magnetic fields cancel out.
— Diamagnetism: When the substance either doesn’t change or is
  repelled a little bit by the magnetic field because all the electrons of
  the ion or atom are paired.
— Paramagnetism: When the electron is attracted to the magnetic field
  because there is an unpaired electron in the outer orbital of the ion or
  atom.
— Most substances are temporary magnet where their magnetic
  properties disappear when the magnetic field is removed.
  Sources of Transition Metals
— All metals except copper, silver, gold, platinum, and
  palladium can be found in nature because they easily react
  with other elements.

— They are found in nature combined.
                              Identity




•The transition metal found in the most amount of countries is Manganese.

•It can be found in Brazil, Gabon, France, South Africa, and Austrailia.
                                      Uses
—   Copper: used in electrical wiring, pennies, anything that has to do with electricity.

—   Iron: used to make steel, used in the kitchen (cast iron), in blood, bridges,
    buildings, etc.

—   Neodymium: Used in lasers and really strong magnets.

—   Europium: Used to create phosphors, little lasers of red we use in television.

—   Cerium: Its oxide is used for cleaning ovens, and other surfaces, used for cigarette
    cases (alloys).

—   Uranium: Nuclear power (atomic bombs), ammunition, shield against radiation, x-
    rays.

—   Plutonium: Nuclear power (atomic bombs), nuclear reactors, highly toxic.

—   Americium: Smoke detectors, fuel for nuclear rockets.
           F-Block Elements
— F-Block elements are divided.
  — From period 6, the elements are called the lanthanide series
    because they follow the element lanthanum
  — From period 7, the elements are called the actinides series
    because they follow the element actinum.
       Inner Transition Metals
— Lanthanide Series:
  — Silvery metals with high melting points.
  — They are found mixed together in nature and are really hard
    to separate.

— Actinide Series:
  — They are radioactive elements.
  — Only three are found in nature and the rest are synthetic
    elements known as transuranium elements.
     — Transuranium elements are created in particle accelerators or
       nuclear reactors.
     — They decay quickly. (with the exception of plutonium-239).

				
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posted:7/5/2013
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