7.3 Properties of d-Block and f-Block Elements - Clark Magnet High

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7.3 Properties of d-Block and f-Block Elements - Clark Magnet High Powered By Docstoc
					          Transition Elements:
— Are subdivided into
    — D-block elements,
      which are the
      transition metals
    — F-block elements,
      which are the
      inner transition
Atomic Properties
            Physical Properties
— Physical properties of transition metals depend on their
  electron configurations.
     — Transition metals are mostly hard solids at room temperature
       and have high melting and boiling points.

— The properties of the transition metals rely upon the
  ability of the unpaired d electrons to move into the outer
  valence level.
     — The higher the number of unpaired electrons in the d level, the
       harder the metal and higher the melting and boiling points.
   Formation of Ions and Colors!
  — Metal ions of metal compounds have partially filled d electrons
    sublevels. This means that there are unpaired electrons in the
    outermost level.
  — The electrons in the sublevels absorb visible light of certain
    wavelengths which gives the commpound its color.

— Exceptions: Compounds that have empty d sublevel or a
  completely filled and stable sublevel. These comounds don’t
  absorb wavelengths because they don’t have unpaired
  electrons in the outermost electron level. Therefore, these
  compounds are white.
  v From left to right: copper-based compound, cobalt-based compound,
manganese-based compound, iron-based compound, nickel-based compound,
                      and vanadium-based compound.
                        Real-World Connection
           The two countries with the highest number of transition elements:

               Canada:                                           Zaire:
Nickel, Copper, Niobium, Gallium, Tantalum,    Cobalt, Copper, Tin, Niobium, Tantalum, Gold,
        Zinc, Cadmium, and Cesium.                             and Tungsten.
         Magnetism and Metals
— Magnetism: The ability of a substance to be affected by a magnetic
— A moving electron creates a magnetic field. Since paired electrons
  spin in opposite directions, their magnetic fields cancel out.
— Diamagnetism: When the substance either doesn’t change or is
  repelled a little bit by the magnetic field because all the electrons of
  the ion or atom are paired.
— Paramagnetism: When the electron is attracted to the magnetic field
  because there is an unpaired electron in the outer orbital of the ion or
— Most substances are temporary magnet where their magnetic
  properties disappear when the magnetic field is removed.
  Sources of Transition Metals
— All metals except copper, silver, gold, platinum, and
  palladium can be found in nature because they easily react
  with other elements.

— They are found in nature combined.

•The transition metal found in the most amount of countries is Manganese.

•It can be found in Brazil, Gabon, France, South Africa, and Austrailia.
—   Copper: used in electrical wiring, pennies, anything that has to do with electricity.

—   Iron: used to make steel, used in the kitchen (cast iron), in blood, bridges,
    buildings, etc.

—   Neodymium: Used in lasers and really strong magnets.

—   Europium: Used to create phosphors, little lasers of red we use in television.

—   Cerium: Its oxide is used for cleaning ovens, and other surfaces, used for cigarette
    cases (alloys).

—   Uranium: Nuclear power (atomic bombs), ammunition, shield against radiation, x-

—   Plutonium: Nuclear power (atomic bombs), nuclear reactors, highly toxic.

—   Americium: Smoke detectors, fuel for nuclear rockets.
           F-Block Elements
— F-Block elements are divided.
  — From period 6, the elements are called the lanthanide series
    because they follow the element lanthanum
  — From period 7, the elements are called the actinides series
    because they follow the element actinum.
       Inner Transition Metals
— Lanthanide Series:
  — Silvery metals with high melting points.
  — They are found mixed together in nature and are really hard
    to separate.

— Actinide Series:
  — They are radioactive elements.
  — Only three are found in nature and the rest are synthetic
    elements known as transuranium elements.
     — Transuranium elements are created in particle accelerators or
       nuclear reactors.
     — They decay quickly. (with the exception of plutonium-239).

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