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Team HARP MAELabs UCSD

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									       HARP - High Altitude
     Reconnaissance Platform
         Design Proposal
       Steven H. Christenson –Team Lead
    Ceazar C. Javellana III Marcus A. Artates




           Dr. James D. Lang, Project Advisor
Dr. Leland M. Nicolai, Project Sponsor          Dr.
          Paul A. Wieselmann, Project Sponsor     1
           Presentation Overview
-Define Requirements             -Propulsion

-Design Process and              -Stability and Control
             Assumptions
                                 -Materials and Structure
-Aircraft Configuration/Sizing
                                 -Cost Estimations
-Weight Breakdown
                                 -Future Work
-Mission Analysis and
              Compliance
                                 -References and
-Aerodynamics                             Acknowledgements

-Performance
                                                            2
           Requirements

Provide 24/7 ISR Coverage with 2 Aircraft
2000 nm Radius for ISR Mission
10500 nm Ferry Flight
6963 lb Payload (Installed Weight)
      -(4) X Band Radar Arrays – 3.3 x 6.1 ft
      -(2) UHF Radar Arrays – 4.9 x 40.6 ft
Minimize Take-off Weight and Life Cycle Cost



                                                3
        Derived Requirements for 24/7
           Coverage with 2 Aircraft
                                     Mission Endurance
                           2*(One-Way Transit) + Time on Station
                                       Time on Station
                          2*(One-Way Transit) + Turnaround Time


                    Endurance                             TOS
       Transit                   Transit   Transit                        Transit Transit
                     TOS
Aircraft 1                             TA                      TA              TA


             Aircraft 2    Transit    TOS            Transit    Transit        TOS          Transit

                                                                                              4
                          ISR Mission
             Cruise Out 2000 nm                       Cruise Back 2000 nm

55000 ft


                                  Loiter 16 Hours (TOS)

                                                                                   Descend to
                                                                                    Sea Level




           Climb to
            Cruise
           Altitude


                                                                Sea Level Loiter
                                                                  for 30 min



                                        2000 nm

                                      Distance (nm)                                       5
Max Distance Ferry Mission

                      Cruise 10500 nm
55000 ft




                                                           Descend to
                                                            Sea Level


           Climb to
            Cruise
           Altitude
                                        Sea Level Loiter
                                          for 30 min


                          Distance
                            (nm)                              10500 nm
                                                                         6
                    Design Process
Study Mission        -Configuration Assumptions Made/Refined to
Requirements                 Meet Mission Requirements-
                                                                            Fuel)aval
                     Size Wing                 Determine Fuel
   Assume                                       Required for                   >
   Wto and           Calculate                                              Fuel)reqd
                                                  Mission
    W/S          Component Weights
                                                                             Yes/No
                   Calculate Fuel              Determine Fuel
                     Fractions                   Available


                                            -Assumptions Made/Refined-
   Refine
Aerodynamic                                                       AR, Taper, Sweep
                    Refine
 Parameters         Wto and            Aerodynamics               Fuselage Sizing and
                     W/S                Size Engine                     Shape
Size Control                           Performance
Surfaces/Tail      Estimates                                      Estimate Tail Size
Calculate Drag
 Determine
Performance            Mission                          Refine Wto and W/S
                     Requirements           Yes/No
Capabilities
                        Met?                              Optimize Design
                                                                                7
         Aircraft Configuration

           Design Analysis Based on the
             Following Assumptions:

-L/D)max,wing = 35 for 0 deg Sweep, 20 AR, 60%
      Laminar Flow
        Lockheed Martin Aerodynamic Data


-2250 lb Thrust, .55 TSFC for 2015 Advanced
       Technology Turbofan Engine at Full Power
       and 55000 ft


                                                  8
     Aircraft Configuration
Wto = 50000 lb         W/S = 60 lb/ft^2
Wing Area = 833 ft^2   Wing Span = 129 ft
Wing Sweep = 0 deg     Aspect Ratio = 20




                                            9
                Radar Geometry
X Band Radar (4)
     -3.3 x 6.1 ft
     -Azimuth Field of Regard (FOR)
           +/- 70 degrees
     -Located to give 360 Degree Coverage
UHF Radar (2)
     -4.9 x 40.6 ft
     -Azimuth FOR +/- 70 degrees
     -Located to View Out Each Side

                                            10
           Horizon Distance



                  5.17 deg
                             250 nm LOS
55000 ft
                                              Horizon




  Design Array Angles for Desired Footprint


                                                   11
    Aircraft Configuration
Wing Area = 833 ft^2   Wing Span = 129 ft
Wing Sweep = 0 deg     Aspect Ratio = 20

                                       Fuselage
                                    Length = 62 ft
                                    Height = 6 ft
                                    Width = 10 ft




                                                    12
Aircraft Configuration




                         13
Aircraft Configuration



                 Center of Gravity
                  & Aerodynamic
                      Center




Wing Fuel Tank




                                     14
              Weight Fractions -ISR
•   Start up/Take-Off   .970        Take-Off Weight        50000 lb
•   Climb to Cruise Alt .950        Fuel Weight            23874 lb
•   Cruise Out          .902        Fuel Fraction          .48
•   Loiter on Station   .754        Fuel Volume            3511 gal
Loiter Fuel             10219 lb
                                    (1) 2015 Technology Turbofan
Maneuvering Fuel        671 lb              Engine
5. Cruise Back          .902        SLS Thrust = 8000 lb
6. Descend to SL        1.00        SLS TSFC = .40
7. Loiter 20 min        .994        T/W = .16

                        -Cruise at .943*L/D)max
                          -Loiter at L/D)max
                                                                   15
        ISR Mission Compliance
                 -Two Aircraft Coverage-
                           Mission Endurance
                2*(One-Way Transit) + Time on Station
                     = 2*(5.52) + 16.2 hr = 28.4 hr
                            Time on Station
               2*(One-Way Transit) + Turnaround Time
                        = 12.2 hr + 4 hr = 16.2 hr

      -2000 nm Range-                                -16 Hour TOS-
Cl = .628        L/D = 29.72             Cl = .864        L/D)max = 31.52
    Mach .6 and 55000 ft                       Mach .6 and 55000 ft


            Total Mission Fuel Required: 23874 lb = 3511 gal
                                                                       16
           Weight Fractions - Ferry
•   Start up/Take-Off   .970
•   Climb to Cruise Alt .950
•   Cruise 10500 nm     .567
5. Descend to SL        1.00
6. Loiter 20 min        .994

Take-Off Weight         50000 lb
                                   Design Pushed by 10500 nm
Fuel Weight             24685 lb
                                           Ferry Flight
Fuel Fraction           .49
                                   Approx 800 lb Additional Fuel
Fuel Volume             3630 gal            Required


                                                              17
            Aerodynamics


Aspect Ratio = 20        Span = 129 ft
Wing Sweep = 0 deg       e = .9
t/c = .15                K = .01768
Taper Ratio = .50        MAC = 6.7 ft
Croot = 8.6 ft           Ctip = 4.3 ft

Airfoil: Modified Lockheed Martin Sensorcraft
         Wing15% to Provide 60% Laminar Flow

                                                18
                 Aerodynamics


L/D)max,wing = 35 Lockheed Martin Aerodynamics Data
Cdo)wing = .00817 Referenced to Sref
Cdo)fuselage = .00369 Referenced to Sref
Cdo)tail = .00121 Referenced to Sref
Cdo)aircraft = .01393 Calculated with Interference Effects
L/D)max,aircraft = 31.52 From L/D vs Cl Plot


                                                             19
        Aerodynamics


Cl = .864 for L/D)max and Minimum Drag
Clalpha = 6.9 rad-1 = .12 deg-1 at Mach .6
Stall Velocity Based on Cl)max of 2.0
Candidate High Lift Devices
       -Mission Adaptive Wing (MAW)
       -Trailing Edge Flaps


                                             20
                 Aerodynamics

         Fuselage Sized to Hold
             Radar Arrays



Length = 62 ft               Volume = 2922 ft^3
Depth = 6 ft                 Wetted Area = 1067 ft^2
Width = 10 ft                Max Cross Sectional
Fineness Ratio = 6.2               Area = 47 ft^2


                                                       21
Aerodynamics

         L/D)max = 31.52




                           22
Aerodynamics




               23
         Aerodynamics

 MDD, Drag Divergent Mach Number


-Insufficient Data in References to
        Accurately Calculate MDD

-Concern that at Cruise Velocity and
      Altitude (M .6 @ 55000 ft) Airfoil is
      Near MDD
-Supercritical Wing


                                              24
         Performance
Limit Load Factor             1.25
Ultimate Load Factor          1.88
Turn Load Factor              1.15
Maneuvering Turn Rate         1.8 deg/s
Dynamic Pres Limit            450 lb/ft^2

     Stall Velocity         159 ft/s
     Take-Off Velocity      191 ft/s
     Take-Off Distance 5000 ft
     Landing Distance       4000 ft
       Braking Acceleration –7 ft/s^2       25
Performance




              26
Performance




              27
Performance




              28
              Propulsion
2015 Technology Turbofan Engine
       Moderate Bypass Ratio
       8000 lb Thrust (Sea Level Static)
       .40 TSFC (Sea Level Static)
       Dimensions:
                Length           115 in (9.6 ft)
                Diameter         41 in (3.4 ft)
       Engine Weight:            1600 lb
       System Weight:            3100 lb

  -Pitot Inlet, 10 ft^2 Capture Area
  -Fixed Convergent Nozzle, 6 ft^2 Exit Area
                                                   29
Propulsion




             30
Propulsion




             31
Propulsion




             32
             Auxiliary Power
Required Power                128 kW
Power Available from Engine   70 kW = .061*Talt
Additional Power Required     58 kW


           APU – Continental L/TSIO-360

            Total Weight      1304 lb
            APU Fuel Weight   595 lb
            Total Weight      1899 lb

                                                  33
    Auxiliary Power
     Engine Excess Power

          kW = .061*Talt
Additional Thrust          957 lb
Additional Fuel            8562 lb

         (T-D)*V = Power
 Additional Thrust          58 lb
 Additional Fuel            523 lb

 Average Additional Fuel    4542 lb
                                      34
                      Weight Build-up
Fuselage                3415 lb   Take-Off Weight         50000 lb
Wing                    4928 lb   Empty Weight            18697 lb
Control Surface(s)      2508 lb   Weight with Payload     25660 lb
Tail                    297 lb    Fuel Weight Available   24340 lb
Landing Gear            1677 lb   Fuel Fraction           .49
Propulsion System       3100 lb   Fuel Volume             3579 gal
Flight Systems          460 lb
Fuel System/Tanks       496 lb
                                     -Fuselage and Landing
                                    Gear Weight Reduced by
Hydraulic System        172 lb            15% and 5%,
Electrical System       849 lb        respectively, for 2015
                                       Technology Target
Air Cond/Anti-ice Sys   794 lb
                                            Factors
Payload (Installed)     6963 lb
                                                                35
   Stability and Control
Center of Gravity and Fuel Schedule




                                      36
Stability and Control




  Static Margin (SM) Summary




                               37
Stability and Control


                 Cmo = .0681




                               38
               Stability and Control

              Flaps                         Ailerons
    Area = 38.0 ft^2 each            Area = 37.9 ft^2 each
    MAC = 2.15 ft                    MAC = 1.47 ft
    Span = 17.7 ft                   Span = 25.8 ft


Flap Chord: 25% Wing Chord at Root   Aileron Chord: 22% of Wing MAC
Flap Span: 27% of Wing Span          Aileron Span: 40% of Wing Span



             Total Control Surface Area: 152 ft^2
                                                              39
Stability and Control

               V-Tail
   Cvt = .0145 Svt = 55.7 ft^2
   Cht = .34     Sht = 67.7 ft^2
       42 deg from Vertical
Rudder Area = 18.6 ft^2 = (1/3)Svt




                                     40
    Materials and Structure
Material Selection
          Carbon Fiber
                 -Wings
                 -Control Surfaces
                 -Fuselage
          Fiberglass
                 -Array Panels


Structural Concept
    Semi-Monocoque Fuselage Structure
    Carbon Fiber Wing Box, Spars and
         Landing Gear Struts
                                        41
Materials and Structure




                          42
Materials and Structure




                          43
Materials and Structure




                          44
     Materials and Structure
Mass Moments of Inertia Based on Historical Data




             Ixx = 2.89E3 slug-ft^2
             Iyy = 1.93E5 slug-ft^2
             Izz = 6.86E5 slug-ft^2




                                              45
             Cost Estimations
Engineering Hours, Tooling Hours, Manufacturing Hours and
Manufacturing Material Costs Based on Historical Data and:
        -Number of Aircraft Produced
        -Aircraft Take-off Gross Weight
        -Maximum Velocity
Flight Test Costs Based on Historical Data and:
         -Number of Flight Test Aircraft
         -Aircraft Take-off Gross Weight
         -Maximum Velocity
Quality Control Hours Based on Historical Data and:
         -Manufacturing Hours
Development Support Cost Based on Historical Data and:
       -Aircraft Take-off Gross Weight
       -Maximum Velocity
Engine and Avionics Cost Provided By:
        -Lockheed Martin

                                                             46
                      Cost Estimations
                          Aircraft to be Procured: 100
                             Flight Test Aircraft: 6
                  Hours                     Labor Rates Adjusted to 1999 Dollars
Engineering               7,568,054                    Engineering        $85
Tooling                   4,483,622                    Tooling            $88
Manufacturing             13,472,465                   Manufacturing      $73
Quality Control           1,791,838                    Quality Control    $81

                  Costs
Development Support       88,831,854
                                              Estimated RDT&E + Flyaway Cost =
Flight Test               57,056,356                    $4,470,179,979
Manufacturing Materials   260,106,607
                                                       44. 7 Million / Aircraft
Engine                    206,700,000
Avionics                  1,590,000,000
                                                                                  47
                 Future Study
System Configuration

-Tailor Fuselage Shape to Minimize Flow Separation
-Analyze Control and High Lift Concepts
     Mission Adaptive Wing (MAW)
-Analyze Desired Radar Footprint for Exact Array
     Orientation
-Wing Dihedral
-Low Observables
-Possible Requirement for Satellite Antenna

                                                   48
               Future Study

   Performance

-Refine Installed Thrust Data
-Refine Inlet/Nozzle Design


    Cost

-Utilize VaRTM Technology
-Incorporate High Strength Composites to Replace
      Traditional Metal Components

                                                   49
               References and
              Acknowledgements
                            References:
Fundamentals of Aircraft Design, Nicolai, L.M., Revised 1984
Lockheed Martin Aerodynamic Data, Nicolai, L.M.
Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach, Raymer, D.P., Third Edition


                       Acknowledgements:
Dr. James D. Lang, Project Advisor
Dr. Leland M. Nicolai, Project Sponsor
Dr. Paul A. Wieselmann, Project Sponsor



                                                                50
Thank You




            51

								
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