Draft Standards San Mateo Adult School by ilicaifengba

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									California Noncredit and Adult Education

  English as a Second Language Model

              Curriculum

   Standards and Assessment Guide

                DRAFT 2

            (August 9, 2007)
Acknowledgements
Under the auspices of the Joint Board Committee (JBC) for Noncredit and Adult
Education, the California Department of Education (CDE), and the California
Community Colleges Chancellor’s Office (CCCCO), WestEd contracted with the CDE to
facilitate the development and validation of model curriculum standards, performance
standards, and model assessments for five instructional areas of adult and noncredit
education. These five areas were: Adult Basic Education (ABE), Adult Secondary
Education (ASE), Adult English as a Second Language (ESL), Older Adults Education,
and Parent Education. This document contains the final standards and assessment
guide for ESL.
                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Introduction .........................................................................................................1

    A. Model Curriculum Standards .......................................................................3

    B. Performance Standards ...............................................................................5

    C. Model Assessment Tasks ............................................................................6

    D. Adult English as a Second Language (ESL) Model Curriculum Standards

         and Sample Assessments Alignment Chart.................................................8

II. Model Curriculum Standards, Performance Standards, and Model Assessment

    Tasks ..............................................................................................................32

III. Grammar Continuum ......................................................................................74

IV. Pronunciation Guide .......................................................................................79

V. SCANS and EFF Skills Integration Guide .......................................................81

References and Resources for Adult English as a Second Language ................92

Appendices ..........................................................................................................97

    Appendix A: Introduction to Assessment ........................................................98

    Appendix B: Beginning Literacy Content and Placement .............................106

    Appendix C: English as a Second Language Content Standards Chart .......108
           California Noncredit and Adult Education
      Adult English as a Second Language Standards and
                       Assessment Guide
I. Introduction

In order to fully meet the needs of the adult learner population in California, model
curriculum standards, performance standards, and model assessments have been
developed to complement the program standards. Model curriculum standards identify
the core knowledge and skills that adult learners are expected to demonstrate, and
specify performance indicators that illustrate expected accomplishments with respect to
the core content. While model curriculum standards specify what learners should know
and be able to do, performance standards indicate how well learners should perform.
Finally, samples of assessment tasks and scoring scales have also been developed that
link to the content and performance standards. These samples illustrate to adult
education teachers and administrators the types of tasks and scoring scales that are
relevant to measuring adult learning with respect to standards.

Taken together, the model curriculum standards, performance standards, and sample
assessments included in this guide have been designed to help guide the development
of standards-based curriculum, instruction, and courses for California adult education
programs. Implicit in these standards and assessments is the recognition of inherent
differences in the teaching and learning of adults and youth. To honor these differences,
the model curriculum standards, performance standards, and model assessment tasks
for noncredit and adult education are tailored to the specific needs of adult learners in
California and include content and examples that are relevant to this population. Their
purpose is to help adult learners to be successful community members, parents,
workers, and citizens of the world through the lifelong continuum of learning.

How the Standards and Assessment Guides were Developed
The work of developing model curriculum standards began under the auspices of the
Joint Board Committee (JBC) on Noncredit and Adult Education. Committees of
administrators and instructors in adult schools, noncredit community college programs,
and other programs serving adult learners in California were convened to draft model
curriculum standards, performance standards, and model assessments. A separate
standards development committee was established for each of the five instructional
areas. The committee members were chosen for their expertise in the instructional
areas. Each committee met several times in 2001–2003 to develop the materials for
each guide. Within each committee there was broad representation of different
geographical locations and program types.

In fall 2001, the draft model curriculum standards were reviewed by practitioners
throughout California through mail surveys and focus groups. Standards development
committees used the feedback from the external reviewers to finalize the model
curriculum standards. In 2002–2003, the same committees worked together to develop


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performance standards and model assessments, and to finalize the guides for each
instructional area.

Use of this Document
Program administrators and instructors should decide how best to use the standards
and assessment guides in order to address the needs of their local populations. There
are a number of different types of ESL programs in California. General ESL programs
focus on skills or competencies that adults living in our society must have on a general
basis. Academic ESL programs focus on skills or competencies that learners need to
succeed in an academic program. Vocational or workplace ESL programs focus on
skills that adult ESL learners need to get, keep, or advance in a job. Family literacy ESL
programs focus on skills parents need to help their children learn to read and to
succeed in United States schools. Citizenship or civics programs focus on skills adults
need to fully participate in United States civic society, or to fulfill naturalization
requirements. The standards and assessments defined in the guides are intended to
represent core knowledge and skills that can be addressed in a variety of programs and
classroom situations.

Professional development should be provided for administrators and instructors in order
to effectively incorporate these standards and assessments into their curriculum and
instruction. It is essential that learners’ experiences are aligned with the model
curriculum standards and that assessments inform adult learners, instructors, and
others of learner progress in relation to the standards. Instructors should make
information about the standards and assessments available to adult learners to help
them take control and responsibility for their own learning.

The English as a Second Language Standards and Assessment Guide is organized into
four sections: a set of standards including model curriculum standards, performance
standards, and example assessment tasks; a grammar continuum; a pronunciation
guide; and a guide for integrating Secretary ‘s Commission on Achieving Necessary
Skills (SCANS) and Equipped for the Future (EFF) skills into instruction.




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   A. Model Curriculum Standards

The English as a Second Language Model Curriculum Standards identify the core
knowledge and skills that should be addressed in adult ESL programs. The model
curriculum standards are organized into four domains (language skill areas)—Listening,
Speaking, Reading, and Writing—for each of the following ESL proficiency levels:
Beginning Literacy, Beginning Low, Beginning High, Intermediate Low, Intermediate
High, Advanced. The specific standards within each domain at each proficiency level
define the key knowledge and skills that learners are expected to know and be able to
do upon exit from the level in the four language skill areas.
The core content of adult ESL courses is basic English language skills, including
language structures and language use. The model curriculum standards, due to their
organization, include those language skills that are measurable and appropriate to a
single given proficiency level and domain. The complete content of ESL courses also
includes language skills which are best described and/or measured along a continuum,
or that must be integrated across the four domains. In addition, language skills are
taught in a context of life, work, or academic skills (including cognitive skills and
technology use), within which language skills are learned, practiced, and assessed. In
order to address the full spectrum of adult ESL course content and contexts, additional
charts and guides were developed to accompany the model curriculum standards.

How the Model Curriculum Standards are Organized
All five instructional areas of California noncredit and adult education follow the same
overall format for organizing their model curriculum standards. This format is based on
that used for the K-12 Content Standards for California Public Schools. This consistency
is intended to show continuity across the span of childhood through adult education, as
well as to help increase public understanding and utility of the standards. (sample
assessment tasks follows the Model Assessment tasks.) The California model
curriculum standards for noncredit and adult education are organized in sets under
broad domains or concepts. Domains are then divided into strands, which represent
particular skill areas within a domain, followed by a set of individually numbered model
curriculum standards describing the precise skills learners are expected to know and be
able to do upon exit from that level. Below is a schematic representation of these
sections.

      Domain
         1.0      Strand
                  Strand statement: description of what learners know and can do in
                  this skill area.
                  1.1        Model Curriculum Standard: description of a specific
                  measurable component of this general skill.
                  1.2        Model Curriculum Standard ...

Each domain has one strand, with the exception of Reading. Starting at Beginning Low,
Reading has two strands. Below is an outline of the adult ESL domains and strands.



                                           3
       Listening
       1.0    Listening Skills

       Speaking
       1.0   Speaking Skills

       Reading
       1.0   Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development
       2.0   Reading Skills

       Writing
       1.0    Writing Skills

While most language skills can clearly be separated into one of the four domains, others
necessarily involve more than one of the domains; in these cases, a decision was made
to place the skill in a particular domain. For example, note-taking involves both listening
and writing; in the model curriculum standards, note-taking skills are included in the
Writing Skills strand.

The two strands in Reading represent two aspects of this complex domain. The Word
Analysis and Vocabulary strand focuses on strategies adult ESL learners can apply
(with assistance or independently) to gain meaning from written texts. The Reading
Skills strand focuses on general reading comprehension and interpretation skills. These
strategies and skills are combined in classroom instruction and assessment. For
example, knowledge of prefixes and suffixes would be applied to understanding new
words in a reading passage. While typically associated with reading, many word
analysis and vocabulary development strategies are involved in the other domains as
well. These strategies can be applied in listening comprehension (e.g., identifying the
time of an event being discussed by recognizing past tense suffixes on verbs), speaking
(e.g., using synonyms in paraphrasing), and in writing (e.g., using a dictionary or
thesaurus to find an appropriate word).

Additional Core Content: Grammar and Pronunciation
In addition to the four domains described above, adult ESL includes two further areas of
core content: language forms (also called language structures, or grammar) and
pronunciation. The content for each of these two areas is represented in a chart format,
spanning all proficiency levels. This format captures the fact that a particular
grammatical structure or pronunciation skill introduced at one level may not be
completely mastered until a later level. The teaching and learning of language forms
needs to be integrated with the other language skills in all four domains; the teaching of
pronunciation needs to be integrated with both listening and speaking skills.




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   B. Performance Standards

The Adult English as a Second Language Performance Standards identify how well
learners need to perform to show satisfactory mastery of the model curriculum
standards. A learner who meets or exceeds proficient performance in a given domain at
a given proficiency level is ready to begin learning the content at the next higher
proficiency level. A learner who does not meet proficient performance in a given skill
area at a given proficiency level needs more practice or instruction in the content at the
same proficiency level.

An overall description of proficient performance in all four domains follows each set of
model curriculum standards at each proficiency level. Each description specifies
proficient performance on the model curriculum standards, describing qualities such as
the extent of ease, automaticity, or independence a learner can be expected to have in
carrying out the model curriculum standards, or the frequency of errors a learner can be
expected to make. Proficient performance describes the extent of proficiency in the
skills listed in the model curriculum standards that a learner should have upon exit from
that level.

Providing learners with frequent feedback is key to ensuring they are offered optimum
learning experiences and challenges at each proficiency level in each skill area.
Performance standards can be used to gauge learners’ preparedness and achievement
throughout their progress in an ESL program—from placement, through classroom
diagnostic and mastery activities, to level or program exit. In order to measure progress,
instructors develop relevant assessments aligned with the model curriculum standards.
In order to measure performance on a given assessment, instructors develop a scoring
rubric, using the performance standard as a basis for determining cut scores. Accurate
feedback can then be provided to learners in a form that is useful and interpretable,
depending on the skill measured or the assessment type. Examples include a pass or
fail designation, a percentage, a letter grade, a checklist, or a narrative description. The
rubric itself can also be designed for reporting performance to learners. Assessment
and rubric development are described in Appendix A.




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   C. Model Assessment Tasks

Model curriculum and performance standards that clearly articulate what adult ESL
learners should know and be able to do, and how well they should perform, are key
ingredients to ensuring that all learners reach optimal levels of learning. Another key
ingredient to a standards-based approach to adult ESL education is assessment.
Assessment refers to the use of instruments and procedures to gather data on a regular
basis for such purposes as identifying learners’ needs, documenting learners’ progress,
or determining how program services are meeting learners’ needs. Assessment allows
us to measure learners’ performance against common standards.

In order to determine performance in all four adult ESL domains over time, for learners
with various learning styles, multiple assessments of a variety of types are required.
These assessments may include standardized tests, as well as a variety of classroom
activities, homework assignments, self and peer assessments, and performance
assessments. Local program teachers and administrators must determine for their
context which model curriculum standards are most important to assess, which
assessments are most important to consider in determining overall performance, and
which particular performances on a given assessment should be given the most weight
in determining rubrics and cut scores.

Model assessments are represented by example assessment tasks for each skill area
(domain) at each proficiency level, accompanied by sample technology tasks. Taken
together with the information on developing rubrics in Appendix B, these tasks provide
an overview of the types of performance assessment aligned to the model curriculum
standards which are relevant to adult ESL courses. While the specific topics and
applications of these tasks must be decided by local programs, depending on learner
needs and interests, as well as external requirements (such as preparation for
citizenship, employment, or higher education), the types of tasks can be applied to
learners and assessment contexts in all programs.

Model assessment components are outlined below.

Example Assessment Tasks. These tasks are examples of performance assessments
addressing one or more model curriculum standards, which will allow learners to show
what they know and can do. How well a proficient learner can be expected to perform
on the tasks is specified in the performance standard. Note that while each task
addresses one skill area, typically assessment tasks involve performance in more than
one skill area. For example, a writing task may involve responding to an oral or written
prompt, which requires listening or reading comprehension as well as writing.

Sample Technology Tasks. Technology provides useful tools and contexts for adult
English language learning. Technology use may be integrated into both instruction and
assessment. The sample technology tasks describe ways technology can be used in
assessing one or more model curriculum standards.




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For the purposes of this document, technology is broadly understood as encompassing
all types of tools and machines. Some examples of technology that may be available in
the school or classroom are: tape recorders; copiers; overhead projectors; VCRs;
computers; computer programs; the Internet (Web sites, search engines, e-mail);
printers; telephones; and telephone answering machines. Learners may also apply their
language skills to technology outside the classroom, for example with ATMs, household
appliances, and workplace machines or tools.




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    D. Adult English as a Second Language (ESL) Model Curriculum Standards and Sample
       Assessments Alignment Chart

Domain: Reading

ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                             Sample Assessment Tasks
BEGINNING LOW READING                                                      BEGINNING LOW READING
1.0 Reading Skills                                                         Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
Learners recognize letters of the alphabet, numbers, and                   level:1
some simple words.                                                         Spell out loud familiar words, such as their names
1.1 Demonstrate eye movement from top to bottom and left                   and street names.
to right.                                                                  Use a picture prompt and identify concrete items
1.2 Discriminate between shapes and both uppercase                         using previously learned vocabulary, supported by
and lowercase print letters.                                               gestures.
1.3 Discriminate among numerals 1–100.                                     Use a calendar to say the days of the week and
1.4 Relate phonological sounds to letters (sound/symbol                    count out loud to 30.
correspondence).                                                           Recognize and name the letters of the alphabet,
1.5 Read basic sight words and signs with one word or                      and familiar numbers (such as their age).
symbol (e.g., restroom signs, computer keys).                              Read and explain words or symbols in the
1.6 Coordinate hand and eye to fill out forms requiring non-               environment (e.g., restroom signs, exit signs, etc.).
verbal answers (e.g., X for boxes, Scantron bubbles).
                                                                           Appropriate standardized assessments for this
                                                                           level:2
                                                                           CASAS (Life Skills): 180 and below
                                                                           SPL (Reading and Writing): 0–1
                                                                           Literacy BEST: 0–7




1Samples of tasks that learners could be asked to do to demonstrate proficiency in the related standard(s).
2Disclaimer: Listing of assessments is not intended to be an indication of California Department of Education, California Community Colleges Chancellor’s Office,
or WestEd endorsement.

                                                                                                                                                                8
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                 Sample Assessment Tasks
BEGINNING LOW READING                                          BEGINNING LOW READING
1.0 Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development                   Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
Learners recognize and read numbers and letters. They          level:
recognize subparts of familiar words.                          Match label names to pictures of products.
1.1 Identify the letters of the English alphabet and           Match a shopping or supplies list to pictures.
numbers.                                                       Identify labeled areas of a map or times on a
1.2 Relate phonological sounds to letters and clusters of      schedule.
letters (sound/symbol correspondence).                         Read a short note and identify the writer and topic.
1.3 Identify syllables and common basic word parts (e.g.,
un-clear, eat-ing, box-es) in context in familiar words.       Appropriate standardized assessments for this
1.4 Identify common antonyms (e.g., hot/cold, young/old).      level:
1.5 Find a familiar word in an alphabetized list.              CASAS (Life Skills): 181–200
                                                               SPL (Reading and Writing): 2–4
2.0 Reading Skills                                             Literacy BEST: 8–46
Learners construct limited meaning from simple print
materials on familiar topics with repeated reading and         BEGINNING HIGH READING
checking.
                                                               Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
2.1 Use familiar visual clues (such as pictures, graphs, and
charts) to predict meaning.
                                                               level:
                                                               Read a narrative passage, and identify the main
2.2 Recognize personal information words in print (e.g.,
                                                               topic and sequence of events.
first and last names, address, school or job identification
                                                               Read a chart or schedule, and make simple
number, etc.).
                                                               inferences based on the information.
2.3 Recognize common forms of environmental print found
in the home, on community facilities, and for basic services
                                                               Appropriate standardized assessments for this
(e.g., simple labels and product names, simple computer
                                                               level:
commands, and simple warnings: danger, poison, file,
                                                               CASAS (Life Skills): 181–200
save, bank, post office).
                                                               SPL (Reading and Writing): 2–4
2.4 Recognize basic sight words in different handwriting
                                                               Literacy BEST: 8–46
styles (e.g., cursive) in short notes and messages.
2.5 Recognize basic abbreviations (e.g., Mr., Dr., St.).
2.6 Scan for numerical information in simple signs and
flyers (e.g., the time a store opens).
2.7 Read and understand simple sentences using
vocabulary and sentence patterns previously learned orally.
2.8 Follow one- to three-step written instructions.




                                                                                                                      9
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                   Sample Assessment Tasks
BEGINNING HIGH READING
1.0 Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development
Learners use basic word analysis skills to determine the
meaning of new words in simple material in familiar
contexts.
1.1 Apply sound/symbol relationships to decode (sound
out) a new word that occurs frequently in familiar situations.
1.2 Recognize common roots, prefixes (e.g., pre-, un-),
suffixes (e.g., -ing, -ed), and compound words in context.
1.3 Identify common synonyms and antonyms (e.g., happy,
glad, unhappy, sad) in context.
1.4 Locate a word, number, or time in alphabetical or
numeric order (e.g., in a telephone directory, work
schedule, dictionary, or Web site directory).

2.0 Reading Skills
Learners read simplified material on familiar topics and
construct limited meaning, with teacher assistance, from
some authentic materials dealing with everyday matters.
2.1 Use visual clues to predict meaning and interpret new
words in familiar contexts.
2.2 Interpret isolated words and phrases in familiar
contexts (e.g., traffic signs, store ads, fast food menus,
computer menus).
2.3 Interpret terms and directions on simple forms (e.g.,
personal identification, school registration, checks, change
of address).
2.4 Recognize abbreviations in simple authentic material
such as ads, forms, and signs.
2.5 Recognize familiar vocabulary and phrases in a variety
of printed fonts and handwriting styles.
2.6 Scan simple authentic documents (e.g., ads,
schedules, forms, food coupons, Web pages, standardized
tests) to find specific information.
2.7 Make simple inferences from brief narratives, charts,
and schedules (e.g., using a mail schedule to determine if a
letter will be picked up today).
2.8 Identify the sequence of events in written directions or a

                                                                                           10
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                  Sample Assessment Tasks
simple narrative passage.
2.9 Read and demonstrate understanding of short,
simplified narrative paragraphs on familiar topics containing
previously learned vocabulary and sentence patterns.

INTERMEDIATE LOW READING                                        INTERMEDIATE LOW READING
1.0 Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development                    Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
Learners use an increasing variety of word analysis skills to   level:
determine the meaning of new words in context on familiar       Read an informational or practical text and:
topics.                                                         identify the purpose, main ideas, and details of the
1.1 Apply knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to determine       text;
the meaning of common words in context.                         complete a chart or diagram using information from
1.2 Identify common homonyms (e.g., to/two/too) and             the text; and
increase vocabulary of synonyms and antonyms.                   explain the process described in the text.
1.3 Predict meanings of unfamiliar vocabulary in material       Read a short, easy fiction passage and:
rich in contextual clues.                                       fill in a chart showing the sequence of events;
1.4 Interpret meaning of familiar words used in a new           identify the major characters; and
context.                                                        summarize the general conflict or outcome
1.5 Recognize common idioms (e.g., Give me a break!)            presented in the passage.
and phrasal verbs (e.g., get off, get out of, pick up) in
context.                                                        Standardized Assessments
1.6 Find specific information using an index or table of        CASAS (Life Skills): 201–210
contents (e.g., of a book, telephone directory, job manual,     SPL (Reading and Writing): 5
computer application help feature, etc.).                       Literacy BEST: 47–53

2.0 Reading Skills                                              INTERMEDIATE HIGH READING
Learners read simplified materials on familiar subjects and     Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
have limited success when attempting to read some               level:
authentic materials.                                            Read an informational or practical text and:
2.1 Interpret abbreviations for an increasing variety of        relate information in charts, graphs, and tables to
words in context of specific topics (e.g., employment,          narrative content;
housing).                                                       determine the organization, main ideas, and
2.2 Skim for general meaning in short passages or               supporting details; and
paragraphs.                                                     draw conclusions and make inferences based on
2.3 Scan for specific information in simple authentic           the content.
materials                                                       Read a short easy fiction passage and:
(e.g., ads, schedules, dictionaries, standardized tests, Web    identify the sequence of events; describe the basic
pages) related to immediate needs.                              traits of the major characters;

                                                                                                                       11
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                   Sample Assessment Tasks
2.4 Interpret simple, short narrative and descriptive            identify the main idea; and summarize the general
passages on familiar topics.                                     conflict presented in the passage and describe how
2.5 Interpret simple charts, graphs, tables, maps, and multi-    it was resolved.
step diagrams.
2.6 Interpret simple narrative and descriptive passages on       Appropriate standardized assessments for this
unfamiliar topics using visual, graphic, and textual clues       level:
(e.g., titles, headlines, captions, table of contents) that      CASAS (Life Skills): 211–220
orient learners to reading passages.                             SPL (Reading and Writing): 6
2.7 Begin to differentiate between fact and opinion in           Literacy BEST: 54–65
simple texts.

INTERMEDIATE HIGH READING
1.0 Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development
Learners use a variety of word analysis skills to determine
the meaning of new words in context on familiar topics.
1.1 Identify common roots of words used in familiar
contexts and expand knowledge of prefixes and suffixes.
1.2 Identify an increasing number of homonyms,
synonyms, and antonyms.
1.3 Interpret common phrasal verbs and idioms in familiar
contexts.
1.4 Use contextual clues to determine the meaning of
unfamiliar vocabulary and phrases.
1.5 Use a dictionary to determine the basic meaning of
unfamiliar words.

2.0 Reading Skills
Learners read authentic materials on everyday subjects,
but have difficulty reading specialized materials.
2.1 Interpret a variety of charts, graphs, tables, and forms.
2.2 Skim a passage, form, or test to determine the
organization and general ideas.
2.3 Scan a passage, form, or test to find particular details.
2.4 Find information that requires drawing from different
sections of a reading passage.
2.5 Identify the main idea of a paragraph on a familiar topic.
2.6 Draw conclusions from authentic materials on familiar
topics (e.g., newspaper articles on current events, social

                                                                                                                      12
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                   Sample Assessment Tasks
letters, public information notices, Web sites).
2.7 Determine connections between ideas within a passage
by interpreting transitional words (e.g., therefore, however).
2.8 Follow pronoun references to a person or object in a
passage
(e.g., Ms. Smith...she...our teacher; Form 168...this
form...it).

ADVANCED LOW READING                                             ADVANCED LOW READING
1.0 Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development                     Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
Learners use a variety of word analysis skills to determine      level:
the meaning of new words in context on familiar and              Read an informational or practical text and:
unfamiliar topics.                                               identify the author, audience, and purpose;
1.1 Interpret meanings of word roots in context.                 distinguish between facts and opinions;
1.2 Interpret an increasing number of idioms and phrasal         interpret relationships among ideas in a reading
verbs in context.                                                (i.e., given a cause in the reading, identify the
1.3 Identify analogies that clarify meaning.                     effect, or given examples, make a generalization);
1.4 Determine the meaning of new specialized vocabulary          and
in context (e.g., vocabulary related to fields of interest).     write or orally explain how to do a process
1.5 Select the appropriate meaning of a word with multiple       described in the text.
meanings by using a dictionary.                                  Skim/scan information in a chart/graph, etc. and
                                                                 determine an appropriate course of action (e.g.,
2.0 Reading Skills                                               read an airline schedule and prices and choose the
Learners comprehend authentic materials on abstract              best flight).
topics in familiar contexts as well as descriptions and          Read a short story and: identify or orally relate the
narrations of factual material.                                  sequence of events;identify the main ideas and
2.1 Make inferences from charts, tables, and a short series      supporting details; write or give an oral summary of
of paragraphs.                                                   the story; interpret information in the story and
2.2 Skim increasingly complex passages, forms, or tests to       make inferences or conclusions; and extract and
determine the organization and general ideas.                    combine information from different parts of the
2.3 Scan increasingly complex passages, forms, or tests to       story to formulate meaning.
find particular details.
2.4 Identify main ideas and supporting details or examples       Appropriate standardized assessments for this
from familiar material.                                          level:
2.5 Identify the author, audience, and purpose of a reading      CASAS (Life Skills): 221–235
passage.                                                         SPL (Reading and Writing): 7
2.6 Differentiate fact from opinion in written materials.        Literacy BEST: 66 and above
2.7 Interpret authentic materials (e.g., prose fiction,

                                                                                                                         13
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                   Sample Assessment Tasks
newspaper articles, procedures manuals, Web sites) on
familiar subjects.
2.8 Summarize reading passages.




ADVANCED HIGH READING                                            ADVANCED HIGH READING
1.0 Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development                     Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
Learners use contextual clues and higher-order processes         level:
to interpret meaning in context in a variety of text types and   Read an informational or practical text and:
on a variety of topics.                                          identify relevancy of the information to the purpose;
1.1 Use syntactic clues to interpret the meanings of             draw conclusions based on specific details; and
complex sentences or new vocabulary.                             skim and scan information from charts/graphs, etc.,
1.2 Interpret analogies in familiar contexts.                    and choose an appropriate course of action, such
1.3 Interpret a wide variety of idioms and phrasal verbs in      as reading a class schedule and making a
context.                                                         selection of courses.
1.4 Interpret meaning of metaphors and similes in context.       Read a short story and: write or orally give an
1.5 Find information by using reference tools such as a          opinion about the ideas; analyze the author’s point
print or online encyclopedia.                                    of view; and make inferences and predictions about
                                                                 the content.
2.0 Reading Skills                                               Summarize or paraphrase a reading passage.
Learners comprehend standard materials such as the
newspaper, routine correspondence, and specialized print         Appropriate standardized assessments for this
or online materials in their fields of interest. They can read   level:
authentic materials and nonspecialized prose on most             CASAS (Life Skills): 236–245
subjects, but with difficulty.                                   SPL (Reading and Writing): 8
2.1 Summarize or paraphrase information gained from
authentic materials on familiar topics.
2.2 Interpret main ideas and key points from specialized
material in their own fields of interest.
2.3 Apply appropriate reading strategies (e.g., skimming,
scanning, predicting, inferring) for understanding content
on unfamiliar topics or specialized information.
2.4 Evaluate information in familiar and some unfamiliar
passages for accuracy and relevance to purpose.
2.5 Draw general conclusions from specific details in a
passage.

                                                                                                                         14
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                Sample Assessment Tasks
2.6 Analyze an author’s point of view by making inferences.
2.7 Make judgments of information found in reading
material based on personal value system.
2.8 Determine meaning of increasingly complex passages
by using contextual clues (e.g., chronological order,
comparison, contrast, and simple listing).




                                                                                        15
Domain: Writing

ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                    Sample Assessment Tasks
BEGINNING LITERACY WRITING                                       BEGINNING LITERACY WRITING
1.0 Writing Skills                                               Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
Learners copy letters of the alphabet, numbers, and isolated     level:
words and phrases. They write numbers and isolated words         Write a simple list by copying familiar words
and phrases to fill in simple forms.                             (e.g., groceries, classroom supplies).
1.1 Trace shapes and letters, following directions and           Fill in a highly simplified form by writing single-
samples.                                                         word responses, filling in a bubble, or making a
1.2 Copy letters of the alphabet and numerals.                   check mark or X.
1.3 Copy basic information (e.g., name, phone number,            Fill in a simple form with basic personal
address) for personal identification on a form.                  information (e.g., name, age, address, phone
1.4 Copy a list of words previously produced orally.             number).

                                                                 Appropriate standardized assessments for this
                                                                 level:
                                                                 CASAS (Life Skills): 180 and below
                                                                 SPL (Reading and Writing): 0–1
                                                                 Literacy BEST: 0–7

BEGINNING LOW WRITING                                            BEGINNING LOW WRITING
1.0 Writing Skills                                               Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
Learners print numbers, letters, a limited number of basic       level:
sight words and familiar words and phrases, and simple           Write a list from material read or heard (e.g.,
sentences and phrases. They write lists, basic personal          place and time of an event).
information, and very simple messages, with some errors.         Write a brief note or message (e.g., a thank-you
1.1 Print the letters of the alphabet legibly.                   note).
1.2 Write numerals.                                              Write a simple 3–5-sentence description of a
1.3 Copy or transcribe familiar words, phrases, and high-        familiar situation, such as their family.
frequency expressions from learned materials.                    Fill in a simple form (e.g., a library card
1.4 Write a series of simple sentences on one topic, based       application, a bank withdrawal slip).
on previously learned vocabulary and structures.
1.5 Edit writing for basic capitalization and end punctuation.
                                                                                                                       16
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                    Sample Assessment Tasks
1.6 Write a list (e.g., shopping list, invitation list) from     Appropriate standardized assessments for
material read or heard.                                          this level:
1.7 Fill out simple forms that require limited biographical or   CASAS (Life Skills): 181–200
personal information.                                            SPL (Reading and Writing): 2–4
                                                                 Literacy BEST: 8–46
BEGINNING HIGH WRITING
1.0 Writing Skills                                               BEGINNING HIGH WRITING
Learners have sufficient control of the writing system to        Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
meet limited practical needs. They generate sentences into       level:
short, loosely organized paragraphs related to survival skills   Write a short note or message (e.g., an
and personal topics, with frequent errors. They write short      invitation, a note to a child’s teacher).
messages or notes within the scope of their limited              Write a short, chronological paragraph about
language experience, with some errors.                           past events or future plans using simple
1.1 Write simple sentences based on personal experiences         sentences.
or familiar material (e.g., recipes, directions, e-mail          Fill out a simple library card application or
messages).                                                       banking form.
1.2 Write a short note or message (e.g., to a landlord about     Complete a writing portfolio showing evidence of:
a repair, or a child’s teacher about an illness).                brainstorming or note taking;
1.3 Write a loosely organized paragraph based on personal        a first draft;
experiences or familiar material.                                self and peer editing; and
1.4 Edit and revise writing for capitalization, sentence         the final draft.
punctuation, and correct spelling.
1.5 Fill out simple forms that require some detailed             Appropriate standardized assessments for
biographical or personal information.                            this level:
1.6 Write down key information from a recorded message           CASAS (Life Skills): 181–200
(e.g., the time and day of a meeting from a telephone            SPL (Reading and Writing): 2–4
answering machine).                                              Literacy BEST: 8–46

INTERMEDIATE LOW WRITING                                         INTERMEDIATE LOW WRITING
1.0 Writing Skills                                               Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
Learners write one or more short paragraphs related to           level:
survival skills, personal topics, and nonpersonal topics with    Write a note detailing the basic ideas of a short
some errors. They write complete messages with a few             written or spoken dialog.

                                                                                                                     17
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                     Sample Assessment Tasks
errors.                                                           Write a paragraph responding to a short written
1.1 Write a short note or message including some                  prompt.
supporting details (e.g., to a teacher or supervisor              Fill out a sample job application relevant to their
explaining an absence).                                           interests.
1.2 Fill out paper or online forms requiring detailed personal    Complete a writing portfolio showing evidence of:
information on varied topics (e.g., medical, job, banking,        brainstorming or note taking; a first draft; self and
travel forms).                                                    peer editing; and the final draft.
1.3 Write a paragraph that includes a topic sentence,
supporting detail, and a conclusion (e.g., on a topic of          Appropriate standardized assessments for
personal interest, to request the return of a cleaning deposit    this level:
from a landlord).                                                 CASAS (Life Skills): 201–210
1.4 Edit writing for spelling, capitalization, sentence           SPL (Reading and Writing): 5
punctuation, and basic grammatical form, with some degree         Literacy BEST: 47–53
of accuracy.
1.5 Write down important details from face-to-face or
recorded spoken messages (e.g., about a child’s field trip, a     INTERMEDIATE HIGH WRITING
job interview).                                                   Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
1.6 Take notes on familiar material transmitted orally (e.g., a   level:
doctor’s directions for taking a medication, or a job             Write at least two paragraphs responding to a
supervisor’s instructions about a task).                          written prompt that include:a topic sentence;
                                                                  supporting details; and a conclusion.
INTERMEDIATE HIGH WRITING                                         Write a personal letter for a specific purpose.
1.0 Writing Skills                                                Fill out authentic forms, surveys, or
Learners write brief compositions about previously                questionnaires.
discussed topics, demonstrating control of basic                  Complete a writing portfolio showing evidence of:
grammatical patterns. Errors are common when using                brainstorming or note taking; multiple drafts;
complex structures. They write routine correspondence with        self and peer editing; and the final draft.
increasing complexity of organization and detail.
1.1 Take notes on information transmitted orally on familiar      Appropriate standardized assessments for
or unfamiliar topics when supporting material is provided         this level:
(e.g., at a school or job orientation meeting).                   CASAS (Life Skills): 211–220
1.2 Write an academic or practical composition of at least        SPL (Reading and Writing): 6
two paragraphs, with a main idea and supporting details           Literacy BEST: 54–65
                                                                                                                          18
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                   Sample Assessment Tasks
(e.g., for a detailed accident report).
1.3 Edit writing for content, spelling, capitalization,
punctuation of varied sentence types, and grammatical
form.
1.4 Fill out increasingly complex authentic paper and online
forms, questionnaires, and surveys (e.g., driver’s license
application, job satisfaction survey).
1.5 Write personal letters or e-mail messages for various
purposes.
1.6 Write a simple business letter (e.g., to request an
application or information).

*ADVANCED WRITING                                                *ADVANCED WRITING
1.0 Writing Skills                                               Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
Learners write compositions on familiar topics. They have        level:
consistent control of mechanics, but make some                   Write a descriptive or expository composition that
grammatical errors with complex structures. They write           includes:
descriptions, short compositions, summaries, and                 an introductory paragraph; up to 3 paragraphs in
responses to questions on most forms and applications.           the body, each with a topic sentence and
1.1 Expand and combine simple sentences by adding                supporting details; combinations of simple
modifying words, clauses, and phrases.                           sentences into clauses and phrases; a
1.2 Write descriptive and expository compositions using          conclusion; and evidence of research
correct punctuation and coherent organization.                   (references to sources of information).
1.3 Organize sentences effectively to convey meaning.            Write a business letter using appropriate style
1.4 Edit own writing for grammatical form, word choice,          and format.
spelling, mechanics, and organization. Edit peers’ writing for   Write notes based on a lecture or oral
content and organization.                                        presentation.
1.5 Take notes from formal community, job, or academic           Fill out a detailed form such as an accident
presentations.                                                   report.
1.6 Complete forms that require some narrative description       Complete a writing portfolio showing evidence of:
(e.g., accident reports, questionnaires with comment             brainstorming or note taking;
sections).                                                       multiple drafts;
1.7 Write a business letter or e-mail message requiring          self and peer editing; and the final draft.
                                                                                                                      19
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                   Sample Assessment Tasks
some detail (e.g., to request an informational interview).      Appropriate standardized assessments for
                                                                this level:
                                                                CASAS (Life Skills): 221–235
                                                                SPL (Reading and Writing): 7
                                                                Literacy BEST: 66 and above

*ADVANCED WRITING                                               *ADVANCED WRITING
1.0 Writing Skills                                              Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
Learners write detailed, coherent compositions on familiar      level:
topics with few syntactic errors, although the style may be     Make outlines from appropriate readings and
different from that of a native speaker. They write well-       lectures or presentations.
developed descriptions, summaries, and compositions, as         Write coherent compositions that include:
well as detailed responses to questions on forms and            a clearly-defined topic; supporting details;
applications.                                                   combination of simple sentences into clauses
1.1 Write simple outlines from reading passages or lectures.    and phrases; a conclusion; and evidence of
1.2 Write summaries and paraphrases of reading passages.        research (references to sources of information).
1.3 Write compositions with a clear introduction, supporting    Write detailed formal letters using appropriate
details, and conclusion, using a variety of rhetorical          style and format.
techniques (e.g., comparison/contrast; cause/effect;            Fill out a complex forms such as an independent
generalization/example; exposition).                            contracting agreement or college application.
1.4 Edit own and peers’ writing for grammatical form, word      Complete a writing portfolio showing evidence of:
choice, spelling, mechanics, sentence variety, and              brainstorming or note taking; multiple drafts;
organization.                                                   self and peer editing; and the final draft.
1.5 Take notes from full-length formal presentations.
1.6 Write detailed formal letters or e-mail messages (e.g.,     Appropriate standardized assessments for
letters of complaint, letters to accompany job applications).   this level:
                                                                CASAS (Life Skills): 236–245
                                                                SPL (Reading and Writing): 8




                                                                                                                    20
Domain: Listening and Speaking
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                Sample Assessment Tasks
Beginning Literacy Listening and Speaking                     Beginning Literacy Listening and Speaking
1.0 Listening Skills                                          Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
Learners understand a limited range of simple spoken          level:
isolated words, phrases, and questions drawn from             Engage in a simple dialog with a partner using
familiar material such as personal information or the         familiar greeting formulas.
immediate physical setting.                                   Engage in a role-play using conversational
1.1 Demonstrate understanding of high-frequency               greetings and exchange of basic information,
commands and expressions of courtesy.                         supported by gestures.
1.2 Respond to simple questions about personal information
(e.g., name, address, phone number).                          Appropriate standardized assessments for
1.3 Demonstrate understanding of familiar vocabulary          this level:
through physical response (e.g., pointing, manipulation of    CASAS (Life Skills): 180 and below
objects).                                                     SPL (Speaking): 0–1
                                                              Oral BEST: 0–15
1.0 Speaking Skills
Learners use a few English words, supported by gestures, to
express basic survival needs. They engage in very limited
social conversations, with frequent hesitations,
misunderstandings, and errors.
1.1 Express basic needs with simple words or phrases drawn
from learned material (e.g., I need paper).
1.2 Ask questions using a word or short phrase (e.g.,
Name?).
1.3 Answer simple questions with yes, no, or other one-word
responses.
1.4 Identify people, objects, and actions with one or two
words.
1.5 Repeat one- or two-word phrases for clarification.
1.6 State lack of understanding with a one- to two-word
phrase (e.g., Sorry? Say again?).
1.7 Give basic commands and express caution using one- to
                                                                                                               21
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                            Sample Assessment Tasks
two-word phrases (e.g., Stop! Look out!).
1.8 Engage in very basic conversational exchanges using
learned phrases (e.g., How are you? Fine.).




                                                                                    22
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                Sample Assessment Tasks
Beginning Low Listening and Speaking                          Beginning Low Listening and Speaking
1.0 Listening Skills                                          Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
Learners understand a range of frequently used spoken         level:
words, phrases, simple learned expressions, and questions     Respond to short commands related to
in familiar contexts.                                         community or job interactions.
1.1 Demonstrate understanding of simple words in context of   Participate in a simple open-ended dialog or
common, everyday situations.                                  structured role play that includes: routine social
1.2 Respond appropriately to short emergency warnings and     phrases;simple wh- and yes/no questions;
commands (e.g., Be careful! Slow down! Please wait here.).    at least one request for clarification.
1.3 Respond to some routine social phrases (e.g., Hi, how     Identify basic factual details in a short, recorded
are you? Paper or plastic? Have a good weekend.).             dialog.
1.4 Use simple contextual clues, such as time reference       Ask for and give simple directions.
words, to get information from short announcements or         Explain how to perform a simple action or task.
conversations (e.g., It’s supposed to rain tomorrow.).
1.5 Demonstrate understanding of simple face-to-face          Beginning High Listening and Speaking
conversations that use previously learned material.           Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
1.6 Demonstrate comprehension of simple wh- vs. yes/no        level:
questions through appropriate responses.                      Identify details about the topic of a brief
1.7 Respond to simple requests for repetition or simple       recorded news report.
clarification.                                                Identify the context and relationships of the
                                                              speakers in a recorded interview.
1.0 Speaking Skills                                           Describe a sequence of events on a topic
Learners communicate survival needs using very simple         related to their personal lives.
learned phrases and sentences. They engage in limited         Participate in a simple open-ended dialog or
social conversations, with frequent hesitations,              structured role play on the topic of basic needs,
misunderstandings, and errors.                                common social interactions, or common
1.1 Make statements related to basic needs using previously   activities for 1–3 minutes, demonstrating
learned words and phrases.                                    appropriate use of communicative skills such as:
1.2 Make simple statements about everyday activities.         turn taking; asking for clarification;
1.3 Ask simple yes/no and wh- questions to request basic      giving and asking for directions;
factual or personal information.                              clarifying by simple rewording or repeating; and
1.4 Answer simple questions with short-phrase responses       usage of simple past, present, and future
(e.g., answer Where do you live? with In San Francisco.).     verb tenses, and reduced forms of high
                                                                                                                    23
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                   Sample Assessment Tasks
1.5 Ask for and respond to requests for simple clarification.    frequency expressions.
1.6 Engage in simple conversational exchanges on limited
and familiar topics using learned phrases.                       Appropriate standardized assessments for
1.7 Give simple commands and express caution using short         this level:
phrases.                                                         CASAS (Life Skills): 181–200
                                                                 SPL (Speaking): 2–3
Beginning High Listening and Speaking                            Oral BEST: 16–41
1.0 Listening Skills
Learners comprehend spoken English containing some
unfamiliar words when the words are used in familiar
contexts. They understand another speaker well enough to
participate in simple conversations.
1.1 Demonstrate understanding of simple words and phrases
drawn from learned topics.
1.2 Respond appropriately to a brief message of urgency
(e.g., Call your son’s school right away.).
1.3 Identify the main topic of conversation in familiar
material.
1.4 Demonstrate understanding of non-face-to-face speech
(e.g., short announcements, recordings, or telephone
conversations) in familiar contexts.
1.5 Differentiate between statements and questions based
on grammatical structure and intonation patterns.
1.6 Recognize words that signal differences between
present, past, and future events.
1.7 Recognize reduced forms in high-frequency expressions
(e.g., gonna).
1.8 Respond appropriately to simple instructions and other
non-classroom requests, including requests for clarification.
1.9 Use contextual clues (e.g., time, place, identity, or
relationship of speakers) to get information from increasingly
extended announcements or conversations.


                                                                                                            24
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                   Sample Assessment Tasks
1.0 Speaking Skills
Learners communicate about basic needs and common
activities. They participate in basic conversations in routine
social situations. Hesitations, misunderstandings, and errors
may be frequent.
1.1 Ask questions related to basic needs using previously
learned utterances.
1.2 Answer simple questions related to basic needs using
previously learned phrases or simple sentences.
1.3 Ask for and give meanings of words and expressions.
1.4 Engage in conversational exchanges on familiar topics
using mostly learned phrases.
1.5 Communicate simple personal information on the
telephone.
1.6 Give and ask for simple directions.

Intermediate Low Listening and Speaking                          Intermediate Low Listening and Speaking
1.0 Listening Skills                                             Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
Learners comprehend spoken English containing some               level:
unfamiliar words in mostly familiar contexts. They understand    Follow spoken multi-step directions to complete
and respond to another speaker in increasingly extended          a form or accomplish a work task (e.g., wax the
conversations on familiar topics.                                floor).
1.1 Follow multi-step directions and simple rules or             Listen to an open-ended dialog or listening
regulations presented orally with support materials in a         passage that includes some unfamiliar
variety of familiar situations.                                  vocabulary and a familiar context. Restate the
1.2 Identify specified essential information from a listening    information or complete a simple outline
passage when given a verbal prompt.                              identifying:
1.3 Demonstrate understanding of general meaning and             general meaning;
details in face-to-face conversations containing some            supporting details; and
unfamiliar vocabulary.                                           implicit information.
1.4 Demonstrate understanding of non-face-to-face                Engage in face-to-face or telephone
conversations on familiar material in familiar contexts (e.g.,   conversation for 2–4 minutes demonstrating
telephone, intercom, 2-way radio).                               appropriate use of interactive skills such as:
                                                                                                                   25
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                  Sample Assessment Tasks
1.5 Differentiate between formal and informal language,         turn taking;asking for clarification; and
including some high-frequency reduced speech in simple          giving and asking for directions; and appropriate
familiar expressions (e.g., How’s it going? versus How are      content such as:using appropriate forms of
you?), when accompanied by visual context and clues.            address;using conventional conversational
1.6 Demonstrate understanding of implicit information (e.g.,    phrases; andusing appropriate level of formality.
in a short conversation in a work setting between a man and     Prepare and deliver a short oral presentation in
a woman, infer that the woman is the man’s boss).               which they:
1.7 Demonstrate understanding of organizational clues used      summarize a brief listening passage;
in speaking (e.g., first, next, then, later, finally).          sequence 3–4 items of information;
                                                                present information with some details.
1.0 Speaking Skills
Learners communicate about topics beyond their survival         Appropriate standardized assessments for
needs. They clarify meaning by asking questions or by           this level:
simply rewording. They participate in conversations in          CASAS (Life Skills): 201–210
familiar and some unfamiliar contexts. Some hesitations,        SPL (Speaking): 4
misunderstandings, and errors may occur.                        Oral BEST: 42–50
1.1 Describe a sequence of events on a topic related to their
personal lives.                                                 Intermediate High Listening and Speaking
1.2 Ask for and give clarification on content of utterances     Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
(e.g., You mean this must be ready on Friday?).                 level:
1.3 Initiate and maintain simple conversations using            Retell details from a presentation or discussion
appropriate forms of address (e.g., Mr. Smith vs. Bob) and      regarding a process, including:main ideas;
register (e.g., formal or informal).                            supporting details; and sequence of actions.
1.4 Engage in conversations on familiar topics and              Participate in a structured role-play in which
increasingly on unfamiliar topics.                              learners must provide specific information, such
1.5 Summarize a brief listening passage on a familiar topic.    as the bank loan application process.
1.6 Participate in simple telephone conversations on familiar   Listen to an extensive dialog and identify the
topics.                                                         moods, attitudes, and feelings of the speakers.
1.7 Give and ask for directions, and give increasingly          Engage in an extended face-to-face
complex commands and warnings.                                  conversation, interview, or telephone
1.8 Prepare and deliver a short, simple oral presentation on    conversation, demonstrating appropriate use of
a familiar topic.                                               interactive skills such as: turn taking;
1.9 Engage in a brief, simple interview on familiar topics.     asking for and providing information;
                                                                                                                    26
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                   Sample Assessment Tasks
                                                                 clarifying by rewording or repeating; and
Intermediate High Listening and Speaking                         using active listening techniques such as
1.0 Listening Skills                                             nodding;and appropriate content such as:
Learners understand essential points of discussions or           using conventional conversational phrases;
speeches on topics in special fields of interest. They           using appropriate level of formality; and
understand and respond to another speaker with some lack         providing important details.Prepare and deliver a
of accuracy in conversations on unfamiliar topics.               short oral presentation in which they:
1.1 Respond to common requests for assistance or                 summarize information;
information and record important facts, directions, and          present information with supporting details or
appointments discussed in person and on the phone.               examples;
1.2 Identify main ideas and most supporting details in factual   open and close appropriately; and
discourse relating to everyday topics.                           sequence information appropriately.
1.3 Identify essential information on a familiar subject in an
observed conversation about the subject.                         Appropriate standardized assessments for
1.4 Demonstrate understanding of a narrative passage read        this level:
aloud and be able to repeat the main actions in sequence.        CASAS (Life Skills): 211–220
1.5 Demonstrate understanding of everyday conversation           SPL (Speaking): 5
when speakers make some adaptations for English learners         Oral BEST: 51–57
(e.g., repeating or slowing down).
1.6 Differentiate between the use of formal and informal
language, including reduced speech and slang, even when
no visual context or clues are present.
1.7 Detect the mood of a message, determining to a limited
degree such components as the attitudes and feelings of the
speakers or the urgency of the message.

1.0 Speaking Skills
Learners communicate about a variety of topics. They
generally use appropriate syntax, but lack thorough control of
grammatical patterns. They engage in extended
conversation and interviews but lack fluency in discussing
highly specialized or unfamiliar subjects.
1.1 Generate new utterances based on previously learned
                                                                                                                     27
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                    Sample Assessment Tasks
language patterns.
1.2 Participate in face-to-face conversations on some topics
beyond immediate survival needs, such as personal histories
and descriptions of people and places.
1.3 Clarify utterances by rewording or repeating in order to
be understood by the general public.
1.4 Adjust language forms to the level of formality required to
fulfill basic courtesy functions in face-to-face conversations.
1.5 Engage in increasingly extended conversations on
familiar and unfamiliar topics with some errors.
1.6 Participate in extended telephone conversations on
familiar subjects with clarification.
1.7 Prepare and deliver a short oral presentation on a
familiar topic.
1.8 Engage in a short interview on familiar and partly
unfamiliar topics.

*Advanced Listening and Speaking                                  *Advanced Listening and Speaking
1.0 Listening Skills                                              Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
Learners understand descriptive and factual material in a         level:
familiar context. They also understand hypothetical situations    Summarize the plot or main idea of a broadcast
when presented in a familiar context.                             or lecture, including comments on:
1.1 Demonstrate understanding of hypothetical situations in       emotional content; hypothetical topics; and
familiar contexts.                                                specific details.
1.2 Demonstrate understanding of most of the language             Engage in an extended interview on a complex
used in movies or broadcasts of a very general nature.            vocational or academic topic.
1.3 Demonstrate understanding of the majority of face-to-         Follow an extended set of directions to reach a
face speech in standard dialect and at a normal rate, with        remote or hard-to-find location.
some repetition.                                                  Engage in an extended face-to-face
1.4 Infer emotional content of a spoken message (e.g.,            conversation, interview, or telephone
anger, compliment, condolence, sarcasm) from intonation,          conversation, demonstrating appropriate use of
rhythm, and stress.                                               interactive skills such as:
1.5 Respond to detailed, specific spoken instructions (e.g.,      clarifying by rewording or paraphrasing;
                                                                                                                    28
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                  Sample Assessment Tasks
related to operating machines, employment directives, or        using active listening techniques to maintain the
academic assignments).                                          conversation; and appropriate content such as:
                                                                using appropriate phrases for initiating and
1.0 Speaking Skills                                             terminating the conversation;
Learners communicate about a variety of topics with             making adjustments according to the level of
increasing fluency and increasing control of complex            formality of the situation; and providing details,
grammatical patterns. They participate competently in casual    examples, or explanation.
and extended conversation. They may grope for appropriate       Prepare and deliver a well-organized oral
vocabulary when speaking on specialized subjects or             presentation in which they:
unfamiliar topics.                                              present information with supporting details or
1.1 Participate with increasing fluency in most face-to-face    examples; use verbal connections between
social conversations and telephone conversations, including     parts; andpresent information in a logical
those about work and current events.                            sequence.
1.2 Clarify meaning through strategies such as paraphrasing
when misunderstanding occurs.                                   Appropriate standardized assessments for
1.3 Make some adjustments in language used in face-to-face      this level:
conversation according to the level of formality required by    CASAS (Life Skills): 221–235
the social situation.                                           SPL (Speaking): 6
1.4 Engage in extended conversations on familiar and            Oral BEST: 58–64
unfamiliar topics for a variety of purposes.
1.5 Participate in extended telephone conversations on
familiar subjects and increasingly on unfamiliar subjects.
1.6 Prepare and deliver a well-organized oral presentation on
a general topic.
1.7 Engage in an extended interview on familiar and some
unfamiliar topics.

Advanced High Listening and Speaking                            Advanced High Listening and Speaking
1.0 Listening Skills                                            Appropriate local assessment tasks for this
Learners understand descriptions and narrations of              level:
specialized material in a familiar or unfamiliar context.       Summarize the plot or main idea of a broadcast
Learners understand conversations and discussions or            or lecture, including: relevant specific details;
speeches on topics related to their fields of interest.         identification of bias; and
                                                                                                                     29
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                    Sample Assessment Tasks
1.1 Demonstrate understanding of face-to-face or broadcast        comments on the accuracy of information.
descriptions and narration of specialized material.               Follow a set of detailed oral directions requiring
1.2 Identify accurate and applicable information in a variety     making inferences.
of listening contexts (e.g., academic, work-related).             Engage in an extended conversation, interview,
1.3 Adapt listening strategies (e.g., use prior knowledge,        debate, or telephone conversation,
listen for the gist, use organizational patterns and              demonstrating appropriate use of interactive
association, find listening clues) when confronted with           skills such as: clarifying by rewording or
spoken information on topics of less familiarity.                 paraphrasing; using a variety of conversational
1.4 Identify details of face-to-face conversations on a variety   strategies for maintaining the interaction; and
of everyday subjects spoken at normal speed and using             appropriate content such as:
common patterns of reduced speech, phrasal verbs, idioms,         using appropriate conversational strategies for
and slang.                                                        initiating and terminating the interaction;
1.5 Determine the usefulness, bias, and/or accuracy of            making adjustments according to the level of
information presented orally (e.g., recognize loaded              formality and purpose of the interaction;
language, distinguish fact from opinion, identify inferences,     providing details, examples, or questions that
evaluate sources).                                                extend the interaction; andusing specialized
                                                                  vocabulary.
1.0 Speaking Skills                                               Prepare and deliver a well-organized oral
Learners communicate with ease about a variety of topics.         presentation in which they: present information
They generally use appropriate syntax, even with complex          with supporting evidence, details, or examples;
grammatical patterns. They participate effectively in casual      use and explain specialized vocabulary and
and extended conversation. They speak with sufficient             concepts; and present information in a cohesive
structural accuracy and vocabulary to participate in formal       and logical sequence.
and informal conversations on practical or specialized topics.
1.1 Speak fluently in most formal and informal conversations      Appropriate standardized assessments for
on practical and social topics.                                   this level:
1.2 Speak with some fluency on specialized subjects of            CASAS (Life Skills): 236–245
interest related to academic pursuits or work demands.            SPL (Speaking): 7
1.3 Summarize orally and clarify information received from a      Oral BEST: 65 and above
variety of sources.
1.4 Make appropriate adjustments in language used in face-
to-face conversation according to the level of formality
required by the social situation.

                                                                                                                       30
ESL Model Curriculum Standards                                   Sample Assessment Tasks
1.5 Initiate, maintain, and terminate conversations by the use
of appropriate conversational techniques including pauses,
interruptions, and active listening strategies.
1.6 Engage in extended conversations on familiar and
unfamiliar topics for a variety of purposes.
1.7 Participate in extended telephone conversations on
familiar and unfamiliar subjects.
1.8 Prepare and deliver a well-organized oral presentation on
a general or specialized topic.
1.9 Engage in an extended interview on familiar and
unfamiliar topics.




                                                                                           31
 II. Model Curriculum Standards,
Performance Standards, and Model
        Assessment Tasks




                                   32
Beginning Literacy Listening
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Listening Skills

      Learners understand a limited range of simple spoken isolated words, phrases,
      and questions drawn from familiar material such as personal information or the
      immediate physical setting.

      1.1   Demonstrate understanding of high-frequency commands and
            expressions of courtesy.
      1.2   Respond to simple questions about personal information (e.g., name,
            address, phone number).
      1.3   Demonstrate understanding of familiar vocabulary through physical
            response (e.g., pointing, manipulation of objects).


Beginning Literacy Speaking
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Speaking Skills

      Learners use a few English words, supported by gestures, to express basic
      survival needs. They engage in very limited social conversations, with frequent
      hesitations, misunderstandings, and errors.

      1.1   Express basic needs with simple words or phrases drawn from learned
            material (e.g., I need paper).
      1.2   Ask questions using a word or short phrase (e.g., Name?).
      1.3   Answer simple questions with yes, no, or other one-word responses.
      1.4   Identify people, objects, and actions with one or two words.
      1.5   Repeat one- or two-word phrases for clarification.
      1.6   State lack of understanding with a one- to two-word phrase (e.g., Sorry?
            Say again?).
      1.7   Give basic commands and express caution using one- to two-word
            phrases (e.g., Stop! Look out!).
            Engage in very basic conversational exchanges using learned phrases
            (e.g., How are you? Fine.).


                                                                                        33
Beginning Literacy Reading
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Reading Skills

      Learners recognize letters of the alphabet, numbers, and some simple words.

      1.1   Demonstrate eye movement from top to bottom and left to right.
      1.2   Discriminate between shapes and both uppercase and lowercase print
            letters.
      1.3   Discriminate among numerals 1-100.
      1.4   Relate phonological sounds to letters (sound/symbol correspondence).
      1.5   Read basic sight words and signs with one word or symbol (e.g., restroom
            signs, computer keys).
            Coordinate hand and eye to fill out forms requiring non-verbal answers
            (e.g., X for boxes, scantron bubbles).

Beginning Literacy Writing
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Writing Skills

      Learners copy letters of the alphabet, numbers, and isolated words and phrases.
      They write numbers and isolated words and phrases to fill in simple forms.

      1.1   Trace shapes and letters, following directions and samples.
      1.2   Copy letters of the alphabet and numerals.
      1.3   Copy basic information (e.g., name, phone number, address) for personal
            identification on a form.
      1.4   Copy a list of words previously produced orally.




                                                                                    34
Proficient Performance Standard for Beginning Literacy
Upon exit from Beginning Literacy, learners can function in English at an emerging level
in familiar contexts, with assistance. They can demonstrate understanding of a few
isolated spoken words and phrases through actions, gestures, or very short-spoken
responses. Some repetitions may be necessary. Learners can speak about basic needs
using previously learned words and short phrases, with supporting gestures. Errors in
pronunciation and grammar often impede comprehension. Learners can recognize and
copy numbers, letters, and some basic sight words in isolation or in familiar
combinations. They may be able to write their own names and addresses and fill out
very simple forms.

Example Assessment Tasks for Beginning Literacy Learners
To show proficiency, learners at the Beginning Literacy level might:

        Engage in a simple dialog with a partner using familiar greeting formulas.
        Engage in a role-play using conversational greetings and exchange of basic
         information, supported by gestures.
        Spell out loud familiar words, such as their names and street names.
        Use a picture prompt and identify concrete items using previously learned
         vocabulary, supported by gestures.
        Use a calendar to say the days of the week and count out loud to 30.
        Recognize and name the letters of the alphabet, and familiar numbers (such
         as their age).
        Read and explain words or symbols in the environment (e.g., restroom signs,
         exit signs, etc.).
        Write a simple list by copying familiar words (e.g., groceries, classroom
         supplies).
        Fill in a highly simplified form by writing single-word responses, filling in a
         bubble, or making a check mark or X.
        Fill in a simple form with basic personal information (e.g., name, age, address,
         phone number).

Examples of Technology Use for Beginning Literacy Learners
Learners at the Beginning Literacy level can use technology for learning and showing
proficiency in the content standards, in ways such as the following:

        Listen to and record basic survival words, using a language master or order
         recording devices.
        Watch a short video clip on safety and identify survival signs.
        Recognize and name symbols, numerals, and letters of the alphabet on a
         computer keyboard.
        Identify people and places using an appropriate computer software program or
         website.
                                                                                       35
   Copy previously learned words or basic personal information using an
    appropriate computer software program.




                                                                           36
Beginning Low Listening
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Listening Skills

      Learners understand a range of frequently used spoken words, phrases, simple
      learned expressions, and questions in familiar contexts.

      1.1  Demonstrate understanding of simple words in context of common,
           everyday situations.
      1.2  Respond appropriately to short emergency warnings and commands (e.g.,
           Be careful! Slow down! Please wait here.).
      1.3  Respond to some routine social phrases (e.g., Hi, how are you? Paper or
           plastic? Have a good weekend.).
      1.4  Use simple contextual clues, such as time reference words, to get
           information from short announcements or conversations (e.g., It’s
           supposed to rain tomorrow.).
      1.5  Demonstrate understanding of simple face-to-face conversations that use
           previously learned material.
      Demonstrate comprehension of simple wh- vs. yes/no questions through
           appropriate responses.
      Respond to simple requests for repetition or simple clarification.

Beginning Low Speaking
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Speaking Skills

      Learners communicate survival needs using very simple learned phrases and
      sentences. They engage in limited social conversations, with frequent
      hesitations, misunderstandings, and errors.

      1.1   Make statements related to basic needs using previously learned words
            and phrases.
      1.2   Make simple statements about everyday activities.
      1.3   Ask simple yes/no and wh- questions to request basic factual or personal
            information.
      1.4   Answer simple questions with short-phrase responses (e.g., answer
            Where do you live? with In San Francisco.).
      1.5   Ask for and respond to requests for simple clarification.

                                                                                   37
1.6   Engage in simple conversational exchanges on limited and familiar topics
      using learned phrases.
1.7   Give simple commands and express caution using short phrases.




                                                                             38
Beginning Low Reading
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development

      Learners recognize and read numbers and letters. They recognize subparts of
      familiar words.

      1.1   Identify the letters of the English alphabet and numbers.
      1.2   Relate phonological sounds to letters and clusters of letters (sound/symbol
            correspondence).
      1.3   Identify syllables and common basic word parts (e.g., un-clear, eat-ing,
            box-es) in context in familiar words.
      1.4   Identify common antonyms (e.g., hot/cold, young/old).
      1.5   Find a familiar word in an alphabetized list.

2.0   Reading Skills

      Learners construct limited meaning from simple print materials on familiar topics
      with repeated reading and checking.

      2.1     Use familiar visual clues (such as pictures, graphs, and charts) to predict
              meaning.
      2.2     Recognize personal information words in print (e.g., first and last names,
              address, school or job identification number, etc.).
      2.3     Recognize common forms of environmental print found in the home, on
              community facilities, and for basic services (e.g., simple labels and
              product names, simple computer commands, and simple warnings:
              danger, poison, file, save, bank, post office).
      2.4     Recognize basic sight words in different handwriting styles (e.g., cursive)
              in short notes and messages.
      2.5     Recognize basic abbreviations (e.g., Mr., Dr., St.).
      2.6     Scan for numerical information in simple signs and flyers (e.g., the time a
              store opens).
      2.7     Read and understand simple sentences using vocabulary and sentence
              patterns previously learned orally.
      2.8     Follow one- to three-step written instructions.




                                                                                       39
Beginning Low Writing
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Writing Skills

      Learners print numbers, letters, a limited number of basic sight words and
      familiar words and phrases, and simple sentences and phrases. They write lists,
      basic personal information, and very simple messages, with some errors.

      1.1   Print the letters of the alphabet legibly.
      1.2   Write numerals.
      1.3   Copy or transcribe familiar words, phrases, and high-frequency
            expressions from learned materials.
      1.4   Write a series of simple sentences on one topic, based on previously
            learned vocabulary and structures.
      1.5   Edit writing for basic capitalization and end punctuation.
      1.6   Write a list (e.g., shopping list, invitation list) from material read or heard.
      1.7   Fill out simple forms that require limited biographical or personal
            information.




                                                                                           40
Proficient Performance Standard for Beginning Low
Upon exit from Beginning Low, learners can function in English at a very basic level in
familiar contexts. They can demonstrate understanding of a range of frequently used
spoken words, phrases, simple learned expressions, and questions in familiar contexts,
but may need visual clues and repetitions. They can speak about survival needs and in
limited social conversation using very simple learned phrases and some short
sentences. Errors in pronunciation and grammar often impede comprehension.
Learners can identify basic information words in simple print materials with few errors by
quickly scanning. They can interpret simple written sentences based on familiar
vocabulary and structures, with some re-reading. Learners can write simple words,
phrases and sentences, but with some errors in vocabulary, grammar, and mechanics
which may interfere with meaning.

Example Assessment Tasks for Beginning Low Learners
To show proficiency, learners at the Beginning Low level might:

        Respond to short commands related to community or job interactions.
        Participate in a simple open-ended dialog or structured role play that includes:
             o routine social phrases;
             o simple wh- and yes/no questions;
             o at least one request for clarification.
        Identify basic factual details in a short, recorded dialog.
        Ask for and give simple directions.
        Explain how to perform a simple action or task.
        Match label names to pictures of products.
        Match a shopping or supplies list to pictures.
        Identify labeled areas of a map or times on a schedule.
        Read a short note and identify the writer and topic.
        Write a list from material read or heard (e.g., place and time of an event).
        Write a brief note or message (e.g., a thank-you note).
        Write a simple 3-5-sentence description of a familiar situation, such as their
         family.
        Fill in a simple form (e.g., a library card application, a bank withdrawal slip).

Examples of Technology Use for Beginning Low Learners
Learners at the Beginning Low level can use technology for learning and showing
proficiency in the content standards, in ways such as the following:

        Respond to simple oral directions to practice keyboarding using a computer
         program.
        Give simple directions to a partner about starting a computer program.
        Read and demonstrate understanding of basic computer terms (e.g., save,
         click, delete).
                                                                                        41
   Demonstrate understanding of a tape-recorded dialog on asking and
    responding to basic personal information questions.
   Tape-record a simple interview with a partner asking and responding to basic
    personal information questions.
   Read and follow up to 3-step directions to operate a copy machine.
   Write a simple list (e.g., a grocery list) or previously learned simple sentences
    using a word processing program.




                                                                                   42
Beginning High Listening
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Listening Skills

      Learners comprehend spoken English containing some unfamiliar words when
      the words are used in familiar contexts. They understand another speaker well
      enough to participate in simple conversations.

      1.1   Demonstrate understanding of simple words and phrases drawn from
            learned topics.
      1.2   Respond appropriately to a brief message of urgency (e.g., Call your son’s
            school right away.).
      1.3   Identify the main topic of conversation in familiar material.
      1.4   Demonstrate understanding of non-face-to-face speech (e.g., short
            announcements, recordings, or telephone conversations) in familiar
            contexts.
      1.5   Differentiate between statements and questions based on grammatical
            structure and intonation patterns.
      1.6   Recognize words that signal differences between present, past, and future
            events.
      1.7   Recognize reduced forms in high-frequency expressions (e.g., gonna).
      1.8   Respond appropriately to simple instructions and other non-classroom
            requests, including requests for clarification.
      1.9   Use contextual clues (e.g., time, place, identity, or relationship of
            speakers) to get information from increasingly extended announcements
            or conversations.




                                                                                      43
Beginning High Speaking
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Speaking Skills

      Learners communicate about basic needs and common activities. They
      participate in basic conversations in routine social situations. Hesitations,
      misunderstandings, and errors may be frequent.

      1.1    Ask questions related to basic needs using previously learned utterances.
      1.2    Answer simple questions related to basic needs using previously learned
             phrases or simple sentences.
      1.3    Ask for and give meanings of words and expressions.
      1.4    Engage in conversational exchanges on familiar topics using mostly
             learned phrases.
      1.5    Communicate simple personal information on the telephone.
      1.6    Give and ask for simple directions.




                                                                                      44
Beginning High Reading
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development

      Learners use basic word analysis skills to determine the meaning of new words
      in simple material in familiar contexts.

      1.1   Apply sound/symbol relationships to decode (sound out) a new word that
            occurs frequently in familiar situations.
      1.2   Recognize common roots, prefixes (e.g., pre-, un-), suffixes (e.g., -ing,
            -ed), and compound words in context.
      1.3   Identify common synonyms and antonyms (e.g., happy, glad, unhappy,
            sad) in context.
      1.4   Locate a word, number, or time in alphabetical or numeric order (e.g., in a
            telephone directory, work schedule, dictionary, or Web site directory).

      2.0   Reading Skills

            Learners read simplified material on familiar topics and construct limited
            meaning, with teacher assistance, from some authentic materials dealing
            with everyday matters.

            2.1    Use visual clues to predict meaning and interpret new words in
                   familiar contexts.
            2.2    Interpret isolated words and phrases in familiar contexts (e.g.,
                   traffic signs, store ads, fast food menus, computer menus).
            2.3    Interpret terms and directions on simple forms (e.g., personal
                   identification, school registration, checks, change of address).
            2.4    Recognize abbreviations in simple authentic material such as ads,
                   forms, and signs.
            2.5    Recognize familiar vocabulary and phrases in a variety of printed
                   fonts and handwriting styles.
            2.6    Scan simple authentic documents (e.g., ads, schedules, forms,
                   food coupons, Web pages, standardized tests) to find specific
                   information.
            2.7    Make simple inferences from brief narratives, charts, and schedules
                   (e.g., using a mail schedule to determine if a letter will be picked up
                   today).
            2.8    Identify the sequence of events in written directions or a simple
                   narrative passage.

                                                                                       45
2.9   Read and demonstrate understanding of short, simplified narrative
      paragraphs on familiar topics containing previously learned
      vocabulary and sentence patterns.




                                                                      46
Beginning High Writing
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Writing Skills

      Learners have sufficient control of the writing system to meet limited practical
      needs. They generate sentences into short, loosely organized paragraphs related
      to survival skills and personal topics, with frequent errors. They write short
      messages or notes within the scope of their limited language experience, with
      some errors.

      1.1   Write simple sentences based on personal experiences or familiar
            material (e.g., recipes, directions, e-mail messages).
      1.2   Write a short note or message (e.g., to a landlord about a repair, or a
            child’s teacher about an illness).
      1.3   Write a loosely organized paragraph based on personal experiences or
            familiar material.
      1.4   Edit and revise writing for capitalization, sentence punctuation, and correct
            spelling.
      1.5   Fill out simple forms that require some detailed biographical or personal
            information.
      1.6   Write down key information from a recorded message (e.g., the time and
            day of a meeting from a telephone answering machine).




                                                                                      47
Proficient Performance Standard for Beginning High
Upon exit from Beginning High, learners can function in English at a basic level in
familiar contexts. They can demonstrate understanding of simple conversations,
requests, and questions in familiar contexts, but may need some repetitions. They can
speak about basic needs and common activities, and engage in short social
conversations using learned phrases and simple sentences. Errors in pronunciation and
grammar sometimes impede comprehension. Learners can interpret with accuracy
written words, phrases, and simple directions in authentic materials in familiar contexts,
and interpret short, simplified narrative paragraphs on familiar topics with some re-
reading. They can write short notes, messages, and loosely organized short
paragraphs, but with some errors in vocabulary, grammar, and mechanics that may
interfere with meaning.

Example Assessment Tasks for Beginning High Learners
To show proficiency, learners at the Beginning High level might:

        Identify details about the topic of a brief recorded news report.
        Identify the context and relationships of the speakers in a recorded interview.
        Describe a sequence of events on a topic related to their personal lives.
        Participate in a simple open-ended dialog or structured role play on the topic
         of basic needs, common social interactions, or common activities for 1-3
         minutes, demonstrating appropriate use of communicative skills such as:
             o turn taking;
             o asking for clarification;
             o giving and asking for directions;
             o clarifying by simple rewording or repeating;
             o usage of simple past, present, and future verb tenses, and reduced
                  forms of high frequency expressions.
        Read a narrative passage, and identify the main topic and sequence of
         events.
        Read a chart or schedule, and make simple inferences based on the
         information.
        Write a short note or message (e.g., an invitation, a note to a child’s teacher).
        Write a short, chronological paragraph about past events or future plans using
         simple sentences.
        Fill out a simple library card application or banking form.
        Complete a writing portfolio showing evidence of: brainstorming or note taking;
         a first draft; self and peer editing; the final draft.

Examples of Technology Use for Beginning High Learners
Learners at the Beginning High level can use technology for learning and showing
proficiency in the content standards, in ways such as the following:


                                                                                        48
   Make a brief emergency telephone call.
   Ask questions and respond to directions about starting a computer program.
   Input a simple paragraph using a word processing program.
   Scan a level-appropriate Web page to locate specific information.
   Watch a video clip and predict what will happen next.
   Use an overhead projector to share a simple paragraph with classmates.




                                                                                 49
Intermediate Low Listening
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Listening Skills

      Learners comprehend spoken English containing some unfamiliar words in
      mostly familiar contexts. They understand and respond to another speaker in
      increasingly extended conversations on familiar topics.

      1.1   Follow multi-step directions and simple rules or regulations presented
            orally with support materials in a variety of familiar situations.
      1.2   Identify specified essential information from a listening passage when
            given a verbal prompt.
      1.3   Demonstrate understanding of general meaning and details in face-to-face
            conversations containing some unfamiliar vocabulary.
      1.4   Demonstrate understanding of non-face-to-face conversations on familiar
            material in familiar contexts (e.g., telephone, intercom, 2-way radio).
      1.5   Differentiate between formal and informal language, including some
            high-frequency reduced speech in simple familiar expressions (e.g., How’s
            it going? versus How are you?), when accompanied by visual context and
            clues.
      1.6   Demonstrate understanding of implicit information (e.g., in a short
            conversation in a work setting between a man and a woman, infer that the
            woman is the man’s boss).
      1.7   Demonstrate understanding of organizational clues used in speaking (e.g.,
            first, next, then, later, finally).




                                                                                    50
INTERMEDIATE LOW SPEAKING
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Speaking Skills

      Learners communicate about topics beyond their survival needs. They clarify
      meaning by asking questions or by simply rewording. They participate in
      conversations in familiar and some unfamiliar contexts. Some hesitations,
      misunderstandings, and errors may occur.

      1.1   Describe a sequence of events on a topic related to their personal lives.
      1.2   Ask for and give clarification on content of utterances (e.g., You mean this
            must be ready on Friday?).
      1.3   Initiate and maintain simple conversations using appropriate forms of
            address (e.g., Mr. Smith vs. Bob) and register (e.g., formal or informal).
      1.4   Engage in conversations on familiar topics and increasingly on unfamiliar
            topics.
      1.5   Summarize a brief listening passage on a familiar topic.
      1.6   Participate in simple telephone conversations on familiar topics.
      1.7   Give and ask for directions, and give increasingly complex commands and
            warnings.
      1.8   Prepare and deliver a short, simple oral presentation on a familiar topic.
      1.9   Engage in a brief, simple interview on familiar topics.




                                                                                      51
Intermediate Low Reading
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development

      Learners use an increasing variety of word analysis skills to determine the
      meaning of new words in context on familiar topics.

      1.1   Apply knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to determine the meaning of
            common words in context.
      1.2   Identify common homonyms (e.g., to/two/too) and increase vocabulary of
            synonyms and antonyms.
      1.3   Predict meanings of unfamiliar vocabulary in material rich in contextual
            clues.
      1.4   Interpret meaning of familiar words used in a new context.
      1.5   Recognize common idioms (e.g., Give me a break!) and phrasal verbs
            (e.g., get off, get out of, pick up) in context.
      1.6   Find specific information using an index or table of contents (e.g., of a
            book, telephone directory, job manual, computer application help feature,
            etc.).

2.0   Reading Skills

      Learners read simplified materials on familiar subjects and have limited success
      when attempting to read some authentic materials.

      2.1   Interpret abbreviations for an increasing variety of words in context of
            specific topics (e.g., employment, housing).
      2.2   Skim for general meaning in short passages or paragraphs.
      2.3   Scan for specific information in simple authentic materials (e.g., ads,
            schedules, dictionaries, standardized tests, Web pages) related to
            immediate needs.
      2.4   Interpret simple, short narrative and descriptive passages on familiar
            topics.
      2.5   Interpret simple charts, graphs, tables, maps, and multi-step diagrams.
      2.6   Interpret simple narrative and descriptive passages on unfamiliar topics
            using visual, graphic, and textual clues (e.g., titles, headlines, captions,
            table of contents) that orient learners to reading passages.
      2.7   Begin to differentiate between fact and opinion in simple texts.




                                                                                           52
INTERMEDIATE LOW WRITING
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Writing Skills

      Learners write one or more short paragraphs related to survival skills, personal
      topics, and nonpersonal topics with some errors. They write complete messages
      with a few errors.

      1.1   Write a short note or message including some supporting details (e.g., to a
            teacher or supervisor explaining an absence).
      1.2   Fill out paper or online forms requiring detailed personal information on
            varied topics (e.g., medical, job, banking forms).
      1.3   Write a paragraph that includes a topic sentence, supporting detail, and a
            conclusion (e.g., on a topic of personal interest, to request the return of a
            cleaning deposit from a landlord).
      1.4   Edit writing for spelling, capitalization, sentence punctuation, and basic
            grammatical form, with some degree of accuracy.
      1.5   Write down important details from face-to-face or recorded spoken
            messages (e.g., about a child’s field trip, a job interview).
      1.6   Take notes on familiar material transmitted orally (e.g., a doctor’s
            directions for taking a medication, or a job supervisor’s instructions about
            a task).




                                                                                      53
Proficient Performance Standard for Intermediate Low
Upon exit from Intermediate Low, learners can function in English independently in most
familiar situations. They can demonstrate understanding of increasingly extended
conversations containing some unfamiliar vocabulary, but may need some repetitions.
They can speak about familiar topics with some hesitation, unfamiliar topics with
frequent hesitation, and engage in conversational exchanges using mostly familiar
phrases. Errors in pronunciation and grammar sometimes impede comprehension.
Learners can interpret with accuracy a variety of written words, phrases, and simple
directions in authentic materials in specific contexts, and can interpret adapted or simple
authentic short narrative and descriptive passages on familiar topics. They can write a
message including some supporting details, and can write a clearly organized
paragraph on a familiar personal or nonpersonal topic, but with some errors that may
interfere with meaning.

Example Assessment Tasks for Intermediate Low Learners
To show proficiency, learners at the Intermediate Low level might:

        Follow spoken multi-step directions to complete a form or accomplish a work
         task (e.g., wax the floor).
        Listen to an open-ended dialog or listening passage that includes some
         unfamiliar vocabulary and a familiar context. Restate the information or
         complete a simple outline identifying:
            o general meaning;
            o supporting details;
            o implicit information.
        Engage in face-to-face or telephone conversation for 2-4 minutes
         demonstrating appropriate use of interactive skills such as:
            o turn taking;
            o asking for clarification;
            o giving and asking for directions;
         and appropriate content such as:
            o using appropriate forms of address;
            o using conventional conversational phrases;
            o using appropriate level of formality.
        Prepare and deliver a short oral presentation in which they:
            o summarize a brief listening passage;
            o sequence 3-4 items of information;
            o present information with some details.
        Read an informational or practical text and:
            o identify the purpose, main ideas, and details of the text;
            o complete a chart or diagram using information from the text;
            o explain the process described in the text.
        Read a short, easy fiction passage and:
            o fill in a chart showing the sequence of events;
                                                                                        54
             o identify the major characters;
             o summarize the general conflict or outcome presented in the passage.
        Write a note detailing the basic ideas of a short written or spoken dialog.
        Write a paragraph responding to a short written prompt.
        Fill out a sample job application relevant to their interests.
        Complete a writing portfolio showing evidence of: brainstorming or note taking;
         a first draft; self and peer editing; the final draft.


Examples of Technology Use for Intermediate Low Learners
Learners at the Intermediate Low level can use technology for learning and showing
proficiency in the content standards, in ways such as the following:

        Identify key information from a tape-recorded message.
        Participate in a telephone conversation on a familiar topic (e.g., asking for
         information, inviting someone to visit).
        Locate travel information from an online train or bus schedule.
        Tell a partner how to start and continue working in an appropriate software
         program.
        Use an appropriate reading software program to interpret short narrative and
         descriptive paragraphs.
        Follow step-by-step oral or written instructions to input a paragraph and check
         for spelling errors using a word processing program.
        Write and send a short e-mail message.




                                                                                      55
INTERMEDIATE HIGH LISTENING
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Listening Skills

      Learners understand essential points of discussions or speeches on topics in
      special fields of interest. They understand and respond to another speaker with
      some lack of accuracy in conversations on unfamiliar topics.

      1.1   Respond to common requests for assistance or information and record
            important facts, directions, and appointments discussed in person and on
            the phone.
      1.2   Identify main ideas and most supporting details in factual discourse
            relating to everyday topics.
      1.3   Identify essential information on a familiar subject in an observed
            conversation about the subject.
      1.4   Demonstrate understanding of a narrative passage read aloud and be
            able to repeat the main actions in sequence.
      1.5   Demonstrate understanding of everyday conversation when speakers
            make some adaptations for English learners (e.g., repeating or slowing
            down).
      1.6   Differentiate between the use of formal and informal language, including
            reduced speech and slang, even when no visual context or clues are
            present.
      1.7   Detect the mood of a message, determining to a limited degree such
            components as the attitudes and feelings of the speakers or the urgency
            of the message.




                                                                                        56
INTERMEDIATE HIGH SPEAKING
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Speaking Skills

      Learners communicate about a variety of topics. They generally use appropriate
      syntax, but lack thorough control of grammatical patterns. They engage in
      extended conversation and interviews but lack fluency in discussing highly
      specialized or unfamiliar subjects.

      1.1   Generate new utterances based on previously learned language patterns.
      1.2   Participate in face-to-face conversations on some topics beyond
            immediate survival needs, such as personal histories and descriptions of
            people and places.
      1.3   Clarify utterances by rewording or repeating in order to be understood by
            the general public.
      1.4   Adjust language forms to the level of formality required to fulfill basic
            courtesy functions in face-to-face conversations.
      1.5   Engage in increasingly extended conversations on familiar and unfamiliar
            topics with some errors.
      1.6   Participate in extended telephone conversations on familiar subjects with
                    clarification.
      1.7   Prepare and deliver a short oral presentation on a familiar topic.
      1.8   Engage in a short interview on familiar and partly unfamiliar topics.




                                                                                   57
INTERMEDIATE HIGH READING
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development

      Learners use a variety of word analysis skills to determine the meaning of new
      words in context on familiar topics.


      1.1   Identify common roots of words used in familiar contexts and expand
            knowledge of prefixes and suffixes.
      1.2   Identify an increasing number of homonyms, synonyms, and antonyms.
      1.3   Interpret common phrasal verbs and idioms in familiar contexts.
      1.4   Use contextual clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary
            and phrases.
      1.5   Use a dictionary to determine the basic meaning of unfamiliar words.


2.0   Reading Skills

      Learners read authentic materials on everyday subjects, but have difficulty
      reading specialized materials.

      2.1   Interpret a variety of charts, graphs, tables, and forms.
      2.2   Skim a passage, form, or test to determine the organization and general
            ideas.
      2.3   Scan a passage, form, or test to find particular details.
      2.4   Find information that requires drawing from different sections of a reading
            passage.
      2.5   Identify the main idea of a paragraph on a familiar topic.
      2.6   Draw conclusions from authentic materials on familiar topics (e.g.,
            newspaper articles on current events, social letters, public information
            notices, Web sites).
      2.7   Determine connections between ideas within a passage by interpreting
            transitional words (e.g., therefore, however).
      2.8   Follow pronoun references to a person or object in a passage (e.g., Ms.
            Smith...she...our teacher; Form 168...this form...it).




                                                                                       58
INTERMEDIATE HIGH WRITING
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Writing Skills

      Learners write brief compositions about previously discussed topics,
      demonstrating control of basic grammatical patterns. Errors are common when
      using complex structures. They write routine correspondence with increasing
      complexity of organization and detail.

      1.1   Take notes on information transmitted orally on familiar or unfamiliar
            topics when supporting material is provided (e.g., at a school or job
            orientation meeting).
      1.2   Write an academic or practical composition of at least two paragraphs,
            with a main idea and supporting details (e.g., for a detailed accident
            report).
      1.3   Edit writing for content, spelling, capitalization, punctuation of varied
            sentence types, and grammatical form.
      1.4   Fill out increasingly complex authentic paper and online forms,
            questionnaires, and surveys (e.g., driver’s license application, job
            satisfaction survey).
      1.5   Write personal letters or e-mail messages for various purposes.
      1.6   Write a simple business letter (e.g., to request an application or
            information).




                                                                                        59
Proficient Performance Standard for Intermediate High
Upon exit from Intermediate High, learners can function effectively in English in
familiar and unfamiliar social situations and familiar work situations. They can
demonstrate understanding of increasingly extended conversations, discussions or
lectures, but with some misunderstandings. They can speak about familiar topics with
little hesitation and unfamiliar topics with frequent hesitation. Errors in pronunciation and
grammar occasionally impede comprehension. Learners can read and demonstrate
understanding of authentic materials on familiar topics with few misinterpretations. They
can write routine correspondence that conveys appropriate meaning and detail, and can
write clearly organized paragraphs about previously discussed topics. Errors are
common when using more complex grammatical structures but do not interfere with
meaning.

Example Assessment Tasks for Intermediate High Learners
To show proficiency, learners at the Intermediate High level might:

         Retell details from a presentation or discussion regarding a process, including:
            o     main ideas;
            o     supporting details;
            o     sequence of actions.
         Participate in a structured role-play in which learners must provide specific
          information, such as the bank loan application process.
         Listen to an extensive dialog and identify the moods, attitudes, and feelings of
          the speakers.
         Engage in an extended face-to-face conversation, interview, or telephone
          conversation, demonstrating appropriate use of interactive skills such as:
            o     turn taking;
            o     asking for and providing information;
            o     clarifying by rewording or repeating;
            o     using active listening techniques such as nodding.
          and appropriate content such as:
            o     using conventional conversational phrases;
            o     using appropriate level of formality;
            o     providing important details.
         Prepare and deliver a short oral presentation in which they:
            o     summarize information;
            o     present information with supporting details or examples;
            o     open and close appropriately;
            o     sequence information appropriately.
         Read an informational or practical text and:
            o     relate information in charts, graphs, and tables to narrative content;
            o     determine the organization, main ideas, and supporting details;
            o     draw conclusions and make inferences based on the content.
         Read a short easy fiction passage and:
                                                                                          60
           o      identify the sequence of events;
           o      describe the basic traits of the major characters;
           o      identify the main idea;
           o      summarize the general conflict presented in the passage and describe
                  how it was resolved.
        Write at least two paragraphs responding to a written prompt that include:
           o      a topic sentence;
           o      supporting details;
           o      a conclusion.
        Write a personal letter for a specific purpose.
        Fill out authentic forms, surveys, or questionnaires.
        Complete a writing portfolio showing evidence of: brainstorming or note taking;
         multiple drafts; self and peer editing; the final draft.


Examples of Technology Use for Intermediate High Learners
Learners at the Intermediate High level can use technology for learning and showing
proficiency in the content standards, in ways such as the following:

        Write detailed instructions recorded on a telephone answering machine, such
         as directions to a specific location.
        Record an interview with a classmate about the classmate’s educational goals
         and future plans.
        Use an overhead projector to provide visual support for a short, simple
         presentation.
        Read an online newspaper article and draw conclusions from the information.
        Follow a series of instructions to set up a free e-mail account using the
         Internet.
        Complete an authentic form online.
        Read and summarize information from an ESL discussion list on the Internet.
        Input a well-developed paragraph and edit the paragraph using a word
         processing program.




                                                                                      61
*ADVANCED LISTENING
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0      Listening Skills

         Learners understand descriptive and factual material in a familiar context. They
         also understand hypothetical situations when presented in a familiar context.

         1.1      Demonstrate understanding of hypothetical situations in familiar contexts.
         1.2      Demonstrate understanding of most of the language used in movies or
                  broadcasts of a very general nature.
         1.3      Demonstrate understanding of the majority of face-to-face speech in
                  standard dialect and at a normal rate, with some repetition.
         1.4      Infer emotional content of a spoken message (e.g., anger, compliment,
                  condolence, sarcasm) from intonation, rhythm, and stress.
         1.5      Respond to detailed, specific spoken instructions (e.g., related to
                  operating machines, employment directives, or academic assignments).




*The National Reporting System in 2005 changed Advanced Level Low and Advanced Level High to only Advanced.
The standards committee wrote standards for the low level and high level. CDE decided to keep the low and high
advanced levels in this document and has identified them with an asterisk in front of the standard.

Adult learners working in the advanced level of the standards are to demonstrate proficiency on these earlier
standards.




                                                                                                                62
*ADVANCED SPEAKING
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0      Speaking Skills

         Learners communicate about a variety of topics with increasing fluency and
         increasing control of complex grammatical patterns. They participate competently
         in casual and extended conversation. They may grope for appropriate vocabulary
         when speaking on specialized subjects or unfamiliar topics.

         1.1      Participate with increasing fluency in most face-to-face social
                  conversations and telephone conversations, including those about work
                  and current events.
         1.2      Clarify meaning through strategies such as paraphrasing when
                  misunderstanding occurs.
         1.3      Make some adjustments in language used in face-to-face conversation
                  according to the level of formality required by the social situation.
         1.4      Engage in extended conversations on familiar and unfamiliar topics for a
                  variety of purposes.
         1.5      Participate in extended telephone conversations on familiar subjects and
                  increasingly on unfamiliar subjects.
         1.6      Prepare and deliver a well-organized oral presentation on a general topic.
         1.7      Engage in an extended interview on familiar and some unfamiliar topics.




*The National Reporting System in 2005 changed Advanced Level Low and Advanced Level High to only Advanced.
The standards committee wrote standards for the low level and high level. CDE decided to keep the low and high
advanced levels in this document and has identified them with an asterisk in front of the standard.

Adult learners working in the advanced level of the standards are to demonstrate proficiency on these earlier
standards.




                                                                                                                63
*ADVANCED READING
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0      Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development

         Learners use a variety of word analysis skills to determine the meaning of new
         words in context on familiar and unfamiliar topics.

         1.1      Interpret meanings of word roots in context.
         1.2      Interpret an increasing number of idioms and phrasal verbs in context.
         1.3      Identify analogies that clarify meaning.
         1.4      Determine the meaning of new specialized vocabulary in context (e.g.,
                  vocabulary related to fields of interest).
         1.5      Select the appropriate meaning of a word with multiple meanings by using
                  a dictionary.

2.0      Reading Skills

         Learners comprehend authentic materials on abstract topics in familiar contexts
         as well as descriptions and narrations of factual material.

         2.1      Make inferences from charts, tables, and a short series of paragraphs.
         2.2      Skim increasingly complex passages, forms, or tests to determine the
                  organization and general ideas.
         2.3      Scan increasingly complex passages, forms, or tests to find particular
                  details.
         2.4      Identify main ideas and supporting details or examples from familiar
                  material.
         2.5      Identify the author, audience, and purpose of a reading passage.
         2.6      Differentiate fact from opinion in written materials.
         2.7      Interpret authentic materials (e.g., prose fiction, newspaper articles,
                  procedures manuals, Web sites) on familiar subjects.
         2.8      Summarize reading passages.




*The National Reporting System in 2005 changed Advanced Level Low and Advanced Level High to only Advanced.
The standards committee wrote standards for the low level and high level. CDE decided to keep the low and high
advanced levels in this document and has identified them with an asterisk in front of the standard.

Adult learners working in the advanced level of the standards are to demonstrate proficiency on these earlier
standards.

                                                                                                                64
*ADVANCED WRITING
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0      Writing Skills

         Learners write compositions on familiar topics. They have consistent control of
         mechanics, but make some grammatical errors with complex structures. They
         write descriptions, short compositions, summaries, and responses to questions
         on most forms and applications.

         1.1      Expand and combine simple sentences by adding modifying words,
                  clauses, and phrases.
         1.2      Write descriptive and expository compositions using correct punctuation
                  and coherent organization.
         1.3      Organize sentences effectively to convey meaning.
         1.4      Edit own writing for grammatical form, word choice, spelling, mechanics,
                  and organization. Edit peers’ writing for content and organization.
         1.5      Take notes from formal community, job, or academic presentations.
         1.6      Complete forms that require some narrative description (e.g., accident
                  reports, questionnaires with comment sections).
         1.7      Write a business letter or e-mail message requiring some detail (e.g., to
                  request an informational interview).




*The National Reporting System in 2005 changed Advanced Level Low and Advanced Level High to only Advanced.
The standards committee wrote standards for the low level and high level. CDE decided to keep the low and high
advanced levels in this document and has identified them with an asterisk in front of the standard.

Adult learners working in the advanced level of the standards are to demonstrate proficiency on these earlier
standards.




                                                                                                                65
*Proficient Performance Standard for Advanced
Upon exit from Advanced, learners can function confidently in English to meet most
routine social and work-related demands. They can demonstrate general understanding
of oral communication in a variety of contexts but with some misunderstanding of
details. They can speak about familiar topics with little hesitation and unfamiliar topics
with some hesitation. Errors in grammar occasionally impede comprehension. Errors in
pronunciation do not impede communication. Learners can read and demonstrate
understanding of authentic materials on familiar subjects with some fluency and speed.
They can write correspondence that conveys appropriate meaning and detail and can
write well-developed compositions on familiar topics. Errors are common when using
more complex grammatical structures but do not interfere with meaning.

*Example Assessment Tasks for Advanced Learners
To show proficiency, learners at the Advanced Low level might:

        Summarize the plot or main idea of a broadcast or lecture, including
         comments on:
            o emotional content;
            o hypothetical topics;
            o specific details.
        Engage in an extended interview on a complex vocational or academic topic.
        Follow an extended set of directions to reach a remote or hard-to-find location.
        Engage in an extended face-to-face conversation, interview, or telephone
         conversation, demonstrating appropriate use of interactive skills such as:
            o clarifying by rewording or paraphrasing;
            o using active listening techniques to maintain the conversation;
         and appropriate content such as:
            o using appropriate phrases for initiating and terminating the
                conversation;
            o making adjustments according to the level of formality of the situation;
            o providing details, examples, or explanation.
        Prepare and deliver a well-organized oral presentation in which they:
            o present information with supporting details or examples;
            o use verbal connections between parts;
            o present information in a logical sequence.
        Read an informational or practical text and:
            o identify the author, audience, and purpose;
            o distinguish between facts and opinions;
            o interpret relationships among ideas in a reading (i.e., given a cause in
                the reading, identify the effect, or given examples, make a
                generalization);
            o write or orally explain how to do a process described in the text.


                                                                                        66
           Skim/scan information in a chart/graph, etc. and determine an appropriate
            course of action (e.g., read an airline schedule and prices and choose the best
            flight).
           Read a short story and:
                o identify or orally relate the sequence of events;
                o identify the main ideas and supporting details;
                o write or give an oral summary of the story;
                o interpret information in the story and make inferences or conclusions;
                o extract and combine information from different parts of the story to
                     formulate meaning.
           Write a descriptive or expository composition that includes:
                o an introductory paragraph;
                o up to 3 paragraphs in the body, each with a topic sentence and
                     supporting details;
                o combinations of simple sentences into clauses and phrases;
                o a conclusion;
                o evidence of research (references to sources of information).
           Write a business letter using appropriate style and format.
           Write notes based on a lecture or oral presentation.
           Fill out a detailed form, such as an accident report.
           Complete a writing portfolio showing evidence of: brainstorming or note taking;
            multiple drafts; self and peer editing; the final draft.


*Examples of Technology Use for Advanced Learners
Learners at the Advanced Low level can use technology for learning and showing
proficiency in the content standards, in ways such as the following:

           Follow step-by-step instructions on how to program a message for a telephone
            answering machine.
           Use the telephone to converse about work or social events.
           Identify the main ideas and supporting details from a video presentation.
           Listen to a speech on the Internet and summarize the main ideas.
           Read and interpret the accuracy of information from three different Web sites.
           Write and send an e-mail message requesting specific information.
           Input and edit a multi-paragraph essay using a word processing program.


*The National Reporting System in 2005 changed Advanced Level Low and Advanced Level High to only Advanced.
The standards committee wrote standards for the low level and high level. CDE decided to keep the low and high
advanced levels in this document and has identified them with an asterisk in front of the standard.

Adult learners working in the advanced level of the standards are to demonstrate proficiency on these earlier
standards.


                                                                                                                67
ADVANCED LISTENING
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Listening Skills

      Learners understand descriptions and narrations of specialized material in a
      familiar or unfamiliar context. Learners understand conversations and
      discussions or speeches on topics related to their fields of interest.

      1.1   Demonstrate understanding of face-to-face or broadcast descriptions and
            narration of specialized material.
      1.2   Identify accurate and applicable information in a variety of listening
            contexts (e.g., academic, work-related).
      1.3   Adapt listening strategies (e.g., use prior knowledge, listen for the gist, use
            organizational patterns and association, find listening clues) when
            confronted with spoken information on topics of less familiarity.
      1.4   Identify details of face-to-face conversations on a variety of everyday
            subjects spoken at normal speed and using common patterns of reduced
            speech, phrasal verbs, idioms, and slang.
      1.5   Determine the usefulness, bias, and/or accuracy of information presented
            orally (e.g., recognize loaded language, distinguish fact from opinion,
            identify inferences, evaluate sources).




                                                                                        68
ADVANCED SPEAKING
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Speaking Skills

      Learners communicate with ease about a variety of topics. They generally use
      appropriate syntax, even with complex grammatical patterns. They participate
      effectively in casual and extended conversation. They speak with sufficient
      structural accuracy and vocabulary to participate in formal and informal
      conversations on practical or specialized topics.

      1.1   Speak fluently in most formal and informal conversations on practical and
            social topics.
      1.2   Speak with some fluency on specialized subjects of interest related to
            academic pursuits or work demands.
      1.3   Summarize orally and clarify information received from a variety of
            sources.
      1.4   Make appropriate adjustments in language used in face-to-face
            conversation according to the level of formality required by the social
            situation.
      1.5   Initiate, maintain, and terminate conversations by the use of appropriate
            conversational techniques including pauses, interruptions, and active
            listening strategies.
      1.6   Engage in extended conversations on familiar and unfamiliar topics for a
            variety of purposes.
      1.7   Participate in extended telephone conversations on familiar and unfamiliar
            subjects.
      1.8   Prepare and deliver a well-organized oral presentation on a general or
            specialized topic.
      1.9   Engage in an extended interview on familiar and unfamiliar topics.




                                                                                     69
ADVANCED READING
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development

      Learners use contextual clues and higher-order processes to interpret meaning
      in context in a variety of text types and on a variety of topics.

      1.1   Use syntactic clues to interpret the meanings of complex sentences or
            new vocabulary.
      1.2   Interpret analogies in familiar contexts.
      1.3   Interpret a wide variety of idioms and phrasal verbs in context.
      1.4   Interpret meaning of metaphors and similes in context.
      1.5   Find information by using reference tools such as a print or online
            encyclopedia.


2.0   Reading Skills

      Learners comprehend standard materials such as the newspaper, routine
      correspondence, and specialized print or online materials in their fields of
      interest. They can read authentic materials and nonspecialized prose on most
      subjects, but with difficulty.

      2.1   Summarize or paraphrase information gained from authentic materials on
            familiar topics.
      2.2   Interpret main ideas and key points from specialized material in their own
            fields of interest.
      2.3   Apply appropriate reading strategies (e.g., skimming, scanning, predicting,
            inferring) for understanding content on unfamiliar topics or specialized
            information.
      2.4   Evaluate information in familiar and some unfamiliar passages for
            accuracy and relevance to purpose.
      2.5   Draw general conclusions from specific details in a passage.
      2.6   Analyze an author’s point of view by making inferences.
      2.7   Make judgments of information found in reading material based on
            personal value system.
      2.8   Determine meaning of increasingly complex passages by using contextual
            clues (e.g., chronological order, comparison, contrast, and simple listing).




                                                                                      70
ADVANCED WRITING
Model Curriculum Standards


1.0   Writing Skills

      Learners write detailed, coherent compositions on familiar topics with few
      syntactic errors, although the style may be different from that of a native speaker.
      They write well-developed descriptions, summaries, and compositions, as well as
      detailed responses to questions on forms and applications.

      1.1    Write simple outlines from reading passages or lectures.
      1.2    Write summaries and paraphrases of reading passages.
      1.3    Write compositions with a clear introduction, supporting details, and
             conclusion, using a variety of rhetorical techniques (e.g.,
             comparison/contrast; cause/effect; generalization/example; exposition).
      1.4    Edit own and peers’ writing for grammatical form, word choice, spelling,
             mechanics, sentence variety, and organization.
      1.5    Take notes from full-length formal presentations.
      1.6    Write detailed formal letters or e-mail messages (e.g., letters of complaint,
             letters to accompany job applications).




                                                                                        71
Proficient Performance Standard for Advanced
Upon exit from Advanced, learners can function confidently and successfully in English
to meet social, academic, and vocational demands. They can demonstrate good
general understanding of oral communication in a variety of specialized contexts but
with some misunderstandings of abstract topics in an unfamiliar context. They can
speak about social and practical topics with ease, and about specialized topics with
some hesitation using complex grammatical patterns. Errors in grammar and
pronunciation do not impede communication. Learners can read and demonstrate
understanding of authentic texts on familiar topics with ease and with few
misinterpretations. They can read unfamiliar topics more slowly and with less
comprehension. They can write formal correspondence and detailed e-mails using
appropriate register and vocabulary, and can write well-developed coherent
compositions, using level-appropriate vocabulary and grammar with few errors.
Assistance and support may be needed for carrying out research on an unfamiliar topic.

Example Assessment Tasks for Advanced Learners
To show proficiency, learners at the Advanced level might:

        Summarize the plot or main idea of a broadcast or lecture, including:
            o relevant specific details;
            o identification of bias;
            o comments on the accuracy of information.
        Follow a set of detailed oral directions requiring making inferences.
        Engage in an extended conversation, interview, debate, or telephone
         conversation, demonstrating appropriate use of interactive skills such as:
            o clarifying by rewording or paraphrasing;
            o using a variety of conversational strategies for maintaining the
                interaction;and appropriate content such as:
            o using appropriate conversational strategies for initiating and
                terminating the interaction;
            o making adjustments according to the level of formality and purpose of
                the interaction;
            o providing details, examples, or questions that extend the interaction;
            o using specialized vocabulary.
        Prepare and deliver a well-organized oral presentation in which they:
            o present information with supporting evidence, details, or examples;
            o use and explain specialized vocabulary and concepts;
            o present information in a cohesive and logical sequence.
        Read an informational or practical text and:
            o identify relevancy of the information to the purpose;
            o draw conclusions based on specific details;
            o skim and scan information from charts/graphs, etc., and choose an
                appropriate course of action, such as reading a class schedule and
                making a selection of courses.
                                                                                    72
        Read a short story and:
             o write or orally give an opinion about the ideas;
             o analyze the author’s point of view;
             o make inferences and predictions about the content.
        Summarize or paraphrase a reading passage.
        Make outlines from appropriate readings and lectures or presentations.
        Write coherent compositions that include:
             o a clearly-defined topic;
             o supporting details;
             o combination of simple sentences into clauses and phrases;
             o a conclusion;
             o evidence of research (references to sources of information).
        Write detailed formal letters using appropriate style and format.
        Fill out a complex forms such as an independent contracting agreement or
         college application.
        Complete a writing portfolio showing evidence of: brainstorming or note taking;
         multiple drafts; self and peer editing; the final draft.

Examples of Technology Use for Advanced Learners
Learners at the Advanced level can use technology for learning and showing proficiency
in the content standards, in ways such as the following:

        Identify key points from a specialized training video.
        Listen to a radio news story and identify the accuracy of information and any
         reporting bias.
        Tape-record an interview with a native English speaker.
        Research a topic on the Internet using at least three different Web sites, and
         orally summarize and clarify the information.
        Write and send a detailed formal business e-mail message.
        Write and send an e-mail message requesting specific information.
        Input a well-developed coherent composition and edit as needed using a word
         processing program.




                                                                                     73
III. Grammar Continuum




                         74
III. Grammar Continuum

The Grammar Continuum is designed to be used in conjunction with the Model
Curriculum Standards as a guide to the language forms which need to be integrated into
instruction. The Continuum includes only major core concepts and structures. Other
forms, such as adverbs, should be added to course curricula as needed. The starting
levels for each form are only suggestions, as the readiness and rate of progression of
different learner populations may vary. The appropriate time to introduce each form
must be determined by instructors and administrators in individual programs. Below are
recommendations on how to use the Continuum.

The Grammar Continuum is:
      A guide to the core language forms adult ESL learners should know and be
       able to use in listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
      A suggestion of the optimum level at which to introduce a language form.
      A recommendation to continue the review of language forms at subsequent
       levels.

The Grammar Continuum is designed to represent the continuum of teaching and
learning language forms over time:

       exposure  introduction  focus  review  proficiency

Exposure: A learner may hear or read and be able to understand a form before being
ready to produce it. This period is represented by the gray area preceding the start line
for a structure.

Introduction: A learner is ready to be introduced to a structure. This period is
represented by the start line for each structure, corresponding to one of the seven
proficiency levels.

Focus/Review: A learner focuses on a structure, with extended practice and increasing
proficiency in its use. While typically a structure is stressed at one level, it may need to
be reviewed at the next higher level or levels.

Proficiency: A learner is assessed as showing proficiency in this form. This point is not
indicated; it must be decided by curriculum developers and described in the
performance outcomes of individual programs.




                                                                                          75
Adult ESL Grammar Continuum: Verb Structures
Verb           Beginning                                                  Intermediate                              Advanced
Structure      Literacy          Low                  High                Low                  High
               Imperatives
Tenses         Present be/have
                                 Simple Present
                                 Simple Past
                                 Present Continuous
                                                                          Past Continuous
                                 Future: going to
                                                      Future: will
                                                                          Present Perfect
                                                                          Present Perfect Continuous
                                                                                               Past Perfect
                                                                                               Past Perfect Continuous
                                                                                                                                         Future Perfect
                                                                                                                                         Future Perfect
                                                                                                                                         Continuous
                                 can
Modals                                                have to, could (past of can), should, must (necessity), may, would
                                                                           used to, might, must (probability)
                                                                                                 past forms: should have, could have, would have, might
                                                                                                 have, must have
                                                      Phrasal verbs
Combination                                           Verb + Infinitive
Structures                                                                 Verb + Gerund
                                                                           Future Conditional
Conditionals                                                                                     Conditional Contrary-to-Fact
                                                                                                                     Past Conditional
                                                                                                                                        Continuous
                                                                                                                                        Conditionals
                                                                                                 Passive Simple Present
Advanced                                                                                         Passive Simple Past
Structures                                                                                                           Passive Future
                                                                                                                     Causative Verb Structure
                                                                                                                                        Present
                                                                                                                                        Subjunctive




                                                                                                                                              76
Adult ESL Grammar Continuum: Sentence Structures
Sentence    Beginning                                             Intermediate                               Advanced
Structure   Literacy     Low                 High                 Low                  High
                         Simple statements: affirmative and negative
Simple                   yes/no and wh- questions and answers
Sentences                                                          Direct (quoted) speech
                                                                   Exclamatory sentences
                          Compound sentences with and and but
Compound                                     Compound sentences with or
Sentences                                                          Compound sentences with and ... too
                                                                   Compound sentences with and ... either
                                                                   Adverb clauses of time: when, before, after
Complex                                                            Adverb clauses of reason: because
Sentences                                                                               Adjective clauses
                                                                                        Indirect (reported) speech
                                                                                        Noun clauses as objects
                                                                                        Tag questions
                                                                                        Adverb clauses of concession: unless, although
                                                                                                             Logical connectors
                                                                                                                                Adverb clauses
                                                                                                                                of contrast
                                                                                                                                Noun clauses as
                                                                                                                                subjects




                                                                                                                                    77
Adult ESL Grammar Continuum: Noun Structures
Noun         Beginning                                                        Intermediate                              Advanced
Structure    Literacy            Low                    High                  Low                   High
             Proper nouns
Nouns        Regular nouns, singular and plural
                                  Irregular plurals
                                  Possessive nouns
                                  Count and noncount nouns
                                                         Nouns as adjectives
                                                                               Nouns that are always singular or plural
                                                                               Gerunds and infinitives as subjects and objects
                                                                                                     Appositives
                                                                                                     Pronominal use of possessive proper nouns
                                                                                                     Comparison of nouns
             Subject and object pronouns
Pronouns     Possessive pronouns
             Demonstrative pronouns
                                  Indefinite it as subject
                                  there (is/are)
                                                         Indefinite pronouns
                                                         Reflexive pronouns
                                                         Word order of direct/indirect object pronouns
                                                                               Pronominal one/ones
                                                                                                     Impersonal you and one
                                  Articles
Adjectives                        Quantifiers
                                  Possessive adjectives
                                  Demonstrative adjectives
                                                         Comparatives
                                                         Superlatives
                                                         Word order of multiple adjectives before a noun
                                                                                                     Present and past participles as adjectives




                                                                                                                                                  78
IV. Pronunciation Guide




                          79
IV. Pronunciation Guide

Pronunciation for adult ESL learners involves both recognizing and producing the
sounds and sound patterns of English in order to better understand native speakers
(comprehension), and to make themselves understood (comprehensibility).
Pronunciation practice can be integrated into instruction of the listening and speaking
skills described in the Model Curriculum Standards. Particular aspects of pronunciation
may need to be reinforced over time before being mastered.

This chart shows some core features of pronunciation along with possible appropriate
levels for focus of practice. The actual needs of learners and the extent of pronunciation
instruction must be determined by local programs and teachers.


Adult ESL Pronunciation Guide
             Beginning                        Intermediate                      Advanced
             Consonants (e.g., thin/tin, cats/dogs/foxes, passed/played/painted)
Individual   Vowels (e.g., sheep/ship, bag/bog)
Sounds       Diphthongs (e.g., cow, kind, coin)
             Reduction of simple, future, and modal forms (e.g., they’re, wasn’t, gonna, hafta)
Reduced                                       Reduction of have and conditional modals (e.g., I’d seen, I’d
Forms                                         like, could’ve, coudn’t’ve, wudja)
                                                                                Reduction of complex forms
                                                                                (e.g., whaddaya, jeat jet?)
             Number of syllables
Word         Stress on two- to three-syllable words
Stress                                        Different stress pattern for nouns and verbs (e.g.,
                                              ‘record/re’cord)
                                              Multiple stress on long words (e.g., ‘expla’nation)
                                                                                Stress alternation patterns with
                                                                                different forms of words (e.g.,
                                                                                ‘photograph, pho’tography,
                                                                                photo’graphic)
             Stress on content words
Phrase                                          Stress pattern for two-word verbs and compound nouns
and                                             (e.g., give ‘up, ‘blackboard vs. black ‘board)
Sentence                                                                        Contrastive stress (focus)
Stress
             Regular statements; yes/no and wh- questions
Intonation                                List and surprise statements; tag questions; choice questions
                                                                          Complex sentences; direct
                                                                          address




                                                                                                          80
   V. Secretary’s Commission on
Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS)
 and Equipped for the Future (EFF)
       Skills Integration Guide




                                 81
V. SCANS and EFF Skills Integration Guide

To meet the demands of increasingly complex and challenging requirements for
success in today’s workplaces and communities, adults need to develop a high level of
knowledge and competency in a wide variety of concepts and processes. For adult ESL
learners, these abilities need to be developed at the same time as they are learning
English language skills. This section provides an overview of two sets of standards
describing what adults need to know and be able to do in order to be responsible
citizens and effective workers, from U.S. Department of Labor Secretary’s Commission
on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS), and the National Institute for Literacy’s
Equipped for the Future (EFF) initiative. The 1991 SCANS report, What Work Requires
of Schools identifies a set of competencies and foundation skills that employers expect
of well-prepared, competitive workers. EFF’s content standards (Stein, 2000) describe
what adults need to know and be able to do in the 21st century for success in all areas
of their lives.

SCANS Skills and Competencies3

The basic skills of reading, writing, listening, and speaking are the core content for adult
ESL courses. The remaining foundation skills and the competencies can all be
integrated into the classroom as organizational and management strategies, or as
instructional and assessment activities and tasks. Example activities have been
provided for each main foundation skill or competency; in practice, of course, different
skills and competencies are often interrelated and will overlap with each other in every
activity.

A. Three-Part Foundation of Skills and Personal Qualities

Basic Skills: Reads, writes, performs arithmetic and mathematical operations, listens
and speaks
       Reading – locates, understands, and interprets written information in prose
        and in documents such as manuals, graphs, and schedules
       Writing – communicates thoughts, ideas, information, and messages in writing;
        creates documents such as letters, directions, manuals, reports, graphs, and
        flow charts
       Arithmetic/Mathematics – performs basic computations and approaches
        practical problems by choosing appropriately from a variety of mathematical
        techniques
       Listening – receives, attends to, interprets, and responds to verbal messages
        and other cues
       Speaking – organizes ideas and communicates orally




3   Definitions from SCANS (1991).

                                                                                         82
    Sample Strategies/Activities
    Groups of learners plan an event (such as a reception at home, school, or work)
    and prepare a budget, using resources such as supermarket advertising flyers to
    find prices.

Thinking Skills: Thinks creatively, makes decisions, solves problems, visualizes,
knows how to learn, and reasons
       Creative Thinking – generates new ideas
       Decision Making – specifies goals and constraints, generates alternatives,
        considers risks, and evaluates and chooses best alternative
       Problem Solving – recognizes problems and devises and implements plan of
        action
       Seeing Things in the Mind’s Eye – organizes and processes symbols, pictures,
        graphs, objects, and other information
       Knowing How to Learn – uses efficient learning techniques to acquire and
        apply new knowledge and skills
       Reasoning – discovers a rule or principle underlying the relationship between
        two or more objects and applies it when solving a problem

    Sample Strategies/Activities
    Learners develop and/or use charts, graphs, and checklists to track their goals,
    experiences, and progress in learning English.
    Learners present real or imagined conflicts to classmates, who then give advice on
    how to resolve the conflicts.

Personal Qualities: Displays responsibility, self-esteem, sociability, self-management,
and integrity and honesty
        Responsibility – exerts a high level of effort and perseveres towards goal
         attainment
        Self-Esteem – believes in own self-worth and maintains a positive view of self
        Sociability – demonstrates understanding, friendliness, adaptability, empathy,
         and politeness in group settings
        Self-Management – assesses self accurately, sets personal goals, monitors
         progress, and exhibits self-control
        Integrity/Honesty – chooses ethical courses of action

    Sample Strategies/Activities
    Learners design a system for reporting absences, such as explaining reasons for
    absences to the teacher, and calling classmates to get information on missed
    instruction and homework.
    Learners share with their classmates’ positive experiences in using English outside
    of the classroom.

B. Five SCANS Competencies

Resources: Identifies, organizes, plans, and allocates resources
      Time – Selects goal-relevant activities, ranks them, allocates time, and
       prepares and follows schedules

                                                                                      83
        Money – Uses or prepares budgets, makes forecasts, keeps records, and
         makes adjustments to meet objectives
        Materials and Facilities – Acquires, stores, allocates, and uses materials or
         space efficiently
        Human Resources – Assesses skills and distributes work accordingly,
         evaluates performance and provides feedback

    Sample Strategies/Activities
    Teams of learners are responsible for completing classroom chores on a regular
    schedule, including maintaining organization of classroom materials and
    equipment.

Interpersonal: Works with others
        Participates as Member of a Team – contributes to group effort
        Teaches Others New Skills
        Serves Clients/Customers – works to satisfy customer’s expectations
        Exercises Leadership – communicates ideas to justify position, persuades and
         convinces others, responsibly challenges existing procedures and policies
        Negotiates – works toward agreements involving exchange of resources,
         resolves divergent interests
        Works with Diversity – works well with men and women from diverse
         backgrounds

    Sample Strategies/Activities
    Learners work together in pairs or groups; in discussions or group projects one
    learner is responsible for reporting results to the whole class; learners assess each
    other’s language skill performance using rubrics, checklists, and oral or written
    suggestions; one learner is designated to orient a new arrival to the class.

Information: Acquires and uses information
        Acquires and Evaluates Information
        Organizes and Maintains Information
        Interprets and Communicates Information
        Uses Computers to Process Information

    Sample Strategies/Activities
    Learners maintain a portfolio of their work in a course and keep track of their
    progress towards fulfilling course requirements.

Systems: Understands complex interrelationships
      Understands Systems – knows how social, organizational, and technological
       systems work and operate
      Monitors and Corrects Performance – distinguishes trends, predicts impacts
       on system operations, diagnoses deviations in systems’ performance and
       corrects malfunctions
      Improves or Designs Systems – suggests modifications to existing systems
       and develops new or alternative systems to improve performance


                                                                                         84
      Sample Strategies/Activities
      Learners engage in a research project investigating a school, community, or
      workplace system, and prepare a presentation explaining the system and
      recommending improvements to it.

Technology: Works with a variety of technologies
       Selects Technology – chooses procedures, tools, or equipment including
        computers and related technologies
       Applies Technology to Task – Understands overall intent and proper
        procedures for setup and operation of equipment
       Maintains and Troubleshoots Equipment – Prevents, identifies, and solves
        problems with equipment, including computers and other technologies

      Sample Strategies/Activities
      Learners select, use, and solve problems involving appropriate technology in and
      outside of the classroom to complete classroom activities and homework
      assignments.




                                                                                    85
EFF Content Standards4

The Equipped for the Future (EFF) Content Standards define the knowledge and skills
adults need in order to successfully carry out their roles as parents and family members,
citizens and community members, and workers. By identifying four categories of
generative skills, EFF broadened the range of skills adult literacy and basic skills
programs are typically expected to cover. These skills include strong reading, writing,
and math skills; they include the skills we need to communicate and work well with
others; to solve problems and to keep up with change.

The tools that make up the EFF Content Framework include four purposes for learning:

Access – To gain access to information and resources so that adults can orient
themselves in the world
Voice – To express ideas and opinions with the confidence they will be heard and taken
into account
Action – To solve problems and make decisions without having to rely on others to
mediate the world for them
Bridge to the future – Learning to learn so that adults can be prepared to keep up with
the world as it changes

Focusing on the literacy needs of adults, EFF identified 16 core skills that supported
effective performance in the home, community, and workplace.

Communication Skills

1. Read With Understanding
       Determine the reading purpose.
       Select reading strategies appropriate to the purpose.
       Monitor comprehension and adjust reading strategies.
       Analyze the information and reflect on its underlying meaning.
       Integrate it with prior knowledge to address reading purpose.

To read critically means to read intelligently. When learning strategies are taught to the
learners, their reading comprehension improves substantially. Learners will be able to
discuss information they read. They learn strategies that can be useful in overcoming
the barriers to comprehension, and give examples of the ways they use their increased
understanding and knowledge in their daily lives (for example, regularly reading ads and
comparing prices before shopping).




4   Based on the EFF Special Collections: http://www.nifl.gov/lincs/collections/eff/eff.html.

                                                                                                86
2. Speak So Others Can Understand
        Determine the purpose for communicating.
        Organize and relay information to effectively serve the purpose, context, and
         listener.
        Pay attention to conventions of oral English communication, including
         grammar, word choice, register, pace, and gesture in order to minimize
         barriers to listener’s comprehension.
        Use multiple strategies to monitor the effectiveness of the communication.

Most learners can identify the purpose for speaking to an audience, but are able to
communicate with limitations. They need help organizing thoughts and clarifying ideas.
They have problems with grammar, sentence structure, and word order. They can
speak and deliver the message to a group after practicing first in their class and then to
other classes. They will make corrections to the original presentation.

3. Listen Actively
         Attend to oral information.
         Clarify purpose for listening, and use listening strategies appropriate to that
          purpose.
         Monitor comprehension, and adjust listening strategies to overcome barriers to
          comprehension.
         Integrate information from listening with prior knowledge to address listening
          purpose.

Communication means listening openly and sending convincing messages. Listening
well, asking questions, being open-minded and understanding, not interrupting, and
seeking suggestions account for about a third of people’s evaluations of whether
someone they work with is an effective communicator.

4. Convey Ideas in Writing
       Determine the purpose for communicating.
       Organize and present information to serve the purpose, context, and
        audience.
       Pay attention to conventions of English language usage, including grammar,
        spelling, and sentence structure, to minimize barriers to reader’s
        comprehension.
       Seek feedback, and revise to enhance the effectiveness of the
        communication.

Learners will demonstrate in writing the purpose and audience for writing. They write the
main idea and sequence the topic ideas in appropriate order. They use supporting
details and correct grammar. They reread text for possible problems, and recognize
need to change text.

5. Observe Critically
        Attend to visual sources of information including television and other media.


                                                                                         87
         Determine the purpose for observation and use strategies appropriate to the
          purpose.
         Monitor comprehension and adjust strategies.
         Analyze the accuracy, bias, and usefulness of the information.
         Integrate it with prior knowledge to address viewing purposes.

Each of us interprets the world and responds to it according to our personal frame.
Learners learn what to look for and rapidly learn from what they see by describing visual
sources, looking at the source deeper, asking questions or applying knowledge of
unseen. They compare that knowledge to what they already know, make an analysis of
the information, and reach a conclusion.

Decision Making Skills

6. Plan
         Set and prioritize goals.
         Develop an organized approach of activities and objectives.
         Actively carry out the plan.
         Monitor the plan’s progress while considering any need to adjust the plan.
         Evaluate its effectiveness in achieving the goals.

Learners will be able to set a reachable or realistic goal. They will organize activities or
arrange activities in order of importance to accomplish a goal and carry out and
evaluate a plan. They will look more closely at the skill of planning, and break it down
into parts or steps. They revisit the plan throughout the project to evaluate if they need
to make adjustments.

7. Solve Problems and Make Decisions
        Anticipate or identify problems.
        Use information from diverse sources to arrive at a clearer understanding of
         the problem and its root causes.
        Generate alternative solutions.
        Evaluate strengths and weaknesses of alternatives, including potential risks
         and benefits and short- and long-term consequences.
        Select alternative that is most appropriate to goal, context, and available
         resources.
        Establish criteria for evaluating effectiveness of solution or decision.

Learners will be engaged in task-oriented problem solving-how to do something or how
to perform. They will identify all the relevant options for action, correctly assess the
consequences of alternative hypotheses, and use the best methods of problem solving.
They interpret the feedback on actions taken.

8. Use Math to Solve Problems and Communicate
       Understand, interpret, and work with pictures, numbers, and symbolic
        information.



                                                                                           88
        Apply knowledge of mathematical concepts and procedures to figure out how
         to answer a question, solve a problem, make a prediction, or carry out a task
         that has a mathematical dimension.
        Define and select data to be used in solving the problem.
        Determine the degree of precision required by the situation.
        Solve problem using appropriate quantitative procedures and verify that the
         results are reasonable.
        Communicate results using a variety of mathematical representations,
         including graphs, charts, tables, and algebraic models.

There has been a change in emphasis in the curriculum from product to process, from
fragmentation and procedural knowledge to integration and problem solving.

Interpersonal Skills

9. Guide Others
        Assess the needs of others and one’s own ability to assist.
        Use strategies for providing guidance that take into account the goals, task,
         context, and learning styles of others.
        Arrange opportunities for learning that build on learner’s strengths.
        Seek feedback on the usefulness and results of the assistance.

Learners will ask what other learners need and listen with attention. From a list of
suggested activities, learners will be able to choose one that meets the needs of the
person they are guiding. Some learners will be able to create their own activity for
guiding. Learners will ask each other if their guidance was helpful.

10. Resolve Conflict and Negotiate
        Acknowledge that there is a conflict.
        Identify areas of agreement and disagreement.
        Generate options for resolving conflict that have a win/win potential.
        Engage parties in trying to reach agreement on a course of action that can
         satisfy the needs and interests of all.
        Evaluate results of efforts and revise approach as necessary.

Productivity and satisfaction, in business and personal relationships, come from our
ability to collaborate with others. Learners state a conflict in their lives, identify who
wanted what and why. They determine minimum expectations they would accept from
the other party and list options for dealing with the conflict.

11. Advocate and Influence
        Define what one is trying to achieve.
        Assess interests, resources, and the potential for success.
        Gather facts and supporting information to build a case that takes into account
         the interests and attitudes of others.
        Present a clear case, using a strategy that takes into account purpose and
         audience.

                                                                                         89
        Revise, as necessary, in response to feedback.

Learners realize the value of being an active community participant by getting involved
in what is happening, like participating in the neighborhood block watch, volunteering in
the school systems, serving lunches, or helping in the classroom.

12. Cooperate with Others
       Interact with others in ways that are friendly, courteous, and tactful and that
        demonstrate respect for others’ ideas, opinions, and contributions.
       Seek input from others in order to understand their actions and reactions.
       Offer clear input on own interests and attitudes so others can understand
        one’s actions and reactions.
       Try to adjust one’s actions to take into account the needs of others and/or the
        task to be accomplished.

Cooperation is the ability to understand others and act wisely in human relations.
Learners will be able to identify general factors that promote cooperation, such as
“everyone participates.” They will be able to give specific examples of contributions of
others, evaluate their own actions in seeking the opinions of others and expressing their
own. They will evaluate the job performance of their team members and the level of
cooperation of their teams as a whole. They will be able to identify and positively
resolve any conflicts that may arise in their groups.

Lifelong Learning

13. Reflect and Evaluate
        Take stock of what one is: assess what the learners know already and the
         relevance of that knowledge.
        Make inferences, predictions, or judgments based on one’s reflections.

Schools should be focused on teaching learners to learn and to think for themselves.
Learners need to gain the skills that give them the greatest control over their lives and
learning. They need to think critically and creatively at the highest possible levels.
Learners will read and understand a task, ask questions for clarification, and explain
their choices either orally or in writing.

14. Learn Through Research
        Pose a question to be answered or make a prediction about objects or events.
        Use multiple lines of inquiry to collect information.
        Organize, evaluate, analyze and interpret findings.

Learners will be able to discover where to search for resources and be increasingly able
to find them without help. They will develop an internal list of sources and develop an
awareness of how to best use each. In their projects, they will research several
materials to arrive at an opinion. Learners’ answers/presentations should be organized
to demonstrate a logical progression of thought from the questions needing to be
answered, through the research that was done, to the conclusion reached.


                                                                                        90
15. Use Information and Communications Technology
        Use computers and other electronic tools to acquire, process, and manage
         information.
        Use electronic tools to learn and practice skills.
        Use the Internet to explore topics, gather information, and communicate.

Learners will see technology as a viable alternative to gather information or create,
manage, and store information meaningful to their lives. They will take steps when they
meet a barrier or ask for help. They realize the limitations of tools, and learn to control
and work through them.

16. Take Responsibility for Learning
        Establish learning goals that are based on an understanding of one’s own
         current and future learning needs.
        Identify own strengths and weaknesses as a learner and seek out
         opportunities for learning that help build self-concept as a learner.
        Become familiar with a range of learning strategies to acquire or retain
         knowledge.
        Identify and use strategies appropriate to goals, task, context, and resources
         available for learning.
        Monitor progress towards goals and monitor strategies or other features of the
         learning situation as necessary to achieve goals.
        Test out new learning in real-life applications.

Learners set learning goals. Goal progress will be talked about with the instructor or in
their groupings. Alternative resources and strategies will be discussed. When one goal
is reached, it will be openly celebrated and supported.




                                                                                         91
References and Resources for Adult English as a Second Language

Books and Articles

Ananda, S. (2000). Equipped for the future assessment report: How instructors can
support adult learners through performance-based assessment. Washington, DC:
National Institute for Literacy. http://eff.cls.utk.edu/PDF/ananda_eff.pdf

Assessing Success in Family Literacy and Adult ESL. Edited by Holt, Daniel D., & Van
Duzer, Carol H. (2000). McHenry,IL: Delta Systems Company,Inc. and Center for
Applied Linguistics. http://calstore.cal.org/store/detail.aspx?ID=33

Bingman, Mary Beth, Ebert, Olga, & Bell, Brenda (2002). Documenting Outcomes for
Learners and Their Communities: A Report on a NCSALL Action Research Project.
(NCSALL Report No. 20). Cambridge, MA: National Center for the Study of Adult
Learning and Literacy.
http://www.ncsall.net/fileadmin/resources/research/report20.pdf

California Pathways: The Second Language Student in Public High Schools, Colleges,
and Universities. (2000) California Community Colleges Chancellor’s Office. Glendale,
CA: CATESOL. http://www.catesol.org/pathways.pdf


Comings, John P. Parrella, Andrea, & Soricone, Lisa (1999). Persistence Among Adult
Basic Education Students in Pre-GED Classes (NCSALL Reports #12). Cambridge, MA:
National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy.
http://www.ncsall.net/fileadmin/resources/research/report12.pdf

Condelli, Larry, Wrigley, Heide S., Yoon, Kwang, Seburn, Mary, & Cronen, Stephanie
(2003, January). What Works for Adult ESL Literacy Students: Final report, volume II.
Washington DC: American Institutes for Research and Planning and Evaluation Service,
Office of the Under Secretary, U.S. Department of Education.
http://www.otan.us/browse/index.cfm?fuseaction=doc&catid=15060&ref=3778


Cortina, Gabriel. Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. (1991). What
Work Requires of Schools: A SCANS Report for America 2000. Washington, DC: U.S.
Department of Labor.
http://www.otan.us/browse/index.cfm?fuseaction=doc&catid=11236&ref=300


ESOL Best Practices: Exemplary Programs That Provide English to Speakers of Other
Languages (2006), September). Washington, DC: National Conference of State
Directors of Adult Education.
http://www.otan.us/images/publicarchive/ArchivesDigitalFiles/ref_5716_ESOL-
BestPract.pdf



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Kerka, Sandra (2005, January). Learner Persistence in Adult Basic Education.
(Research Digest#2). Sacramento, CA: California Adult Literacy Professional
Development Project.
http://www.otan.us/images/publicarchive/ArchivesDigitalFiles/casas/Doc_AB0066.pdf

Marshall, Brigitte (2002). Preparing for Success: A Guide for Teaching Adult English
Language Learners. McHenry, IL: Delta Systems Company, Inc. and Center for Applied
Linguistics. http://calstore.cal.org/store/detail.aspx?ID=162


Measures and Methods for the National Reporting System for Adult Education:
Implementation Guidelines. (2001, March). Washington, DC: Division of Adult Education
and Literacy, Office of Vocational and Adult Education, U.S. Department of Education.
http://www.otan.us/browse/index.cfm?fuseaction=doc&catid=15055&ref=3773


O’Neill, Kim & Stansbury, Kendyll (2000). Developing a Standards-based Assessment
System: A Handbook. San Francisco: WestEd. http://www.wested.org/cs/we/view/rs/14

Standards for Adult Education ESL Programs. (2002) Alexandria, VA: Teachers of
English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc.
http://www.otan.us/browse/index.cfm?fuseaction=doc&catid=14696&ref=3471

Stein, Sondra (2000). Equipped for the Future Content Standards: What Adults Need to
Know and Be Able to Do in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Institute for
Literacy.
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2/content_storage_01/0000000b/80/10/
ac/46.pdf

Stiggins, Richard J. (1997). Student-Centered Classroom Assessment. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Merrill-Prentice Hall.

Stiggins, Richard J. (2005). Student-Involved Assessment FOR Learning, 4th edition.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
http://vig.prenhall.com/catalog/academic/product/0,1144,0131183494,00.html

Teaching the SCANS Competencies. Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary
Skills. (1993). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.
http://www.otan.us/browse/index.cfm?fuseaction=doc&catid=12508&ref=1506

Van Duzer, Carol H., & Berdan, Robert (2000). Perspectives on Assessment in Adult
ESOL Instruction. In the Annual Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume I.
Cambridge, MA & San Francisco, CA: National Center for the Study of Adult Learning
and Literacy & Jossey-Bass Publishers. http://www.ncsall.net/?id=521




                                                                                      93
Young, Sarah (2006, September). Understanding Adult ESL Content Standards.
(CAELA Brief) Washington, DC: Center for Adult English Language Acquisition.
http://www.otan.us/images/publicarchive/ArchivesDigitalFiles/ref_5745_UnStndgAdultE
SL.pdf

Web Sites

Adult Literacy Resource Institute (ALRI)
http://alri.org/

California Adult Literacy Professional Development Project (CALPRO)
http://www.calpro-online.com/

California Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (CATESOL)
http://www.catesol.org/

Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. (1991). What work requires of
schools: A SCANS report for America 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of
Labor.

Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. (1993). Teaching the SCANS
competencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.

Stein, S. (2000). Equipped for the future content standards: What adults need to know
and be able to do in the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy.

Stiggins, R.J. (1997). Student-centered classroom assessment. Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Merrill-Prentice Hall.

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (2000). Program standards
for adult education ESOL programs. Alexandria, VA: Author.




                                                                                      94
Web Sites

Adult Literacy Resource Institute (ALRI)
http://alri.org/

California Adult Literacy Professional Development Project (CALPRO)
http://www.calpro-online.com/

California Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (CATESOL)
http://www.catesol.org/

Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS)
http://www.casas.org/

Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL)
[Projects] http://www.cal.org/projects/index.html

Center for Adult English Language Acquisition (CAELA)
http://www.cal.org/caela/

California Department of Education Adult Education Office (CDE-AEO)
http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/ae/

Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks
http://www.language.ca/

Equipped for the Future (EFF)
http://eff.cls.utk.edu/

National Center for ESL Literacy Education (NCLE)
http://www.cal.org/caela/

National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL)
http://ncsall.gse.harvard.edu

National Center for Adult Literacy (NCAL)
http://www.literacyonline.org/ncal.html

National Centre for English Language Teaching & Research (NCELTR)
http://www.nceltr.mq.edu.au/

National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition and Language Instruction
Educational Programs (NCELA)
http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/

National Institute for Literacy (NIFL)
http://www.nifl.gov/



                                                                                   95
National Reporting System for Adult Education (NRS)
http://www.nrsweb.org/

Outreach and Technical Assistance Network (OTAN)
http://www.otan.us/

Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS)
http://wdr.doleta.gov/SCANS/

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL)
http://www.tesol.org/




                                                               96
Appendices




             97
Appendix A

Introduction to Assessment

Various national efforts, particularly the National Reporting System, measure outcomes
of adult education programs, but many questions remain about how local programs
might document outcomes in ways that are immediately useful to learners, teachers,
and programs. There are four principles supporting effective performance and
accountability in adult education:
consensus on goals and indicators of their accomplishment;
mutual accountability relationships;
resources to meet goals and measure achievement; and
a variety of performance measurement tools.5

Characteristics of Meaningful Assessments for Adult Learners6
General assessment principles apply to both traditional paper-and-pencil tests
associated with standardized testing and to performance assessments. For example,
both traditional standardized tests and standards-based performance assessments for
adult ESL learners must meet accepted levels of technical quality, i.e., they must be
valid (the degree to which an assessment measures what it is purported to measure)
and reliable (the consistency and stability of assessment scores).

Five aspects of general and technical quality that apply to assessments for classroom
use follow.
         Clear goals. Assessments must demonstrate a clear sense of what they are
          assessing. Using the adult ESL model curriculum and performance standards
          as the basis for assessment will help to clarify the goals. These model
          curriculum and performance standards also serve to ground the assessment.

          Focused purpose. Assessment should not be an end unto itself. Instructors
           must be able to articulate why an assessment is being conducted and how
           the results will be used. For example, the purpose of a portfolio assessment
           might be to assess an adult ESL learner’s work readiness skills (e.g., effective
           use of language skills integrated with goal-setting, teamwork, and technology
           use), yielding meaningful results for presentation to potential employers.

          Proper method. Sound assessment matches the method with the intended
           goal. If the purpose of an assessment is to determine how effectively an adult
           ESL learner can use language skills to plan, then having the learner actually
           develop and document a plan for some specified purpose (e.g., planning a
           community event) is appropriate.

          Sound sampling. Given time and other limitations, assessments include only
           a sample of tasks from the infinite number of tasks that are possible to assess

5From Bigman, Ebert, & Bell (2002).
6The discussion of characteristics of assessments for adult learners is adapted from Ananda (2000) and
O’Neill and Stansbury (2000).

                                                                                                    98
          an individual’s learning. Good assessment yields a representative sample of
          learner performance—that is, enough of the right kind of information to draw
          solid conclusions about achievement. For adult ESL, sampling must represent
          tasks in all four domains, as well as different types and combinations of
          measures.

         Accurate assessment, free of bias and distortion. To ensure accuracy and
          freedom from bias and distortion, assessments must be carefully designed
          and reviewed prior to use. Because evaluating performance on performance-
          based assessment tasks often relies on human judgment, evaluator bias or
          prejudice must be avoided.

Other key characteristics for meaningful standards-based assessments are described
below.

     Linked directly to standards. Assessment tools should be carefully designed to
     measure learner progress towards achieving the adult ESL model curriculum
     standards so that accurate inferences can be drawn about learner achievement
     relative to these standards. For example, if an assessment is supposed to
     measure the ability to “communicate simple personal information on the
     telephone,” the assessment task intended for this standard should require the
     learner to demonstrate the relevant speaking skills (e.g., role-play a telephone
     conversation with a partner in the classroom, or document results of an actual
     telephone conversation) according to the criteria specified by the relevant content
     or performance standards.

     Serve as instructional and assessment tools. Good standards-based assessment
     tools blur the lines between teaching, learning, and assessing. At times, an
     assessment can serve simply as a gauge of learner progress. At other times, it
     can also serve as a powerful instructional tool, providing meaningful learning
     experiences in itself (Stiggins, 1997). Assessments can include learner self-
     assessments and peer assessments as well as teacher-rated tasks, contributing
     to the development of learners’ autonomy and responsibility. Whenever possible,
     assessments should be embedded in authentic contexts related to learners’
     experiences and their goals in learning English.

     Require application and integration of knowledge. The solution to many problems
     in daily adult life requires the integrated application of content knowledge, complex
     thinking, reasoning, problem solving, and reflection skills. Assessments should
     model such real-world demands at all proficiency levels by calling for more than
     simple recall of facts, rules, or procedures. They should require learners to
     actually apply their knowledge and skills in ways that correspond to the use of
     knowledge and skills in real life.

Performance-Based Assessment in Adult ESL Programs
Because the core content of adult ESL focuses on the process skills of using language
in context, performance-based assessments must be included in any assessment
system in order to assure alignment with the model curriculum standards. Varied types

                                                                                       99
of performance assessments allow learners to take advantage of their particular
learning styles: aural, oral, visual, and kinesthetic. For example, learners may listen to a
series of utterances and identify whether the utterances were statements or questions,
based on the intonation pattern (aural); they could then repeat the utterances
themselves (oral). In another task, learners could be asked to arrange words printed on
cards in the correct order for English statements and questions (visual and kinesthetic).

Another important consideration in choosing or designing assessments for adult ESL is
that all four domains need to be assessed. The domains may be assessed separately or
in an integrated fashion, mirroring integrated skills teaching practice. For example, as a
listening task learners could listen to a dialog and identify pictures or diagrams
corresponding to what they understand. As an integrated listening and writing task,
learners could listen to a dialog or lecture, take notes, and then write a summary or
response.

Examples of types of performance assessment used in adult ESL programs, which can
be designed to meet the above characteristics, are briefly described below.

Pre- and Post-Surveys. Surveys assess learners’ knowledge of particular content or
topics, both before and after the intended instruction.

Checklists. Checklists can be used by instructors or other assessors to observe a
learner’s process in performing a certain activity and determine if the performance is
appropriate and acceptable. Assessment includes a rubric or checklist of each
component or step considered essential to mastery of a given objective. The assessor
or learner checks off each item on the list that the learner completes successfully.

Teacher Conducted Interview. Interviews are used to collect detailed information. For
example, the teacher can interview learners about activities conducted independently in
a community or workplace setting outside of class. The teacher can also interview
learners about their progress in particular skills areas, such as their experiences
speaking with people outside of class.

Oral Performance. Oral assessments include a variety of learner tasks such as
reporting to the entire class on their experiences or research, discussing topical or
controversial issues in small groups, or interviewing other learners or community
members on relevant topics.

Written Performance. Writing assessments include a variety of writing tasks, such as
journal entries, personal or business letters, narratives, descriptive or persuasive
essays, reports based on learner research, or completed forms of various kinds.

Role-Plays. Role-plays include pairs or groups of learners acting out real-life situations.

Portfolios and Projects. Portfolios and projects are cumulative assessments, which
value the process as well as the products of learning. Portfolios provide an opportunity
for ongoing, long-term assessment of outcomes by having learners track and compile
samples of performance on a variety of tasks and behaviors. Learner projects also
provide instructors with a method of assessing long-term learning outcomes. Learner
                                                                                        100
projects combine diverse aspects of a learner’s yearlong or semester-long learning and
demonstrate the learner’s mastery of each individual aspect in one final project.

Standardized Testing in Adult ESL
Standardized tests are also used in adult ESL programs, especially for placement, level
exit, and accountability. Advantages of standardized tests include their construct
validity, scoring reliability, and cost-effectiveness. Program staff can administer such
tests without a great deal of training, and funding sources accept the results as part of
the documentation for program accountability. Standardized tests allow for comparisons
across programs, including giving learners a sense of where they stand compared with
learners in other programs.

Some standardized tests commonly used in adult ESL programs are briefly described
below.

Basic English Skills Test (BEST). This test assesses adult ESL learners’ English literacy
(reading and writing) skills and listening and speaking skills.

Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS). The CASAS ESL tests
include reading and listening items. The appraisal tests identify learner skill levels to
determine appropriate placement into a level within an ESL program. CASAS offers Life
Skills (for curriculum with life skills focus), and Employability (for curriculum with
employability focus) test series to help document learner progress.

Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE), and the Adult Basic Learning Examination
(ABLE). Some literacy programs use these group-administered adult basic skills tests
for both their native English speakers and their second language learners.

New York State (NYS) Place Test. Designed for placement, this test includes a basic
English literacy screening and an oral assessment.

The Basic Inventory of Natural Language (BINL). This test provides a grammatical
analysis of spoken language.

The Henderson-Moriarty ESL Placement (HELP). This test is designed to measure
literacy skills (in the native language and in English).

Scoring Scales7
Development of assessments includes development of scoring systems. Scoring
systems provide a means of interpreting the relationship between standards and learner
achievement. Scoring systems range from the fairly simple (as with multiple choice
tests) to the quite complex (as with projects or portfolios). This section gives an
overview of scoring systems, with a specific focus on scoring scales (also known as
rating scales, or rubrics) for adult ESL performance assessments at the program or
classroom level.


7 The introductory description of scoring scales is adapted from Chapter Five of O’Neill and Stansbury
(2000).

                                                                                                     101
The first step in developing a scoring system is to identify the standards to be
addressed by the assessment. The adult ESL model curriculum and performance
standards are the basis of this step; teachers and administrators may want to further
define a subset of relevant standards to be assessed in local programs. Next,
assessments must be designed so that items or tasks are directly related to specific
selected standards. For complex assessments such as projects and portfolios, the
scoring system should show how each step, component, or task relates to the specific
standards. A score may represent proficiency related to one or multiple standards, to an
isolated skill or integrated skills.

Once a relevant assessment aligned to a content standard or set of standards has been
designed, the next step is to decide on the criteria for scoring (or rating) the
assessment. The criteria can be general, based on the type of task, or specific to a
particular task. For example, criteria can apply to the requirements identified for written
work in general, or to the requirements identified for a specific writing task, such as a
letter or an essay. The criteria can involve overall completion of elements of a task, as
in Sample 1 below, where learners are scored using a checklist of information gathered.
Alternatively, the criteria can involve descriptions of performance levels across traits, or
subparts of a complex task. In Sample 2, the traits identified for the writing task are
content, format, grammar, and mechanics. Four levels of performance are then
described for each of these traits.

The final step is to compute the scores and decide on what constitutes a passing score.
A score for a checklist is computed by adding up the total. For a multi-level task, as in
Sample 1, the range of total scores is divided to correspond to expected performance at
each proficiency level. For example, an Intermediate Low learner can be expected to
accurately gather the first three pieces of information, plus two of the next four. For a
single-level task, the total score can be divided into ranges for performance levels (e.g.,
basic, proficient, or advanced), or can be reported as an average, with the averages
aligned to performance levels.

Development of scoring scales for performance assessments is an ongoing process.
Scoring scales need to be pilot tested to make sure the trait descriptions and ranges of
performance correspond to what learners at a given proficiency level can actually do.
Each time a performance assessment is administered, teachers must re-evaluate
whether the scales match expected learner abilities, and revise the scales or
assessments. Often, scoring scales are accompanied by samples of learner work
corresponding to points in the range. For example, Sample 1 could have sample charts
filled out by learners at each of the three proficiency levels; Sample 2 could have
samples of letters written by Beginning High learners whose performance is considered
basic, proficient, or advanced.

Two sample performance tasks are shown below, each with a different type of scoring
scale. Sample 1 is an integrated skills task designed to assess learners at multiple
levels. Sample 2 is a writing task designed to assess learners at the Beginning High
level.




                                                                                        102
Note that the sample tasks and scoring scales are meant as illustrations. They
should be critically reviewed and adapted for use in a particular class in order
to ensure they are appropriate for learners in a specific programs.




                                                                                   103
Sample 1—Integrated Skills Performance Assessment
Levels: Beginning High through Intermediate High

Model Curriculum standards assessed:
Beginning High
Listening Skills 1.4 – Demonstrate understanding of non-face-to-face speech in familiar
contexts.
Speaking Skills 1.5 – Communicate simple personal information on the telephone.
Writing Skills 1.6 – Write down key information from a recorded message.

Intermediate Low
Listening Skills 1.4 – Demonstrate understanding of non-face-to-face conversations on
familiar material in familiar contexts.
Speaking Skills 1.6 – Participate in simple telephone conversations on familiar topics.
Writing Skills 1.6 – Take notes on familiar material transmitted orally.

Intermediate High
Listening Skills 1.1 – Respond to common requests for assistance or information and
record important facts, directions, and appointments discussed in person and on the
phone.
Speaking Skills 1.7 – Participate in extended telephone conversations on familiar
subjects with clarification.
Writing Skills 1.1 – Take notes on information transmitted orally on familiar or unfamiliar
topics when supporting material is provided.

Task: Gathering and Recording Information
Learner locates an information source from a pre-agreed upon list. Learner contacts the
source, requests information, and completes a chart showing the information.

Assessor marks a checklist with "yes" or "no" for each piece of correct information
recorded in the chart.

Multi-Level Scoring Scale: Gathering and Recording Information
Chart includes correct information    Passing Scores by Proficiency Level
on:
1. Telephone number                   Beginning High
2. Name of the contact person         2 checked "yes" of 1-3
3. Location
4. Hours of operation                 Intermediate Low
5. Availability of translators        3 checked "yes" of 1-3
6-7. Two documents the source needs 2 checked "yes" of 4-7
8-10. Three services the source
provides                              Intermediate High
                                      3 checked "yes" of 1-3
                                      3 checked "yes" of 4-7
                                      2 checked "yes" of 8-10




                                                                                       104
Sample 2—Writing Performance Assessment
Level: Beginning High

Model Curriculum standards assessed:
Writing Skills 1.2 – Write a short note or message.
Writing Skills 1.4 – Edit and revise writing for capitalization, sentence punctuation, and
correct spelling.

Grammatical structures focused:
Verb tenses: simple present; simple past; future with will
Modals: can; have to; must

Proficient Performance for Beginning High (excerpt relevant to writing)
Upon exit from Beginning High, learners can function in English at a basic level in
familiar contexts. They can write short notes, messages, and loosely organized short
paragraphs, but with some errors in vocabulary, grammar, and mechanics that may
interfere with meaning.

Task: Writing a Note to a Child's Teacher
       Instructions to learner:
Write a note to your child's teacher. Tell the teacher why your child was absent today,
and when he or she will return to school.

Learners can base the form and content of their note on a model previously developed
by the teacher with input from the class as a group.


Writing Task Scoring Scale
               0                 1                   2                 3                 Total
 Content       Does not          Addresses           Addresses         Addresses
               address           some part of        some part of      prompt fully
               prompt            prompt, but         prompt
                                 unclear
 Format        No evidence of    Little evidence     Some evidence     Clear and
               correct format    of correct          of correct        correct format
                                 format              format
 Grammar       No control of     Little control of   Some control      Good control of
               focused           focused             of focused        focused
               grammar           grammar             grammar           grammar
 Mechanics     No control of     Little control of   Some control      Good control of
               capitalization,   capitalization,     of                capitalization,
               punctuation       punctuation         capitalization,   punctuation
               and spelling      and spelling        punctuation       and spelling
                                                     and spelling
                                                                       Total Score:      ______

The total score can be computed to correspond to a performance level in one of two
ways:
the total can be divided by 4, with the resulting number aligned to a performance level
(e.g., 2 is proficient);
a scale can be devised along the range of total scores (e.g., 8 is proficient).

                                                                                                  105
                                      Appendix B

Beginning Literacy Content and Placement

In the ESL model curriculum standards, the levels Beginning Low through Advanced
High represent phases along a continuum of increasing proficiency in the four domains.
Beginning Literacy, however, is not an element along this continuum; rather, it is a
special designation for a particular population of English learners. Literacy learners fall
into two general categories: those who do not read and write their native language; and
those who read and write a language with a writing system other than the Roman
alphabet. Since the literacy designation is based on native language reading and writing
ability, literacy learners may have widely varying degrees of oral fluency in English.
Thus, the oral abilities of literacy learners may not be accurately reflected by the
description of skills in the Beginning Literacy Listening and Speaking domains.

Beginning Literacy placement is a particular area of concern in ESL programs
throughout California. Learners placed in Beginning Literacy classes may have a wide
variety of previous experience and ongoing needs. This section presents an overview of
some of the issues around Beginning Literacy classes and adult ESL literacy learners.

Within programs, there is a wide variety of learners who are placed at the Beginning
Literacy level. First, there are variations among literacy learners with respect to their
literacy and life experiences. Second, learners with special needs not directly related to
literacy may be placed in this level by choice, or because other options are unavailable
or inconvenient.

ESL learners may be non-literate or semi-literate in their native language for different
reasons. Their language may have no written form, or a written form may only recently
have been developed. The learners may have attended very few years of school, or
may have attended school sporadically, with interruptions caused by external events
such as war or emigration. Learners of this type may need to learn numeracy skills as
well as the basic concepts of reading and writing. They may also need explicit
explanations of school cultural norms, such as how to raise your hand to take a turn,
and how to keep a notebook. These learners may take a long time to acquire fluent
reading and writing skills, and thus may appear to be lagging behind other learners as
they progress through the proficiency levels. While this is to be expected, it may place a
special challenge on teachers to provide enough support for these learners to develop
their reading and writing skills at a slower pace, while at the same time offering the
other learners opportunities to reach high reading and writing standards quickly.

Other literacy learners may be literate in their native language, or another language
used in their community, yet not familiar with the Roman alphabet. These learners may
want or need instruction in English literacy before entering a higher proficiency level
course where they would be expected to write in English. These learners may need only
a short time in Beginning Literacy before moving on, depending on their previous level
of schooling, and perhaps also on how different their native language writing system is
from the Roman alphabet (which represents individual sounds, and is read horizontally
left-to-right).

                                                                                       106
Some adults are placed in Beginning Literacy who are not literacy learners. These
include those who have learning disabilities, those who have recently arrived in the
United States, or those who have other reasons for wanting to start at a more basic,
slower pace than a typical Beginning Low course. Finally, there are English learners
who have lived in the United States for several years, and have become very fluent in
oral English skills, yet are still not proficient at reading and writing English. These
learners may also have little or no literacy in their native language. While these learners
would be eligible for adult basic education, they may choose to enter an ESL program
since their native language is not English.




                                                                                       107
                                                              Appendix C

English as a Second Language Content Standards Chart

The Adult English as a Second Language Content Standards Chart was designed as a
two-page spread in landscape layout, so that the pages fall as below.



         Adult English as a Second Language           Adult English as a Second Language

         blah blah   blahd   ablkjlkjl;kjl;kj abbbb   blah blah   blahd   ablkjlkjl;kjl;kj abbbb
         blah blah   blahd   ablkjlkjl;kjl;kj abbbb   blah blah   blahd   ablkjlkjl;kjl;kj abbbb
         blah blah   blahd   ablkjlkjl;kjl;kj abbbb   blah blah   blahd   ablkjlkjl;kjl;kj abbbb
         blah blah   blahd   ablkjlkjl;kjl;kj abbbb   blah blah   blahd   ablkjlkjl;kjl;kj abbbb
         blah blah   blahd   ablkjlkjl;kjl;kj abbbb   blah blah   blahd   ablkjlkjl;kjl;kj abbbb
         blah blah   blahd   ablkjlkjl;kjl;kj abbbb   blah blah   blahd   ablkjlkjl;kjl;kj abbbb
         blah blah   blahd   ablkjlkjl;kjl;kj abbbb   blah blah   blahd   ablkjlkjl;kjl;kj abbbb




Turn the pages to landscape orientation and put the left and right pages side by side to
see what the published product would look like.




                                                                                                   108
            Beginning Literacy                                           Beginning Low                                               Beginning High
Listening   1.0       Listening Skills                                   1.0         Listening Skills                                1.0        Listening Skills
            Learners understand a limited range of simple spoken         Learners understand a range of frequently used spoken       Learners comprehend spoken English containing some
            isolated words, phrases, and questions drawn from familiar   words, phrases, simple learned expressions, and questions   unfamiliar words when the words are used in familiar
            material such as personal information or the immediate       in familiar contexts.                                       contexts. They understand another speaker well enough to
            physical setting.                                                                                                        participate in simple conversations.


            1.1    Demonstrate understanding of                          1.1   Demonstrate understanding of                          1.1   Demonstrate understanding of
            high-frequency commands and                                  simple words in context of common,                          simple words and phrases drawn from
            expressions of courtesy.                                     everyday situations.                                        learned topics.



            1.2   Respond to simple questions         1.2     Respond appropriately to short                                         1.2    Respond appropriately to a brief
            about personal information (e.g., name,   emergency warnings and commands                                                message of urgency (e.g., Call your
            address, phone number).                   (e.g., Be careful! Slow down! Please                                           son’s school right away.).
                                                      wait here.).
            1.3    Demonstrate understanding of       1.3     Respond to some routine social                                         1.3   Identify the main topic of
            familiar vocabulary through physical      phrases (e.g., Hi, how are you? Paper                                          conversation in familiar material.
            response (e.g., pointing, manipulation of or plastic? Have a good weekend.).
            objects).


                                                                         1.4    Use simple contextual clues,                         1.4   Demonstrate understanding of
                                                                         such as time reference words, to get                        non-face-to-face speech (e.g., short
                                                                         information from short announcements                        announcements, recordings, or
                                                                         or conversations (e.g., It’s supposed to                    telephone conversations) in familiar
                                                                         rain tomorrow.).                                            contexts.



                                                                         1.5   Demonstrate understanding of                          1.5    Differentiate between statements
                                                                         simple face-to-face conversations that                      and questions based on grammatical
                                                                         use previously learned material.                            structure and intonation patterns.


                                                                                                                                                                                            (left) 1
            Beginning Literacy   Beginning Low                            Beginning High




                                 1.6   Demonstrate comprehension of      1.6    Recognize words that signal
                                 simple wh- vs. yes/no questions through differences between present, past, and
                                 appropriate responses.                  future events.




Listening                        1.7     Respond to simple requests for   1.7    Recognize reduced forms in
                                 repetition or simple clarification.      high-frequency expressions (e.g.,
                                                                          gonna).




                                                                          1.8     Respond appropriately to simple
                                                                          instructions and other non-classroom
                                                                          requests, including requests for
                                                                          clarification.
                                                                          1.9     Use contextual clues (e.g., time,
                                                                          place, identity, or relationship of
                                                                          speakers) to get information from
                                                                          increasingly extended announcements
                                                                          or conversations.




                                                                                                                  (left) 2
           Beginning Literacy                                             Beginning Low                                           Beginning High




Speaking   1.0       Speaking Skills                                      1.0       Speaking Skills                               1.0         Speaking Skills
           Learners use a few English words, supported by gestures,       Learners communicate survival needs using very simple   Learners communicate about basic needs and common
           to express basic survival needs. They engage in very limited   learned phrases and sentences. They engage in limited   activities. They participate in basic conversations in routine
           social conversations, with frequent hesitations,               social conversations, with frequent hesitations,        social situations. Hesitations, misunderstandings, and errors
           misunderstandings, and errors.                                 misunderstandings, and errors.                          may be frequent.




           1.1   Express basic needs with simple                          1.1   Make statements related to basic                  1.1    Ask questions related to basic
           words or phrases drawn from learned                            needs using previously learned words                    needs using previously learned
           material (e.g., I need paper).                                 and phrases.                                            utterances.



           1.2    Ask questions using a word or                           1.2   Make simple statements about                      1.2    Answer simple questions related
           short phrase (e.g., Name?).                                    everyday activities.                                    to basic needs using previously learned
                                                                                                                                  phrases or simple sentences.


                                                                                                                                  .
           1.3    Answer simple questions with                            1.3    Ask simple yes/no and wh-                        1.3   Ask for and give meanings of
           yes, no, or other one-word responses.                          questions to request basic factual or                   words and expressions.
                                                                          personal information.


           1.4    Identify people, objects, and                           1.4    Answer simple questions with                     1.4   Engage in conversational
           actions with one or two words.                                 short-phrase responses (e.g., answer                    exchanges on familiar topics using
                                                                          Where do you live? with In San                          mostly learned phrases.
                                                                          Francisco.).


                                                                                                                                                                                             (left) 3
           Beginning Literacy                        Beginning Low                                           Beginning High




           1.5     Repeat one- or two-word phrases 1.5    Ask for and respond to requests                    1.5   Communicate simple personal
           for clarification.                      for simple clarification.                                 information on the telephone.



           1.6    State lack of understanding with   1.6    Engage in simple conversational                  1.6     Give and ask for simple
           a one- to two-word phrase (e.g., Sorry?   exchanges on limited and familiar topics                directions.
           Say again?).                              using learned phrases.

           1.7   Give basic commands and          1.7   Give simple commands and
           express caution using one- to two-word express caution using short phrases.
           phrases (e.g., Stop! Look out!).
Speaking   1.8   Engage in very basic
           conversational exchanges using learned
           phrases (e.g., How are you? Fine.).


Reading    1.0      Reading Skills                   1.0       Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development      1.0 Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development
           Learners recognize letters of the         Learners recognize and read numbers and letters. They   Learners use basic word analysis skills to determine the
                                                     recognize subparts of familiar words.                   meaning of new words in simple material in familiar
           alphabet, numbers, and some simple                                                                contexts.
           words.
           1.1    Demonstrate eye movement from 1.1   Identify the letters of the English                    1.1   Apply sound/symbol relationships
           top to bottom and left to right.     alphabet and                                                 to decode (sound out) a new word that
                                                numbers.                                                     occurs frequently in familiar situations.

           1.2      Discriminate between shapes   1.2     Relate phonological sounds to                      1.2    Recognize common roots,
           and both uppercase and lowercase print letters and clusters of letters                            prefixes (e.g., pre-, un-), suffixes (e.g., -
           letters.                               (sound/symbol correspondence).                             ing, -ed), and compound words in
                                                                                                             context.
           1.3      Discriminate among numerals 1-   1.3      Identify syllables and common                  1.3    Identify common synonyms and


                                                                                                                                                                        (left) 4
          Beginning Literacy                        Beginning Low                                            Beginning High

          100.                                      basic word parts (e.g., un-clear, eat-ing,               antonyms (e.g., happy, glad, unhappy,
                                                    box-es) in context in familiar words.                    sad) in context.

          1.4     Relate phonological sounds to     1.4    Identify common antonyms (e.g.,                   1.4    Locate a word, number, or time
          letters (sound/symbol correspondence).    hot/cold, young/old).                                    in alphabetical or numeric order (e.g., in
                                                                                                             a telephone directory, work schedule,
                                                                                                             dictionary, or Web site directory).

          1.5    Read basic sight words and         1.5   Find a familiar word in an
          signs with one word or symbol (e.g.,      alphabetized list.
          restroom signs, computer keys).


          1.6     Coordinate hand and eye to fill
          out forms requiring non-verbal answers
          (e.g., X for boxes, Scantron bubbles).

Reading                                             2.0       Reading Skills                                 2.0        Reading Skills
                                                    Learners construct limited meaning from simple print     Learners read simplified material on familiar topics and
                                                    materials on familiar topics with repeated reading and   construct limited meaning, with teacher assistance, from
                                                    checking.                                                some authentic materials dealing with everyday matters.




                                                    2.1    Use familiar visual clues (such as 2.1    Use visual clues to predict
                                                    pictures, graphs, and charts) to predict  meaning and interpret new words in
                                                    meaning.                                  familiar contexts.


                                                    2.2   Recognize personal information                     2.2    Interpret isolated words and
                                                    words in print (e.g., first and last names,              phrases in familiar contexts (e.g., traffic
                                                    address, school or job identification                    signs, store ads, fast food menus,
                                                    number, etc.).                                           computer menus).


                                                                                                                                                                        (left) 5
Beginning Literacy   Beginning Low                               Beginning High

                     2.3     Recognize common forms of           2.3     Interpret terms on simple forms
                     environmental print found in the home,      (e.g., personal identification, school
                     on community facilities, and for basic      registration, checks, change of
                     services (e.g., simple labels and product   address).
                     names, simple computer commands,
                     and simple warnings: danger, poison,
                     file, save, bank, post office).
                     2.4     Recognize basic sight words in      2.4    Recognize abbreviations in
                     different handwriting styles (e.g.,         simple authentic material such as ads,
                     cursive) in short notes and messages.       forms, and signs.

                     2.5     Recognize basic abbreviations       2.5    Recognize familiar vocabulary
                     (e.g., Mr., Dr., St.).                      and phrases in a variety of printed fonts
                                                                 and handwriting styles.
                     2.6    Scan for numerical information in    2.6    Scan simple authentic
                     simple signs and flyers (e.g., the time a   documents (e.g., ads, schedules, forms,
                     store opens).                               food coupons, Web pages,
                                                                 standardized tests) to find specific
                                                                 information.



                     2.7     Read and understand simple          2.7     Make simple inferences from
                     sentences using vocabulary and              brief narratives, charts, and schedules
                     sentence patterns previously learned        (e.g., using a mail schedule to
                     orally.                                     determine if a letter will be picked up
                                                                 today).

                     2.8    Follow one- to three-step written    2.8     Identify the sequence of events
                     instructions.                               in written directions or a simple
                                                                 narrative passage.



                                                                                                           (left) 6
          Beginning Literacy                                             Beginning Low                                                Beginning High




Reading                                                                                                                               2.9    Read and demonstrate
                                                                                                                                      understanding of short, simplified
                                                                                                                                      narrative paragraphs on familiar topics
                                                                                                                                      containing previously learned
                                                                                                                                      vocabulary and sentence patterns.




Writing   1.0       Writing Skills                                       1.0       Writing Skills                                     1.0        Writing Skills
          Learners copy letters of the alphabet, numbers, and isolated   Learners print numbers, letters, a limited number of basic   Learners have sufficient control of the writing system to
          words and phrases. They write numbers and isolated words       sight words and familiar words and phrases, and simple       meet limited practical needs. They generate sentences into
          and phrases to fill in simple forms.                           sentences and phrases. They write lists, basic personal      short, loosely organized paragraphs related to survival skills
                                                                         information, and very simple messages, with some errors.     and personal topics, with frequent errors. They write short




                                                                                                                                                                                                  (left) 7
Beginning Literacy                      Beginning Low                               Beginning High
                                                                                    messages or notes within the scope of their limited
                                                                                    language experience, with some errors.


1.1    Trace shapes and letters,        1.1     Print the letters of the alphabet   1.1   Write simple sentences based on
following directions and samples.       legibly.                                    personal experiences or familiar
                                                                                    material (e.g., recipes, directions, e-mail
                                                                                    messages).


1.2  Copy letters of the alphabet and   1.2     Write numerals.                     1.2     Write a short note or message
numerals.                                                                           (e.g., to a landlord about a repair or a
                                                                                    child’s teacher about an illness).



1.3   Copy basic information (e.g.,     1.3   Copy or transcribe familiar           1.3   Write a loosely organized
name, phone number, address) for        words, phrases, and high-frequency          paragraph based on personal
personal identification on a form.      expressions from learned materials.         experiences or familiar material.




1.4   Copy a list of words previously   1.4    Write a series of simple             1.4     Edit and revise writing for
produced orally.                        sentences on one topic, based on            capitalization, sentence punctuation,
                                        previously learned vocabulary and           and correct spelling.
                                        structures.


                                        1.5     Edit writing for basic              1.5    Fill out simple forms which
                                        capitalization and end punctuation.         require some detailed biographical or
                                                                                    personal information.



                                                                                                                                          (left) 8
          Beginning Literacy   Beginning Low                                Beginning High



                               1.6     Write a list (e.g., shopping list,   1.6    Write down key information from
                               invitation list) from material read or       a recorded message (e.g., the time and
                               heard.                                       day of a meeting from a telephone
                                                                            answering machine).




Writing                        1.7    Fill out simple forms which
                               require limited biographical or personal
                               information.




                                                                                                                 (left) 9
            Intermediate Low                            Intermediate High                             Advanced Low                                   Advanced High
Listening   1.0        Listening Skills                 1.0        Listening Skills                   1.0       Listening Skills                     1.0         Listening Skills
            Learners comprehend spoken English          Learners understand essential points of       Learners understand descriptive and            Learners understand descriptions and
            containing some unfamiliar words in         discussions or speeches on topics in          factual material in a familiar context. They   narrations of specialized material in a
            mostly familiar contexts. They understand   special fields of interest. They understand   also understand hypothetical topics when       familiar or unfamiliar context. Learners
            and respond to another speaker in           and respond to another speaker with           presented in a familiar context.               understand conversations and discussions
            increasingly extended conversations on      some lack of accuracy in conversations on                                                    or speeches on topics related to their
            familiar topics.                            unfamiliar topics.                                                                           fields of interest.
            1.1     Follow multi-step                   1.1     Respond to common                     1.1    Demonstrate                             1.1    Demonstrate
            directions and simple rules                 requests for assistance or                    understanding of                               understanding of face-to-
            or regulations presented                    information and record                        hypothetical situations in                     face or broadcast
            orally with support materials               important facts, directions,                  familiar contexts.                             descriptions and narration
            in a variety of familiar                    and appointments                                                                             of specialized material.
            situations.                                 discussed in person and on
                                                        the phone.
            1.2     Identify specified                  1.2     Identify main ideas                   1.2    Demonstrate                             1.2      Identify accurate and
            essential information from a                and most supporting details                   understanding of most of                       applicable information in a
            listening passage when                      in factual discourse relating                 the language used in                           variety of listening contexts
            given a verbal prompt.                      to everyday topics.                           movies or broadcasts of a                      (e.g., academic, work-
                                                                                                      general nature.                                related).
            1.3    Demonstrate                          1.3   Identify essential                      1.3    Demonstrate                             1.3      Adapt listening
            understanding of general                    information on a familiar                     understanding of the                           strategies (e.g., use prior
            meaning and details in face-                subject in an observed                        majority of face-to-face                       knowledge, listen for the
            to-face conversations                       conversation about the                        speech in standard dialect                     gist, use organizational
            containing some unfamiliar                  subject.                                      and at a normal rate, with                     patterns and association,
            vocabulary.                                                                               some repetition.                               find listening clues) when
                                                                                                                                                     confronted with spoken
                                                                                                                                                     information on topics of less
                                                                                                                                                     familiarity.
            1.4    Demonstrate                          1.4    Demonstrate                            1.4   Infer emotional                          1.4      Identify details of
            understanding of non-face-                  understanding of a narrative                  content of a spoken                            face-to-face conversations
            to-face conversations on                    passage read aloud and be                     message (e.g., anger,                          on a variety of everyday
            familiar material in familiar               able to repeat the main                       compliment, condolence,                        subjects spoken at normal
            contexts (e.g., telephone,                  actions in sequence.                          sarcasm) from intonation,                      speed and using common
            intercom, 2-way radio).                                                                   rhythm, and stress.                            patterns of reduced speech,


(right) 1
            Intermediate Low                Intermediate High              Advanced Low                   Advanced High
                                                                                                          phrasal verbs, idioms, and
                                                                                                          slang.
            1.5    Differentiate between    1.5    Demonstrate             1.5     Respond to detailed,   1.5    Determine the
            formal and informal             understanding of everyday      specific spoken instructions   usefulness, bias, and/or
            language, including some        conversation when              (e.g., related to operating    accuracy of information
            high-frequency reduced          speakers make some             machines, employment           presented orally (e.g.,
            speech in simple familiar       adaptations for English        directives, or academic        recognize loaded language,
            expressions (e.g., How’s it     learners (e.g., repeating or   assignments).                  distinguish fact from
            going? versus How are           slowing down).                                                opinion, identify inferences,
            you?), when accompanied                                                                       evaluate sources).
            by visual context and clues.
            1.6    Demonstrate              1.6    Differentiate between
            understanding of implicit       the use of formal and
            information (e.g., in a short   informal language, including
            conversation in a work          reduced speech and slang,
            setting between a man and       even when no visual context
            a woman, infer that the         or clues are present.
            woman is the man’s boss).
Listening   1.7    Demonstrate              1.7    Detect the mood of a
            understanding of                message, determining to a
            organizational clues used in    limited degree such
            speaking (e.g., first, next,    components as the attitudes
            then, later, finally).          and feelings of the speakers
                                            or the urgency of the
                                            message.




            m




(right) 2
            Intermediate Low                            Intermediate High                             Advanced Low                                Advanced High




Speaking    1.0        Speaking Skills                  1.0       Speaking Skills                     1.0        Speaking Skills                  1.0         Speaking Skills
            Learners communicate about topics           Learners communicate about a variety of       Learners communicate about a variety of     Learners communicate with ease about a
            beyond their survival needs. They clarify   topics. They generally use appropriate        topics with increasing fluency and          variety of topics. They generally use
            meaning by asking questions or by simply    syntax, but lack thorough control of          increasing control of complex grammatical   appropriate syntax, even with complex
            rewording. They participate in              grammatical patterns. They engage in          patterns. They participate competently in   grammatical patterns. They participate
            conversations in familiar and some          extended conversation but lack fluency in     casual and extended conversation. They      effectively in casual and extended
            unfamiliar contexts. Some hesitations,      discussing highly specialized or unfamiliar   may grope for appropriate vocabulary        conversation. They speak with sufficient
            misunderstandings, and errors may occur.    subjects.                                     when speaking on specialized subjects or    structural accuracy and vocabulary to
                                                                                                      unfamiliar topics.                          participate in formal and informal
                                                                                                                                                  conversations on practical or specialized
                                                                                                                                                  topics.


            1.1     Describe a sequence                 1.1    Generate new         1.1    Participate with                                       1.1    Speak fluently in
            of events on a topic related                utterances based on         increasing fluency in most                                    most formal and informal
            to their personal lives.                    previously learned language face-to-face social                                           conversations on practical


(right) 3
            Intermediate Low               Intermediate High                Advanced Low                   Advanced High
                                           patterns.                        conversations and              and social topics.
                                                                            telephone conversations,
                                                                            including those about work
                                                                            and current events.
            1.2     Ask for and give       1.2    Participate in face-to-   1.2    Clarify meaning         1.2    Speak with some
            clarification on content of    face conversations on some       through strategies such as     fluency on specialized
            utterances (e.g., You mean     topics beyond immediate          paraphrasing when              subjects of interest related
            this must be ready on          survival needs, such as          misunderstanding occurs.       to academic pursuits or
            Friday?).                      personal histories and                                          work demands.
                                           descriptions of people and
                                           places.
            1.3    Initiate and maintain   1.3    Clarify utterances by     1.3     Make some              1.3    Summarize orally
            simple conversations using     rewording or repeating in        adjustments in language        and clarify information
            appropriate forms of           order to be understood by        used in face-to-face           received from a variety of
            address (e.g., Mr. Smith vs.   the general public.              conversation according to      sources.
            Bob) and register (e.g.,                                        the level of formality
            formal or informal).                                            required by the social
                                                                            situation.
            1.4    Engage in               1.4    Adjust language           1.4     Engage in extended   1.4     Make appropriate
            conversations on familiar      forms to the level of            conversations on familiar    adjustments in language
            topics and increasingly on     formality required to fulfill    and unfamiliar topics for a  used in face-to-face
            unfamiliar topics.             basic courtesy functions in      variety of purposes.         conversation according to
                                           face-to-face conversations.                                   the level of formality
                                                                                                         required by the social
                                                                                                         situation.
            1.5     Summarize a brief      1.5    Engage in                 1.5   Participate in         1.5     Initiate, maintain, and
            listening passage on a         increasingly extended            extended telephone           terminate conversations by
            familiar topic.                conversations on familiar        conversations on familiar    the use of appropriate
                                           and unfamiliar topics with       subjects and increasingly on conversational techniques
                                           some errors.                     unfamiliar subjects.         including pauses,
                                                                                                         interruptions, and active
                                                                                                         listening strategies.



(right) 4
            Intermediate Low                Intermediate High              Advanced Low                   Advanced High
            1.6    Participate in simple    1.6   Participate in           1.6    Prepare and deliver a   Engage in extended
            telephone conversations on      extended telephone             well-organized oral            conversations on familiar
            familiar topics.                conversations on familiar      presentation on a general      and unfamiliar topics for a
                                            subjects with clarification.   topic.                         variety of purposes.

Speaking    1.7     Give and ask for        1.7     Prepare and deliver a 1.7     Engage in an            1.7     Participate in
            directions, and give            short oral presentation on a extended interview on            extended telephone
            increasingly complex            familiar topic.               familiar and some unfamiliar    conversations on familiar
            commands and warnings.                                        topics.                         and unfamiliar subjects.
            1.8     Prepare and deliver a   1.8     Engage in a short                                     1.8     Prepare and deliver a
            short, simple oral              interview on familiar and                                     well-organized oral
            presentation on a familiar      unfamiliar topics.                                            presentation on a general or
            topic.                                                                                        specialized topic.
            1.9     Engage in a brief,                                                                    1.9     Engage in an
            simple interview on familiar                                                                  extended interview on
            topics.                                                                                       familiar and some unfamiliar
                                                                                                          topics.




(right) 5
            Intermediate Low                              Intermediate High                          Advanced Low                                  Advanced High




Reading     1.0       Word Analysis and Vocabulary        1.0         Word Analysis and Vocabulary   1.0         Word Analysis and Vocabulary      1.0         Word Analysis and Vocabulary
            Development                                   Development                                Development                                   Development
            Learners use an increasing variety of word    Learners use a variety of word analysis    Learners use a variety of word analysis       Learners use contextual clues and higher
            analysis skills to determine the meaning of   skills to determine the meaning of new     skills to determine the meaning of new        order processes to interpret meaning in
            new words in context on familiar topics.      words in context on familiar topics.       words in context on familiar and unfamiliar   context in a variety of text types and on a
                                                                                                     topics.                                       variety of topics.
            1.1    Apply knowledge of                     1.1    Identify common                     1.1   Interpret meanings of                   1.1     Use syntactic clues
            prefixes and suffixes to                      roots of words used in                     word roots in context.                        to interpret the meanings of
            determine the meaning of                      familiar contexts and                                                                    complex sentences or new
            common words in context.                      expand knowledge of                                                                      vocabulary.
                                                          prefixes and suffixes.
            1.2    Identify common                        1.2    Identify an increasing              1.2     Interpret an                          1.2    Interpret analogies in
            homonyms (e.g., to/two/too)                   number of homonyms,                        increasing number of idioms                   familiar
            and increase vocabulary of                    synonyms, and                              and phrasal verbs in                          contexts.
            synonyms and antonyms.                        antonyms.                                  context.
            1.3    Predict meanings of                    1.3    Interpret common                    1.3     Identify analogies                    1.3    Interpret a wide
            unfamiliar vocabulary in                      phrasal verbs and idioms in                that clarify                                  variety of idioms and
            material rich in contextual                   familiar contexts.                         meaning.                                      phrasal verbs in context.
            clues.
            1.4    Interpret meaning of                   1.4    Use contextual clues                1.4    Determine the                          1.4   Interpret meaning of
            familiar words used in a                      to determine the meaning of                meaning of new specialized                    metaphors and similes in
            new context.                                  unfamiliar vocabulary and                  vocabulary in context (e.g.,                  context.
                                                          phrases.                                   vocabulary related to fields
                                                                                                     of
                                                                                                     interest).
            1.5     Recognize common                      1.5    Use a dictionary to                 1.5    Select the                             1.5    Find information by
            idioms (e.g., Give me a                       determine the basic                        appropriate meaning of a                      using reference tools such
            break!) and phrasal verbs                     meaning of unfamiliar                      word with multiple meanings                   as a print or online
            (e.g., get off, get out of, pick              words.                                     by using a dictionary.                        encyclopedia.
            up) in context.


(right) 6
            Intermediate Low                             Intermediate High                        Advanced Low                                 Advanced High
            1.6    Find specific
            information using an index
            or table of contents (e.g., of
            a book, telephone directory,
            job manual, computer
            application help feature,
            etc.).




Reading     2.0         Reading Skills                   2.0       Reading Skills                 2.0       Reading Skills                     2.0        Reading Skills
            Learners read simplified materials on fam-   Learners read authentic materials on     Learners comprehend authentic materials      Learners comprehend standard materials
            iliar subjects and have limited success      everyday subjects, but have difficulty   on abstract topics in familiar contexts as   such as the newspaper, routine
            when attempting to read some authentic       reading specialized materials.           well as descriptions and narrations of       correspondence, and specialized print or
            materials.                                                                            factual material.                            online materials in their fields of interest.
                                                                                                                                               They can read authentic materials and
                                                                                                                                               nonspecialized prose on most subjects,
                                                                                                                                               but with difficulty
                                                                                                                                               .

            2.1     Interpret                            2.1    Interpret a variety of            2.1    Make inferences                       2.1   Summarize or
            abbreviations for an                         charts, graphs, tables, and              from charts, tables, and a                   paraphrase information
            increasing variety of words                  forms.                                   short series of paragraphs.                  gained from authentic
            in context of specific topics                                                                                                      materials on familiar topics.
            (e.g., employment,
            housing).
            2.2     Skim for general                     2.2    Skim a passage,                   2.2    Skim increasingly                     2.2    Interpret main ideas
            meaning in short passages                    form, or test to determine               complex passages, forms,                     and key points from
            or paragraphs.                               the organization and                     or tests to determine the                    specialized material in their
                                                         general ideas.                           organization and general                     own fields of interest.
                                                                                                  ideas.
            2.3   Scan for specific                      2.3    Scan a passage,                   2.3    Scan increasingly                     2.3   Apply appropriate
            information in simple                        form, or test to find                    complex passages, forms,                     reading strategies (e.g.,
            authentic materials (e.g.,                   particular details.                      or tests to find particular                  skimming, scanning,


(right) 7
            Intermediate Low                  Intermediate High              Advanced Low                      Advanced High
            ads, schedules, dictionaries,                                    details.                          predicting) for
            standardized tests, Web                                                                            understanding content on
            pages) related to immediate                                                                        unfamiliar topics or
            needs.                                                                                             specialized information.
            2.4      Interpret simple,        2.4    Find information that   2.4   Identify main ideas         2.4    Evaluate information
            short narrative and               requires drawing from          and supporting details or         in familiar and some
            descriptive passages on           different sections of a        examples from familiar            unfamiliar passages for
            familiar                          reading passage.               material.                         accuracy and relevance to
            topics.                                                                                            purpose.
            2.5      Interpret simple         2.5    Identify the main idea 2.5   Identify the author,         2.5    Draw general
            charts, graphs, tables,           of a paragraph on a familiar audience, and purpose of a          conclusions from specific
            maps, and multi-step              topic.                        reading passage.                   details in a passage.
            diagrams.
            2.6      Interpret simple         2.6     Draw conclusions       2.6    Differentiate fact from 2.6    Analyze an author’s
            narrative and descriptive         from authentic materials on    opinion in written materials. point of view by making
            passages on unfamiliar            familiar topics (e.g.,                                        inferences.
            topics using visual, graphic,     newspaper articles on
            and textual clues (e.g.,          current events, social
            titles, headlines, captions,      letters, public information
            table of contents) that orient    notices, Web sites).
            learners to reading
            passages.
            2.7      Begin to differentiate   2.7    Determine               2.7     Interpret authentic       2.7    Make judgments of
            between fact and opinion in       connections between ideas      materials (e.g., prose fiction,   information found in reading
            simple texts.                     within a passage by            newspaper articles,               material based on personal
                                              interpreting transitional      procedures manuals, Web           value system.
                                              words (e.g., therefore,        sites) on familiar subjects.
                                              however).
                                              2.8    Follow pronoun          2.8   Summarize reading           2.8    Determine meaning
                                              references to a person or      passages.                         of increasingly complex
                                              object in a passage (e.g.,                                       passages by using
                                              Ms. Smith...she...our                                            contextual clues (e.g.,



(right) 8
            Intermediate Low                          Intermediate High                         Advanced Low                                 Advanced High
                                                      teacher; Form 168...this                                                               chronological order,
                                                      form...it).                                                                            comparison, contrast, and
                                                                                                                                             simple listing).
Writing     1.0       Writing Skills                  1.0       Writing Skills                  1.0        Writing Skills                    1.0         Writing Skills
            Learners write one or more short          Learners write brief compositions about   Learners write compositions on familiar      Learners write detailed, coherent
            paragraphs related to survival skills,    previously discussed topics,              topics. They have consistent control of      compositions on familiar topics with few
            personal topics, and nonpersonal topics   demonstrating control of basic            mechanics, but make some grammatical         syntactic errors, although the style may be
            with some errors. They write complete     grammatical patterns.                     errors with complex structures. They write   different from that of a native speaker.
            messages with a few errors.               Errors are common when using complex      descriptions, short compositions,            They write well-developed descriptions,
                                                      structures. They write routine            summaries, and responses to questions        summaries, and compositions, as well as
                                                      correspondence with increasing            on most forms and applications.              detailed responses to questions on forms
                                                      complexity of organization and detail.                                                 and applications.

            1.1    Write a short note or              1.1     Take notes on                     1.1   Expand and combine                     1.1    Write simple outlines
            message including some                    information transmitted                   simple sentences by adding                   from reading passages or
            supporting details (e.g., to a            orally on familiar or                     modifying words, clauses,                    lectures.
            teacher or supervisor                     unfamiliar topics when                    and phrases.
            explaining an absence).                   supporting material is
                                                      provided (e.g., at a school
                                                      or job orientation meeting).
            1.2     Fill out paper or                 1.2     Write an academic or              1.2    Write descriptive and                 1.2   Write summaries and
            online forms requiring                    practical composition of at               expository compositions                      paraphrases of reading
            detailed personal                         least two paragraphs, with a              using correct punctuation                    passages.
            information on varied topics              main idea and supporting                  and coherent organization.
            (e.g., medical, job, banking              details, using chronological
            forms).                                   order (e.g., for a detailed
                                                      accident report).
            1.3     Write a paragraph                 1.3     Edit writing for                  1.3     Organize sentences                   1.3     Write compositions
            that includes a topic                     content, spelling,                        effectively to convey                        with a clear introduction,
            sentence, supporting detail,              capitalization, punctuation               meaning.                                     supporting details, and
            and a conclusion (e.g., on a              of varied sentence types,                                                              conclusion, using a variety
            topic of personal interest, to            and grammatical form.                                                                  of rhetorical techniques
            request the return of a                                                                                                          (e.g., comparison/contrast;
            cleaning deposit from a                                                                                                          cause/effect;
            landlord).                                                                                                                       generalization/example;
                                                                                                                                             exposition).


(right) 9
             Intermediate Low                Intermediate High                Advanced Low                   Advanced High
             1.4    Edit writing for         1.4     Fill out increasingly    1.4    Edit own writing for    1.4    Edit own and peers’
             spelling, capitalization,       complex authentic paper          grammatical form, word         writing for grammatical
             sentence punctuation, and       and online forms,                choice, spelling, mechanics,   form, word choice, spelling,
             basic grammatical form with     questionnaires, and surveys      and organization. Edit         mechanics, sentence
             some degree of accuracy.        (e.g., driver’s license          peers’ writing for content     variety, and organization.
                                             application, job satisfaction    and organization.
                                             survey).
             1.5      Write down important   1.5     Write personal letters   1.5    Take notes from         1.5    Take notes from full-
             details from face-to-face or    or e-mail messages for           formal community, job, or      length formal presentations.
             recorded spoken messages        various purposes.                academic presentations.
             (e.g., about a child’s field
             trip, a job interview).
             1.6      Take notes on          1.6   Write a simple             1.6    Complete forms that     1.6     Write detailed formal
             familiar material transmitted   business letter (e.g., to        require some narrative         letters or e-mail messages
             orally (e.g., a doctor’s        request an application or        description (e.g., accident    (e.g., letters of complaint,
             directions for taking a         information).                    reports, questionnaires with   letters to accompany job
             medication, or a job                                             comment sections).             applications).
             supervisor’s instructions
             about a task).

Writing                                                                       1.7     Write a business
                                                                              letter or e-mail message
                                                                              requiring some detail (e.g.,
                                                                              to request an informational
                                                                              interview).




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