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					                              Introduction & What Is Html
 Sir Timothy John "Tim" Berners-Lee is a British computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World
  Wide Web
                                  Time Line of HTML

 Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is the main markup language for displaying web pages and other
  information that can be displayed in a web browser.
 A markup language is a modern system for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable
  from the text. The idea and terminology evolved from the "marking up" of manuscripts, i.e., the revision
  instructions by editors, traditionally written with a blue pencil on authors' manuscripts.
 A filename extension is a suffix (separated from the base filename by a dot) to the name of a computer file
  applied to indicate the encoding (file format) of its contents or usage. Examples of filename extensions are .png,
  .jpeg, .exe, .dmg and .txt
 HTML2 (November 1995) When Internet Explorer 7 platform came out it changed the revolution of web pages
  and web site design for the future, until then all web pages and design along with all standard W3C programming
  worked off later versions of Internet Explorer 6 and earlier along with Microsoft Windows 98 up to ME. So things
  were based on a platform called HTML. The new HTML 2 came about when the need for a platform changed the
  internet Explorer series, and new Window Operations of XP and Vista came into play. Microsoft sought out its
  competition and started changing the platforms along with structure and look of their new software for the future
  and to isolate its competition.
 Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation semantics (the look
  and formatting) of a document written in a markup language. Its most common application is to style web pages
  written in HTML and XHTML, but the language can also be applied to any kind of XML document, including plain
  XML, SVG and XUL.
  CSS is designed primarily to enable the separation of document content (written in HTML or a similar markup
  language) from document presentation, including elements such as the layout, colors, and fonts. This separation
  can improve content accessibility, provide more flexibility and control in the specification of presentation
  characteristics, enable multiple pages to share formatting, and reduce complexity and repetition in the structural
  content (such as by allowing for tableless web design). CSS can also allow the same markup page to be presented
  in different styles for different rendering methods, such as on-screen, in print, by voice (when read out by a
  speech-based browser or screen reader) and on Braille-based, tactile devices. It can also be used to allow the web
  page to display differently depending on the screen size or device on which it is being viewed. While the author of
  a document typically links that document to a CSS style sheet, readers can use a different style sheet, perhaps one
  on their own computer, to override the one the author has specified.
 JavaScript (JS) is an open source programming language commonly implemented as part of a web browser in
  order to create enhanced user interfaces and dynamic websites.
  JavaScript is prototype-based scripting language that is dynamic, weakly typed and has first-class functions. It
  uses syntax influenced by the language C. JavaScript copies many names and naming conventions from Java, but
  the two languages are otherwise unrelated and have very different semantics. The key design principles within
  JavaScript are taken from the Self and Scheme programming languages. It is a multi-paradigm language,
  supporting object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles.
    JavaScript's use in applications outside web pages — for example in PDF documents, site-specific browsers, and
    desktop widgets—is also significant. Newer and faster JavaScript VMs and frameworks built upon them (notably
    Node.js) have also increased the popularity of JavaScript for server-side web applications.
    JavaScript was formalized in the ECMAScript language standard and is primarily used in the form of client-side
    JavaScript (as part of a web browser). This enables programmatic access to computational objects within a host
    environment.
   HTML 4.0 became a W3C Recommendation in December of 1997. The new HTML standard provided a number of
    significant improvements over previous versions of the language while emphasizing the concepts of accessibility
    and structural markup. In December of 1999, HTML 4.01 replaced HTML 4.0 as a minor update.
   CSS2 or CSS level 2 specifications was developed by the W3C and published as a recommendation in May 1998. A
    superset of CSS 1, CSS 2 includes a number of new capabilities like absolute, relative, and fixed positioning of
    elements and z-index, the concept of media types, support for aural style sheets and bidirectional text, and new
    font properties such as shadows.
    The W3C no longer maintains the CSS 2 recommendation.
   XHTML 1.0 became a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Recommendation on January 26, 2000..
    XHTML (Extensible Hyper Text Markup Language) is a family of XML markup languages that mirror or extend
    versions of the widely used Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), the language in which web pages are written.
    While HTML (prior to HTML5) was defined as an application of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), a
    very flexible markup language framework, XHTML is an application of XML, a more restrictive subset of SGML.
    Because XHTML documents need to be well-formed, they can be parsed using standard XML parsers—unlike
    HTML, which requires a lenient HTML-specific parser.
   Tableless web design (or tableless web layout) is web design philosophy eschewing the use of HTML tables for
    page layout control purposes.[1] Instead of HTML tables, style sheet languages such as CSS (Cascading Style
    Sheets) are used to arrange elements and text on a web page.
   Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a group of interrelated web development techniques used on the
    client-side to create asynchronous web applications. With Ajax, web applications can send data to, and retrieve
    data from, a server asynchronously (in the background) without interfering with the display and behavior of the
    existing page. Data can be retrieved using the XMLHttpRequest object. Despite the name, the use of XML is not
    required (JSON is often used instead), and the requests do not need to be asynchronous.
    Ajax is not a single technology, but a group of technologies. HTML and CSS can be used in combination to mark up
    and style information. The DOM is accessed with JavaScript to dynamically display, and to allow the user to
    interact with the information presented. JavaScript and the XML Http Request object provide a method for
    exchanging data asynchronously between browser and server to avoid full page reloads.
   HTML5 is a markup language for structuring and presenting content for the World Wide Web and a core
    technology of the Internet. It is the fifth revision of the HTML standard (created in 1990 and standardized as
    HTML4 as of 1997) and, as of December 2012, is a W3C Candidate Recommendation. Its core aims have been to
    improve the language with support for the latest multimedia while keeping it easily readable by humans and
    consistently understood by computers and devices (web browsers, parsers, etc.). HTML5 is intended to subsume
    not only HTML 4, but XHTML 1 and DOM Level 2 HTML as well.

                                     BASIC TAG OF HTML
 <HTML>
  The <html> tag tells the browser that this is an HTML document.
         The <html> tag represents the root of an HTML document.
         The <html> tag is the container for all other HTML elements (except for the <!DOCTYPE> tag).
       <HEAD>
         The <head> element is a container for all the head elements.
         The <head> element must include a title for the document, and can include scripts, styles, meta information, and
          more.
       <TITLE>
         defines a title in the browser toolbar
         provides a title for the page when it is added to favorites
         displays a title for the page in search-engine results
       <BODY>
         The <body> element contains all the contents of an HTML document, such as text, hyperlinks, images, tables,
          lists, etc.
       <B>
         The <b> tag is used for setting the words in bold style. The <b> tag specifies the text in the document for
          clarifying with the surrounding text. The use of <b> tag will highlight the text/ title
       Tag Attributes
         HTML elements can have attributes
         Attributes provide additional information about an element
         Attributes are always specified in the start tag
         Attributes come in name/value pairs like: name="value"
       <table>
         The <table> tag defines an HTML table.
         An HTML table consists of the <table> element and one or more <tr>, <th>, and <td> elements.
         The <tr> element defines a table row, the <th> element defines a table header, and the <td> element defines a
          table cell.
         A more complex HTML table may also include <caption>, <col>, <colgroup>, <thead>, <tfoot>, and <tbody>
          elements.
       <H1> TO <H6>
         The <h1> to <h6> tags are used to define HTML headings.
         <h1> defines the most important heading. <h6> defines the least important heading.
       <P>
         The <p> tag defines a paragraph.
         Browsers automatically add some space (margin) before and after each <p> element. The margins can be
          modified with CSS (with the margin properties).
       <BR>
         The <br> tag inserts a single line break.
         The <br> tag is an empty tag which means that it has no end tag.
       <HR>
         The <hr> tag defines a thematic break in an HTML page (e.g. a shift of topic).
         The <hr> element is used to separate content (or define a change) in an HTML page
       <BIG>
         The <big> tag is not supported in HTML5. Use CSS instead.
         The <big> tag defines bigger text.
       <I>
         The <i> tag defines a part of text in an alternate voice or mood. The content of the <i> tag is usually displayed in
          italic.
         The <i> tag can be used to indicate a technical term, a phrase from another language, a thought, or a ship name,
          etc.
       <SMALL>
         The <small> tag defines smaller text (and other side comments).
         Small print (also referred to as "fine print" or "mouseprint") usually refers to the part of a document that
          contains disclaimers, caveats, or legal restrictions, such as copyrights
       <STRONG>
         The strong tag is another phrase element. It make text bold in most browsers.
         You may wonder why there is a <b> (bold) tag and also a <strong> tag since both are displayed in bold type.
       <SUB>
         The <sub> tag defines subscript text. Subscript text appears half a character below the baseline. Subscript text
          can be used for chemical formulas, like H2O.
       <SUP>
         The <sup> tag defines superscript text. Superscript text appears half a character above the baseline. Superscript
          text can be used for footnotes, like WWW[1].
       <INS>
         The <ins> tag defines a text that has been inserted into a document.
         i.e. it make a underline document.
       <DEL>
         The <del> tag defines text that has been deleted from a document.
         Browsers will normally strike a line through deleted text and underline inserted text.
         Use <ins> it together with <del> to markup updates and modifications in a document.
 <S>
  The <s> tag specifies text that is no longer correct, accurate or relevant.
  The <s> tag should not be used to define replaced or deleted text, use the <del> tag to define replaced or deleted
   text.
  It is similarly used as <del> tag but <del> tag is used only for one word but <s> tag is use for full line that has
   been no longer correct.
 <U>
  The <u> tag defines the enclosed text as underlined.
  The <u> tag represents some text that should be stylistically different from normal text, such as misspelled
   words or proper nouns in Chinese.
 <A>
  The <a> tag defines a hyperlink, which is used to link from one page to another.
  The most important attribute of the <a> element is the href attribute, which indicates the link’s destination.
 <TR>
  The <tr> tag defines a row in an HTML table.
        A <tr> element contains one or more <th> or <td> elements.
       <TD>
        The <td> tag defines a standard cell in an HTML table.
             o An HTML table has two kinds of cells:
             o Header cells - contains header information (created with the <th> element)
        Standard cells - contains data (created with the <td> element)
        The text in <th> elements are bold and centered by default.
        The text in <td> elements is regular and left-aligned by default.
       <COL>
        The <col> tag specifies column properties for each column within a <colgroup> element.
        The <col> tag is useful for applying styles to entire columns, instead of repeating the styles for each cell, for each
         row.
       <THREAD>
        The <thead> tag is used to group header content in an HTML table.
        The <thead> element is used in conjunction with the <tbody> and <tfoot> elements to specify each part of a
         table (header, body, footer).
        Browsers can use these elements to enable scrolling of the table body independently of the header and footer.
         Also, when printing a large table that spans multiple pages, these elements can enable the table header and
         footer to be printed at the top and bottom of each page.
        The <thead> tag must be used in the following context: As a child of a <table> element, after any <caption>, and
         <colgroup> elements, and before any <tbody>, <tfoot>, and <tr> elements.
        The <thead> element must have one or more <tr> tags inside.
       <TBODY>
        The <tbody> tag is used to group the body content in an HTML table.
        The <tbody> element is used in conjunction with the <thead> and <tfoot> elements to specify each part of a
         table (body, header, footer).
        Browsers can use these elements to enable scrolling of the table body independently of the header and footer.
         Also, when printing a large table that spans multiple pages, these elements can enable the table header and
         footer to be printed at the top and bottom of each page.
        The <tbody> tag must be used in the following context: As a child of a <table> element, after any <caption>,
         <colgroup>, and <thead> elements.
        The <tbody> element must have one or more <tr> tags inside.
        The <thead>, <tbody>, and <tfoot> elements will not affect the layout of the table by default. However, you can
         use CSS to style these elements.
       <TFOOT>
        The <tfoot> tag is used to group footer content in an HTML table.
        The <tfoot> element is used in conjunction with the <thead> and <tbody> elements to specify each part of a
         table (footer, header, body).
        Browsers can use these elements to enable scrolling of the table body independently of the header and footer.
         Also, when printing a large table that spans multiple pages, these elements can enable the table header and
         footer to be printed at the top and bottom of each page.
         The <tfoot> tag must be used in the following context: As a child of a <table> element, after any <caption>,
          <colgroup>, and <thead> elements and before any <tbody> and <tr> elements.
         Tips and Notes
         The <tfoot> element must have one or more <tr> tags inside.
         The <thead>, <tbody>, and <tfoot> elements will not affect the layout of the table by default. However, you can
          use CSS to style these elements.
       <COLGROUP>
         The <colgroup> tag specifies a group of one or more columns in a table for formatting.
         The <colgroup> tag is useful for applying styles to entire columns, instead of repeating the styles for each cell,
          for each row.
         The <colgroup> tag must be a child of a <table> element, after any <caption> elements and before any <thead>,
          <tbody>, <tfoot>, and <tr> elements.
         To define different properties to a column within a <colgroup>, use the <col> tag within the <colgroup> tag.
       CSS:-
        Unlike CSS 2, which is a large single specification defining various features, CSS 3 is divided into several separate
        documents called "modules". Each module adds new capabilities or extends features defined in CSS 2, over
        preserving backward compatibility. Work on CSS level 3 started around the time of publication of the original CSS
        2 recommendation. The earliest CSS 3 drafts were published in June 1999.

                                           What Is HTML5?

  HTML5 is cooperation between the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the Web Hypertext Application
  Technology Working Group (WHATWG).
  WHATWG was working with web forms and applications, and W3C was working with XHTML 2.0. In 2006, they
  decided to cooperate and create a new version of HTML.
 Browser Support for HTML5
  HTML5 is not yet an official standard, and no browsers have full HTML5 support.
  But all major browsers (Safari, Chrome, Firefox, Opera and Internet Explorer) continue to add new HTML5
  features to their latest versions.

                           Guiding Principles for HTML5

 DOM
  The Document Object Model (DOM) is an application programming interface (API) for valid HTML and well-
  formed XML documents. It defines the logical structure of documents and the way a document is accessed and
  manipulated. In the DOM specification, the term "document" is used in the broad sense - increasingly, XML is
  being used as a way of representing many different kinds of information that may be stored in diverse systems,
  and much of this would traditionally be seen as data rather than as documents. Nevertheless, XML presents this
  data as documents, and the DOM may be used to manage this data.
  The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and
  scripts to dynamically access and update the content, structure, and style of a document."
  The W3C DOM standard is separated into 3 different parts:
         Core DOM - standard model for any structured document
         XML DOM - standard model for XML documents
         HTML DOM - standard model for HTML documents
       PLUGIN
        In computing, a plug-in (or plugin) is a set of software components that adds specific abilities to a larger software
        application. If supported, plug-ins enables customizing the functionality of an application. For example, plug-ins
        are commonly used in web browsers to play video, scan for viruses, and display new file types. Well-known plug-
        ins examples include Adobe Flash Player, QuickTime, and Java Applets.
        Add-on (or addon) in computing is often considered the general term comprising snap-ins, plug-ins, extensions,
        and themes for software applications.
       FLASH PLAYER
        The Adobe Flash Player is freeware software for viewing multimedia, executing Rich Internet Applications, and
        streaming video and audio, content created on the Adobe Flash platform.
       ERROR HANDLING
        The HTML5 specification doesn’t just declare what browsers should do when they are processing well-formed
        markup. For the first time, a specification also defines what browsers should do when they are dealing with badly
        formed documents.
        Until now, browser makers have had to individually figure out how to deal with errors. This usually involved
        reverse engineering whatever the most popular browser was doing—not a very productive use of their time. It
        would be better for browser makers to implement new features rather than waste their time duplicating the way
        their competitors handle malformed markup.
        Defining error handling in HTML5 is incredibly ambitious. Even if HTML5 had exactly the same elements and
        attributes as HTML 4.01, with no new features added, defining error handling by 2012 would still be a Sisyphean
        task.
       MARKUP
        Markup refers to the sequence of characters or other symbols that you insert at certain places in a text or word
        processing file to indicate how the file should look when it is printed or displayed or to describe the document's
        logical structure. The markup indicators are often called "tags."
        Markup can be inserted by the document creator directly by typing the symbols in, by using an editor and
        selecting prepackaged markup symbols (to save keystrokes), or by using a more sophisticated editor that lets you
        create the document as you want it to appear (this is called a WYSIWYG editor).
       SCRIPTING
        Scripting is writing (usually quite small) programs for gluing together software tools, like simulation programs,
        visualization programs, and data/image analysis software. Usually scripting is used to automate manual work
        with the computer and present digested results in the most appropriate readable form (e.g. graphs, animations,
        web pages, video). Without scripting, you are less efficient, your work is more boring, and your results are less
        reliable.
        Scripting is actually more than automating boring computer work. Scripting means programming with scripting
        languages, like Perl, Python, or Tcl. These languages enable programming at a higher abstraction level than plain C
        or Fortran code. For example, a three-line text-processing task in a scripting language quickly expands to ten or
        hundred statements if you express it in C or FORTRAN. A typical script is also significantly shorter than the
        equivalent C++ or Java code.
       DIFFRENCE BETWEEN MARKUP AND SCRIPTING
  Scripting languages are interpreted at run-time. This means that every time you want to run the program, a
  separate program needs to read the code, interpret it, and then follow the instructions in the code. Compiled code
  has already been interpreted into machine language, so it is will typically execute faster because the conversion
  into machine language has already been done.
  Markup languages (HTML, XML) are somewhat different from both of the others. A markup language is simply a
  set of tags that are used to "mark up" text documents so that sections of text can be logically arranged and labeled.
  These documents can be viewed as plain text, or, more commonly, are viewed through a browser. The browser
  parses the document, looking for markup tags, and it then arranges the text and/or formats it according to the
  values in the tags.
 DEVICE INDEPENDENCE
  Device independence is the process of making a software application be able to function on a wide variety of
  devices regardless of the local hardware on which the software is used.
  Device independent refers to the property of a program or system that will run on different types of devices
  regardless of the operating system or native language of the device. In the world of computing, this is a relatively
  modern contrivance, because for decades programs were very much dependent on the device or operating system
  on which they ran. As a matter of fact, early computers were built entirely to run a single program.
  One of the earliest and longest lived examples of device independence is hyper-text markup language (HTML). A
  relatively simple text document with a handful of embedded tags allows any computer with browser software to
  display it as the author designed it. Many extensions to HTML, such as Java, also are device independent, and
  others will work only on certain browsers.

                              New Features: Video
 <VIDEO>
  Until now, there has not been a standard for showing a video/movie on a web page.
  Today, most videos are shown through a plug-in (like flash). However, different browsers may have different
  plug-ins.
  HTML5 defines a new element which specifies a standard way to embed a video/movie on a web page: the
  <video> element.
  Internet Explorer 9, Firefox, Opera, Chrome, and Safari support the <video> element.
  Internet Explorer 8 and earlier versions do not support the <video> element.
 MP4
  MP3 files are similar to WAV files but are compressed to 1/10th the MP4 is an abbreviated term for MPEG-4 Part
  14. It may also be referred to as MPEG-4 AVC, which stands for Advanced Video Coding. As the name suggests, this
  is a format for working with video files and was first introduced in 1998. The MPEG refers to Motion Pictures
  Expert Group who is responsible for setting the industry standards regarding digital audio and video.
  The MP4 is a container format, allowing a combination of audio, video, subtitles and still images to be held in the
  one single file. It also allows for advanced content such as 3D graphics, menus and user interactivity.ize yet
  maintain high sound quality.
 WEBM
    WebM is an audio-video format designed to provide royalty-free, open video compression for use with
        HTML5 video. The project's development is sponsored by Google Inc. A WebM file consists of VP8 video and
        Vorbis audio streams, in a container based on a profile of Matroska. The project releases WebM related
        software under a BSD license and all users are granted a worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royalty-free
        patent license.
       WebM is a multimedia container format designed to provide a royalty-free, high-quality open video
        compression format for use with HTML5 video. The project’s development is sponsored by Google. A WebM
        file consists of VP8 video and Vorbis audio streams, in a container based on a profile of Matroska. The project
        releases WebM related software under a BSD license and all users are granted a worldwide, non-exclusive,
        no-charge, royalty-free patent license. The purpose of the container is to hold the video and audio streams so
        they can be synched for playback. The container is comparable to a QuickTime or MPEG4 file.
 OGG
  Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation. The creators of the Ogg format state
  that it is unrestricted by software patents and is designed to provide for efficient streaming and manipulation of
  high quality digital multimedia.
  The Ogg container format can multiplex a number of independent streams for audio, video, text (such as
  subtitles), and metadata.
  In the Ogg multimedia framework, Theora provides a lossy video layer. The audio layer is most commonly
  provided by the music-oriented Vorbis format but other options include the human speech compression codec
  Speex, the lossless audio compression codec FLAC, and OggPCM.

                              New Features: Audio
  The <audio> tag defines sound, such as music or other audio streams.
  Currently, there are 3 supported file formats for the <audio> element: MP3, Wav, and Ogg:
  The <audio> tag is new in HTML5.Any text inside the between <audio> and </audio> will be displayed in
  browsers that do not support the <audio> tag.
  Until now, there has not been a standard for playing audio files on a web page.
  Today, most audio files are played through a plug-in (like flash). However, different browsers may have different
  plug-ins.
  HTML5 defines a new element which specifies a standard way to embed an audio file on a web page: the <audio>
  element.
 MP3
  MP3 is simply another format of listening to music and should not be feared. MP3 is short for MPEG (Moving
  Pictures Experts Group) Layer 3
  MP3 files are similar to WAV files but are compressed to 1/10th the size yet maintain high sound quality.
 WAV
  WAV is an audio file format that was developed by Microsoft. It is so wide spread today that it is called a standard
  PC audio file format. A Wave file is identified by a file name extension of WAV (.wav). Used primarily in PCs, the
  Wave file format has been accepted as a viable interchange medium for other computer platforms, such as
  Macintosh. This allows content developers to freely move audio files between platforms for processing, for
  example.
 <CANVAS>
  The <canvas> tag is used to draw graphics, on the fly, via scripting (usually JavaScript).
  The <canvas> tag is only a container for graphics, you must use a script to actually draw the graphics.
  Any text inside the <canvas> element will be displayed in browsers that do not support <canvas>.
                              New Features: Web Storage
 localStorage
  The localStorage object stores the data with no expiration date. The data will not be deleted when the browser is
  closed, and will be available the next day, week, or year.
 sessionStorage
  The sessionStorage object is equal to the localStorage object, except that it stores the data for only one session.
  The data is deleted when the user closes the browser window.

                              New Features: New Input Types

 Input Types
  HTML5 has several new input types for forms. These new features allow better input control and validation.
    The email type is used for input fields that should contain an e-mail address.
    The url type is used for input fields that should contain a URL address. The value of the url field is
      automatically validated when the form is submitted.
    The number type is used for input fields that should contain a numeric value.
    The range type is used for input fields that should contain a value from a range of numbers.
    The date type allows the user to select a date.
    The month type allows the user to select a month and year.
    The week type allows the user to select a week and year.
    The time type allows the user to select a time.
    The datetime type allows the user to select a date and time (with time zone).
    The datetime-local type allows the user to select a date and time (no time zone).
    The search type is used for search fields (a search field behaves like a regular text field).
    The color type is used for input fields that should contain a color.

                                      Semantic Changes
 <NAV>
  The <nav> tag defines a section of navigation links.
  Not all links of a document must be in a <nav> element. The <nav> element is intended only for major block of
  navigation links.
  Browsers, such as screen readers for disabled users, can use this element to determine whether to omit the initial
  rendering of this content.
 <ARTICLE>
  The <article> tag specifies independent, self-contained content.
  An article should make sense on its own and it should be possible to distribute it independently from the rest of
  the site.
  Potential sources for the <article> element:
       Forum post
       Blog post
       News story
       Comment
 <HEADER>
  The <header> tag specifies a header for a document or section.
  The <header> element should be used as a container for introductory content or set of navigational links.
  You can have several <header> elements in one document.
  Note: A <header> tag cannot be placed within a <footer>, <address> or another <header> element.

 <FOOTER>
  The <footer> tag defines a footer for a document or section.
  A <footer> element should contain information about its containing element.
  A footer typically contains the author of the document, copyright information, links to terms of use, contact
  information, etc.
  You can have several <footer> elements in one document.
 <ASIDE>
  The <aside> tag defines some content aside from the content it is placed in.
  The aside content should be related to the surrounding content.
 <APIS>
  An application programming interface (API) is a protocol intended to be used as an interface by software
  components to communicate with each other. An API may include specifications for routines, data structures,
  object classes, and variables. An API specification can take many forms, including an International Standard such
  as POSIX, vendor documentation such as the Microsoft Windows API, the libraries of a programming language, e.g.
  Standard Template Library in C++ or Java API. Gartner predicts that by 2014 75% of Fortune 500 enterprises will
  open an API.

   HTML 5
   HTML5 is a markup language for structuring and presenting content for the World Wide Web and a core
   technology of the Internet. It is the fifth revision of the HTML standard (created in 1990 and standardized as
   HTML4 as of 1997) and, as of December 2012, is a W3C Candidate Recommendation. Its core aims have been to
   improve the language with support for the latest multimedia while keeping it easily readable by humans and
   consistently understood by computers and devices (web browsers, parsers, etc.). HTML5 is intended to subsume
   not only HTML 4, but XHTML 1 and DOM Level 2 HTML as well.
   Following its immediate predecessors HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.1, HTML5 is a response to the observation that
   the HTML and XHTML in common use on the World Wide Web are a mixture of features introduced by various
   specifications, along with those introduced by software products such as web browsers, those established by
   common practice, and the many syntax errors in existing web documents. It is also an attempt to define a single
   markup language that can be written in either HTML or XHTML syntax. It includes detailed processing models to
   encourage more interoperable implementations; it extends, improves and rationalizes the markup available for
   documents, and introduces markup and application programming interfaces (APIs) for complex web applications.
   For the same reasons, HTML5 is also a potential candidate for cross-platform mobile applications. Many features
   of HTML5 have been built with the consideration of being able to run on low-powered devices such as
   Smartphone and tablets. In December 2011, research firm Strategy Analytics forecast sales of HTML5 compatible
   phones will top 1 billion in 2013.

				
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