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Virtual GIS_ Real-Time 3D Geographic Information System

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					Virtual GIS: Real-Time 3D
  Geographic Information
                    System
                Angela McCarthy
                   CP5080, SP1
                          2010
Overview
 Year Published: 1995
 Authors:
  ◦ David Koller : Graphics, Visualization, & Usability Center, College
    of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA
  ◦ Peter Lindstrom : Graphics, Visualization, & Usability Center,
    College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta,
    GA
  ◦ William Ribarsky : Graphics, Visualization, & Usability Center,
    College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta,
    GA
  ◦ Larry F. Hodges : Graphics, Visualization, & Usability Center,
    College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta,
    GA
  ◦ Nick Faust : Georgia Tech Research Institute, Georgia Institute of
    Technology
  ◦ Gregory Turner : Information Processing Branch, Army Research
    Laboratory
 Performed in part under contract from Army Research
  Laboratory
Authors: Papers Published
 ◦ Available online on ACM Portal
 David R Koller - 3 Papers – 1995-96
 Peter Lindstrom – 31Papers – 1995-2010
 William Ribarsky – 62 Papers – 1992-2009
 Larry Franklin Hodges – 82 Papers – 1982 - 2009
 ◦ Subject Areas: User Interfaces, Picture/Image Generation,
   Computational Geometry And Object Modeling
   (Geometric Algorithms, Languages, And Systems),
   Methodology And Techniques, Three-Dimensional
   Graphics And Realism (Virtual Reality), Physical Sciences
   And Engineering, and Arts And Humanities
 Nickolas Faust – 10 Papers – 1995-2003
 Greg A Turner – 5 Papers – 1994-1996
Introduction
 1995
 GIS (Geographical Information System)
  originally 2D, moving into 3D
 ◦ Co-ordinates required, waiting time between input
   and display
 A virtual GIS developed
 ◦ Used for urban planning, emergency services
 ◦ Event information stored in database
    Obstructions: Heavy Traffic, Construction
 ◦ US Army to show terrain battlefields
Virtual GIS System
 Implemented using Simple Virtual
  Environment (SVE) toolkit
 Virtual GIS run on different hardware systems
 ◦ Silicon Graphics, Hewlett Packard and Kubota Denali
   workstations
 Can be used with either workstation window-
  based interface or immersive virtual reality
  interface
 ◦ In immersive, users wear Head Mounted Display
   (HDM) with three-dimensional mouse controller
Datasets
 Each dataset contains several types of
  information
 ◦ Terrain surfaces, visualised as mesh of
   shaded/textured polygons
 ◦ Protruding features such as trees/buildings
 ◦ Animated vehicles may also be present
 ◦ High resolution phototextures allow for
   identification of visible features
 ◦ GIS raster layer data corresponding to terrain area
    Information such as soil type, road surface or foliage
     density can be stored in layers and rendered/queried
Features
 Users given complete freedom of navigation
 ◦ Six degrees
    Pitch, Yaw, Roll and three-dimensional translations
 Navigation
 ◦ Users can get ‘lost’ or disorientated
 ◦ Navigation techniques proposed to alleviate effects
    Overlay of labelled coordinate grid system
    Popup inset overview map
 ◦ In addition to flying, users can jump to any point in
   world
Feedback
 System has been used in actual field
  exercises of US Army
 ◦ Soldiers used system to view topography of terrain
   around operating areas
 ◦ Commanders able to indicate placements of sub-
   units on model, to visualise ordered positions
 System design needs improvement
 ◦   Six degree-of-freedom, difficult to use
 ◦   Request of compass
 ◦   Request to jump to specific input of coordinates
 ◦   30m resolution not sufficient for military training
     purposes, data up to 1m resolution required
Future Work
 Goals:
 ◦ Navigate a model of the world
    Country, Region – obtain 3D terrain and feature map,
     bring up real-time 3D visualisation
    Search quickly through databases
 ◦ Displaying large scale environments
    Constantly changing data
    Using both 2D symbology in combination with 3D
     landmarks
Conclusions
 Authors set a foundation for future research
  and development
 Have proven that the system is highly
  efficient in visualising geographical data
 ◦ Provides sophisticated management of large,
   complex datasets
 Continued research and use of GIS has
  continued and still being used and improved
  now
Other Research
 Mei-Po Kwan
 Jiyeong Lee
 ◦ Of The Ohio State University and Minnesota State
   University
 In 2002: looked at using Real-Time 3D GIS
  for emergency response teams
 ◦ Influenced by September 11
 Technology still being developed and
  perfected
 ◦ Resources and response time largest issue
Metadata
 Smaller number of references (19)
 ◦ Concept still young at time, many references were
   ‘recent’ of publishing, 1992-1995 (a few old
   references from 1980’s)
 Large number of authors
 Acronyms/Abbreviations given
 No figures or diagrams in paper, all located at
  end, no interruption to flow of words
Questions?


Thanks for listening!

				
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