Understanding Global Cultures China_ Singapore_ India Chapters 26

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					Understanding Global Cultures
       China, Singapore, India
               Chapters 26-28
         Brynn Cauffman, Spencer Cox,
         Taryn Crews, Michael Grizzle,
              Hannah Ives, Tina Roren,
                     Yesenia Saldivar
  Ming-Jer Chen (2001, p.19)
One of the most famous sites on the campus
 of Tianjin University … is a stone engraved
 with a copy of the very first diploma. … Next
 to the date on the diploma, 1900, the
 graduate’s name is printed, along with the
 names of his father, grandfather, and great-
 grandfather. … The diploma speaks volumes
 about the strength of family tradition in
 Chinese society. Like any individual in
 Chinese society, the graduate exists
 primarily in the context of his family. His
 achievements belong to them all.
       The Chinese Family Altar
Traditional Buddhist Temple’s
  • Different images of the Buddha
Fierce-looking Warriors
  • Rough-looking beards and mustaches, and the
    carry large swords
GLOBE study
  • Have demonstrated, it is possible to cluster
    countries into groups that are similar to one
    another in terms of language, religion, and
    geographical closeness
       The Importance of Family
The Family Altar
No equivalent word for privacy
  • Stress the importance of the group rather than
    the individual
The word “I”
  • Has a negative connotation
       The Importance of Family
The specific aspects of the altar are:
  • Roundness, symbolizing the continuity and
    structural completeness of the family
  • Harmony within the family and the broader
  • Fluidity or the capacity to change while
    maintaining solid traditions
          The Expatriate Chinese
The Chinese expatriate
  • Faced discrimination and resentment in
    Indonesia and Malaysia
Indonesian Government
  • Assumed control of major Chinese companies
    valued in the billions
In Malaysia
  • Chinese cannot be the CEO of a company
    seeking government contracts
                                 Hong Kong
Hong Kong
 • 95% of whose citizens are Chinese, population
   of 7.1 million, and occupies only a small area of
   412 square miles
 • Due to increased success of businesses
   executives were forced to build “vertical
   factories” housed in tall buildings
The Altar
 • Is the “ties that bind” a dispersed family and
   serves as a focal point for viewing an extended
   family as including the living, the dead, and
   those as yet unborn.
 • Very helpful in providing insight into the values,
   attitudes, and behaviors of the Chinese today,
   wherever they may live.
                 The Role of Women
Problems with roundness.
  • Can’t bear children
  • Chinese Law
  • Premature death
Inequality of Sexes
Chinese Business
    Limited Growth
    Non-family members
       Looking at the Long Term
Long-term perspective
  • 10, 20, 100-year increments
Confucian Dynamic
  • Long-term orientation
  • Protestant ethic
  • Louis Kraar
System of Bao-Jia
  • Arranged by neighborhoods & districts
  • Unit Leaders
      Chinese Practice of Guanxi
A person exists only in relation to others.
Layers of Guanxi
  •   People and ancestors
  •   People from the same village
  •   Members of the family
  •   Family and close associates
Contracts in Chinese Culture
Chinese and the use of banks
     The Modern Businessman
Working with non-Chinese businessmen
Guanxi Limitations
 • Developed slowly
 • Excludes individuals who provide new business
 • At odds with the contract-based business
Second Characteristic of the family altar
“The Japanese Garden”
Harmonious Family
Most common prayer
Chinese belief in luck and fate
Third characteristic of the family altar
Capacity to change while maintaining
 solid traditions.
Reflects the Chinese relation-orientation
Innovative and Entrepreneurial
  • Science and Civilization in China
Prayer to gods and goddesses
                The History of China
  • Han= the largest cultural group
  • 400 ethnic groups
  • Dynasties in Chinese history
  • Endless cycle of renewal and decline
                  Interesting Facts
Population of 4.3 million
Population density of 6,729 (U.S- 32)
Very poor country 50 years ago however
 now is the leading banking and finance
GDP of $24,840, 29th in the world
One of the world’s most prosperous
World’s busiest port
People usually see Singapore as a very
 friendly country and have a positive
 experience upon visiting
                      Hawker Center
Venue with wide variety of traditional
 ethnic foods
Each center is a collection of at least 20
 food stalls at the same location
Casual/ informal atmosphere
Unique aspect of Singapore’s culture
    Origins of the Hawker Centers
In the 1950s and 1960s the centers were
 operating under unhygienic conditions
  • Lack of piped water and cook stations
Government developed a plan to build
 designated areas for hawkers
Census in 1968 and 1969 registered
 18,000 street hawkers
  • Hawking licenses eliminated illegal hawking
    Origins of the Hawker Centers
In 1970 government began to relocate
 street hawkers
  • New centers equipped with proper facilities for
    cooking and efficient drainage systems
By February 1986 all street hawkers were
 completely relocated
In 2000 there were 139 centers with 17,331
In 2007 there were 113 centers with 6,000
 cooked food stalls
All centers are licensed by the ENV
               Singapore’s History
Modern Singapore began in 1819 when Sir
 Stamford Raffles claimed the island
In 1832 Singapore was established as the
 Straits Settlement and became as separate
 British crown colony in 1867
During WWII the Japanese occupied the
 nation and renamed Syonan-to (“Light of the
In 1946 Singapore became a British crown
In 1963 Singapore, Sarawak and North
 Borneo formed Malaysia
             Singapore’s History
In 1965 Singapore became an
 independent nation
Singapore initiated a massive
 industrialization project of economic
Confucian ideals employed by Chinese
      Ethnic Diversity But Unity
Hawker Centers have Chinese, Malay,
 Peranakan, Indian and international food
Government encourages ethnic groups
 to intermingle
Stall holders have to work together and
 behave responsibly
        Shared Values Program
Nation before community and society
 before self
Family as the basic unit of society
Community support and respect for the
Consensus, not confliction
Racial and religions harmony
             Singapore’s History
Local term “Kiasu-ness”
“Singlish” miss of English and common
 Chinese phrases
Military training contributes to
 cooperation among different races
Educational system also focuses on
 cooperation among the different races
1 unspoken rule at a hawker center: be
 quick and efficient
Customers only have a few seconds to
 order their food
Meaningless conversation is left out
Tendency of Singaporeans to make
 conversation is to be short and efficient
Singapore has advanced technologies in
 finance and transportation systems
Public buses: light turn green for them during rush
Singaporeans deemphasize leisure due to their
 efficiency & productivity
Birth rate = 1.4 babies per woman
  • Estimated 1/3 of Singapore's population will be
    60 or over by 2030
Social Development Unit = a department created
 by the government
  • Encourages college graduates to marry
  • Called “single, desperate, and ugly” department
                    Power of Women
Number of men and women working at a
 hawker center have similar positions
 with equally long hours
  • Women frequently occupy the upper hierarchy
In comparison with other Asian countries,
 Singapore’s views equality for women
Women have become CEOs,
 ambassadors, and leaders of major
Large number of rules compared to
 other countries
  • Many youths feel stymied because of the
    number of rules
Fines for littering (1st time offenders are
 fined 1,000 Singapore dollars)
Death penalty is standard for drug
 trafficking ranging from 15g of heroin to
 1.2kg of opium
No homeless people in Singapore
Internal Security Act (ISA) lets official
 detain people without trial
Prostitution in better sections of the city in
The government is paternalistic and in all-
 providing authority
Hawker centers are safe places and usually
 open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
Low crime rate compared to neighboring
             Synthesizing Traditional
                    and New Values
Hawker centers sell traditional Southeast
 Asian food as well, as newer Western
All three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays,
 and Indian) celebrate major festivals
  • Government has decreed all such ethnic
    celebrations are national holidays
Educational system is ditching rote
 learning and memorization techniques &
 emphasizing more on math and science
2nd largest country in the world
Population of more than 1 billion (China
 is number 1)
Colonized by Britain but became
 independent in 1947
Member of the BRIC club (Brazil, Russia,
 India, China)
Life expectancy has increased from 32 to
This nation has the largest number of
 college educated scientists and
 computer specialists in the world
India’s limited success is its dramatic
 increase in population without
 corresponding growth in resources
Religious diversity is a major feature of
  • For 2,000 years India was almost completely
                      Shiva’s Dance
3 most important Gods in Hindu are
 Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu (the
 Preserver), & Shiva (the Destroyer)
Dancing Shiva has been described as
 “clearest image of the activity of God
 which any art or religion can boast of”
                       Shiva’s Dance
When Shiva lapses into activity the cosmos
 become chaos and destruction follows
The Dance of Shiva represents both the
 conception of world processes as a
 supreme being’s pastime and in the very
 nature of that blessed being
The dance symbolizes the 5 main activities
 of the supreme being: creation and
 development; preservation and support;
 change and destruction; shrouding,
 symbolism, illusion, and giving rest; and
 release, salvation, and grace
 Indian Culture: Early History
Basic Indian culture comes from the
 people’s Dravidian and Aryan ethnic
  • Dravidian’s came to India from the eastern
    Mediterranean coast 3000 years before Christ
  • About 1500 BC this civilization fell into decline, and
    its people migrated to the southern part of the
    Indian’s subcontinent
  • At the same time the Aryan’s arrived in India from
Today’s population = 72% Aryan origin,
 25% Dravidian
 Indian Culture: Early History
India’s most populous cities (among the
 40 largest in the world) include: Mumbai,
 Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, and Bangalore
India has recovered from cycles of chaos
 again harmony time and time again
North and South India have different
 historical roots
  • North has been subjected to a series of foreign
    invasions so the North is more of a mixed
                                 Muslim Rule
Began in north India in the early 13th
 century until the middle of the 19th century
Muslim rulers were harsh on Hindu’s
 except the great Mughal emperor Akbar
 who married a Hindu princess
  • Fostered tolerance for all religions and had Hindu’s
    in high positions and received Jesuit priests in his
There have been forceful conversion of
 Hindus to Muslims
  • These new Muslims were turned into second class
                               Muslim Rule
Confrontation between Muslims and
 Hindus have always been incompatible
 religious systems and a mutual hatred
 between the two still is around today
The Muslim Mughal empire began to
 erode in the 18th century
  • Independent regional kingdoms sprang up
    everywhere until the British came in the 19th
                                 The British Raj
Instituted direct rule over India in 1857
  • Many Indians think of this event as the 1st war of
The British garison at Kanpur was slaughtered
Early expressions of nationalism first occurred in
 the Indian National Congress in 1885 and the All-
 India Muslim League in 1906
Inspired by Gandhi the Indian National
 Congress began a program of peaceful
 noncooperation with British Rule
  • Gandhi was killed right after India gained their
    independence from Britain
                       Modern Leaders
Jawaharlal Nehru, head of Congress
 became the first prime minister of India
 in 1947
  • His concepts were freedom, democracy,
    socialism, world peace, and international
Indira Gandhi succeeded Nehru in office
 (is Nehru’s daughter)
  • Invoked the emergency provisions of the
    constitution in 1975 and suspended civil
                      Modern Leaders
Rajiv Gandhi (Indira’s son) became
 prime minister on her death
On Rajiv’s death the Congress party was
 swept back into power
Rajiv’s widow, Sonia Gandhi is now the
 president of the Congress party
  • Forbes magazine ranked her as the sixth most
    powerful woman in the world in 2007
     Cyclical Hindu Philosophy
Philosophy overlaps religion

Bharata Varsha: “Land of actors”
Happiness through spiritual enlightenment
Mukti (salvation) and Moksha (Perception)

Four paths; Bhakti yoga, Karma yoga, Jnana
 yoga and Raja yoga
     Cyclical Hindu Philosophy
Jivas (souls)
Personalized unconscious;
  • Sattva (clarity ,light)
  • Rajas ( passion, desire)
  • Tamas (dullness, darkness)

Hindu Astrology
Endless cycle of the soul through birth, life,
 death, and reincarnation
                    The Cycle of Life
Stage 1: Student
  • Learn
Stage 2: Householder
  • Family
  • Vocation
  • Community
                     The Cycle of Life
Stage 3: Retirement
  • True education
  • “White-bearded man”
Stage 4: Sannyasin
  • “One who neither hates nor loves anything”
  • Mukti

Reward or punishment based on their
 accumulated good and bad deeds
                     The Cycle of Life
Importance of Astrology
  • Matching the horoscopes of a bride and groom

Concept of time is cyclical

Religious images made of permanent
Practice religion at home
                       The Family Cycle
Extended family
  • Weakened by migration to cities and towns

Preference for a son
  • Putra: “he who protects from going to hell”
  • Against the law
  • “Bride burning “ and deaths of women

Masculinization of the Indian population
  • Sex determination tests
  • Illegal
                   The Family Cycle:
                  Nurturing Children
Love cannot be self-centered
Children not considered sacred in
 poorer parts of India
Population of Children exceeds the
 population of the United States
Regulate birth rates
The father is a feared disciplinary figure
Father-son relationship
                       The Family Cycle:
                     The Status of Women
  • Ancient times
  • Medieval times
  • Sati
  • Purdah
                 The Family Cycle:
               The Status of Women
Modern India
Independent women in rural areas
1979: Mother Teresa wins the Nobel
 Peace Price
2007: Pratibha Patil first woman

High rate of crimes against women
Rising increase in sexual harassment
                      The Family Cycle:
                    Marriage and Family
Man’s worth and recognition bound on the
 reputation of his family
The family contributes to decisions
Arranged marriage
Divorce disgraceful (changing)
Child marriage; hard on the girl
  • Against the law but still common
                      The Family Cycle:
                    Marriage and Family
• Shiva and Parvati
   • Both genders part of
     the Indian society

• Just as the Dance of
  Shiva, each member
  of the family fulfills a
  role dictated by
  family tradition
                           Social Cement
Sense of duty (dharma)
3 categories of dharma:
  • Universal principles of harmony (sanatana dharma)
  • Relative ethical systems varying by social class
    (varnashrama dharma)
  • Personal moral conduct (svadharma)
“For the protection of the good, for the
 destruction of the evil, for the firm
 establishment of the national righteousness,
 I am born again and again.”
Oldest source of ethical ideas
Composite poem following rivalry
 between 2 families
Illustrates the illusory nature of the world
Repository of Hindu beliefs and customs
Based on the assumption dharma is
 paramount in society
Bhagavad-Gita (Song of the Blessed
The Power of Dharma

“It was my duty.”
Originates in the nonadherence to
 dharma by those in positions of power
3 actors: 2 contestants, peacemaker
Peacemaker is victor because they
 restore harmony
            Positions of Authority
Sole repositories of virtues and vices of
Social reform movements remove
 individuals holding positions of authority
Same social issues from Mughal and
 British Indian empires still exist
Institutions on which society was
 founded no longer work
           Violent Contradiction
Violence within a harmonious society
Character is rooted in depths of the mind
 rather than heat of action
Worldly acts are part of illusion of life
 and have no moral significance
Avoid good and evil, prefer knowledge
 and ignorance
Destructive acts by ignorant people are
 not sins
Destructive acts by knowledgeable
 people are held against them in their
 search for enlightenment
     The Waters of the Ganges
Holy water
Washes away a person’s sins
Required of Hindus at least once in life
Government attempts to clean polluted
 waters have not been effective
Dance of Shiva: death among life,
 decomposition next to creation, pollution
 mixed with purity
                       Caste System
Officially outlawed, still exists
Natural law (soul is born into
 appropriate caste)
Honors and duties given to each class
Higher classes profit at the expense of
 those lower down
Brahmans: priests, teachers, intellectuals
Kshatriyas: warriors, police,
Vaishyas: skilled craftspeople, farmers
Shudras: artisans, workers
Dalits (Untouchables): work that is
 considered socially undesirable and
 unclean, lie outside normal society
Friendships within jati are closer and
 less formal
A person's name gives information about
 jati and what region of the country their
 family is from
Internalized jati norms define correct
 actions for individuals
                         Caste System
All interests within caste regarded as identical
Equality of opportunity for everyone within
Allowed to develop experience and skills
 needed to succeed
Self-governing castes
Crimes committee by upper castes punished
 more severely
Dance of Shiva: preservation of order
 interspaced with disorder
                    The Untouchables
Symbol of human injustice
Ostracized from rest of society
Proximity to contaminating factor
 constitutes a permanent pollution
  • Collective and hereditary
Irrevocably “unclean”
                    Social Equality
Government, and supposedly nation,
 committed to social equality
Harijan : “children of God”
Caste system is illegal
22.5% of government jobs reserved for
Deep rooted prejudices are not easily
                     Caste Tensions
Violence against Dalits who fall in love
 with members of upper castes
Intercaste marriages still evoke
 ferocious responses
Upper castes protest accommodation
 through “affirmative action”
1990: upper caste students burned
 themselves to death in protest
                  Absolving Castes
Harijan beginning to assert democratic
 rights through organized political activity
Power becoming ascendant over status
2008: Mayawati (Dalit leader) elected
 chief minister of Uttar Pradesh
Education acts as solvent to castes
Government payouts to those who marry
 members of lower castes
                   Social Hierarchy
Elders have more authority than youth
Men have greater authority than women
Maternal nurturing on part of superior
Filial respect and compliance on part of
Social behavior extends into workplace
Changing social norms are consistent
 with the evolutionary aspect of the Dance
 of Shiva
Enables, prepares, and progresses
 individuals through the cycle of life
Originally described as duty without
 concern for material outcomes
Put aside caste prejudices in workplace,
 but return to social norms at home
Reverse discrimination
Dance of Shiva: order within disorder
Family, relative, castes, language,
Very informal and friendly within groups
Interfere with formally designated work
                        GLOBE Rankings
Uncertainty avoidance
  • Nearly tied with US, Germany is much higher
  • Consistent with Hindu philosophy of life as an
Power distance
  • India has high power distance, US and Germany
    have low power distance
  • India very collectivist, US and Germany are more
Honoring family leads to nepotism,
 dishonesty, and corruption
Guilt and anxiety are aroused only when
 actions go against primacy of relations
No concern for foreign standards of
Viewed as order giver
Similar to attitude in Germany
US perceives managers as problem
 solvers and facilitators
View inclusive managers as incompetent
Bollywood is largest producer of films in
 the world
  • 800 movies a year
“protector from reality, concealer of truth,
 restorer of tranquility, enemy of fear and
 sadness, and cleanser of the soul”
Influencers ideas of the good life, social
 values, family, and romantic
Foreign civilizations are influencing India,
 but spiritual nutrient of Hindu philosophy
 is still present
India continues its journey toward
 salvations from worldly concerns
Hindu philosophy is key to understand
 how a nation of such diversity manages
 to bear its burdens while its people
 remain filled with peace

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