UK Solar Manual Feb 13_LR

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					COMPLETE COMMERCIAL
SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
TECHNICAL GUIDE
                                 COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                          KINGSPAN SOLAR




CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION                                   5   PRODUCT RANGE                               31

SOLAR RADIATION ACROSS THE UK & IRELAND        6   SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS PRODUCT OVERVIEW      32

HOW IT WORKS: SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM             7   KINGSPAN SOLAR HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS         34

BUSINESS CASE                                      KINGSPAN SOLAR DIRECT FLOW COLLECTOR        38

•   WHY SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY?                  8   KINGSPAN SOLAR FRAMES                       40
•   IS MY BUILDING SUITABLE?                  10   VARISOL, AWARD WINNING SOLAR COLLECTORS     42
•   MARKET SECTOR APPLICATIONS                12
                                                   FLAT PLATE SOLAR COLLECTORS                 44
ENGINEERING, SERVICE & SUPPORT                14
                                                   UNIQUE FEATURES OF KINGSPAN SOLAR TUBES     46
COMMITTED TO GREEN BUILDINGS                  16
                                                   •   TUBE DESIGN                             46
CASE STUDIES                                  19   •   BENEFITS                                47

                                                   EVACUATED TUBE COMPARISONS                  50
                                                   •   FIN-IN-TUBE COPY / SINGLE-WALLED TUBE   50
                                                   •   SYDNEY TUBE / DOUBLE-WALLED TUBE        55

                                                   KINGSPAN PUMP STATIONS                      56




SYSTEM TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS               59   CONTROLS & MONITORING                       79

SIZING GUIDELINES                             60   SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM CONTROLS,
                                                   COMPONENTS & MONITORING                     80
COLLECTOR LAYOUT & ITS EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM   72
                                                               COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                                        KINGSPAN SOLAR




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     INTRODUCTION
CERTIFICATION & WARRANTY STATEMENT                                                             87         KINGSPAN                                                                                         97




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     PRODUCT RANGE
HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS                                                                                      INSULATED PANELS                                                                                 98

•    HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS                                                                      88         BENCHMARK                                                                                        99
•    DIRECT FLOW COLLECTORS                                                                    89
                                                                                                          INSULATION                                                                                    100
•    VARISOL HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS                                                              90
•    VARISOL DIRECT FLOW COLLECTORS                                                            92         INSULATED DOOR COMPONENTS                                                                        101
•    HAIL IMPACT TEST CERTIFICATION                                                            93         ACCESS FLOORS                                                                                    101




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 SYSTEM TECHNICAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  CONSIDERATIONS
•    WARRANTY STATEMENT                                                                        95




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 MONITORING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 CONTROLS &
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 WARRANTY STATEMENT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   CERTIFICATION &


                                                                                                                PLEASE VISIT:
                                                                                                                www.makethesunwork.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     KINGSPAN




This document is not for use as a design tool, it is for guidance only and designs should be reviewed by our technical team. All solar thermal systems should be fully designed by a competent engineer.
Kingspan Group plc or any of its companies do not take responsibility for any systems designed using the following details. We recommend that you review your design with us.
All descriptions and specifications of products and procedures in this manual are current at the time of printing. However, Kingspan Environmental is continually involved in product testing and
improvement, and specifications and procedures are subject to change. We reserve the right to amend specifications and procedures without prior notice.
Regulations and Standards
The solar thermal system should be installed in compliance with current building regulations, all local standards and Health & Safety regulations. These regulations are statutory documents and take
priority over all recommendations within this document. For installation and operating procedures, please refer to the Installation and Operating manuals provided with the product.
For system design assistance, please contact our technical support team: +44 (0) 28 38364500.
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




KINGSPAN
Kingspan Environmental is part of Kingspan Group,
global leaders in sustainable building products for
energy and water efficiency. With manufacturing and
distribution operations worldwide, Kingspan is recognised
                                                                25+
                                                                years knowledge and experience
                                                                                                 14million
                                                                                                 evacuated tubes
throughout the construction industry for innovation,            to support your business         installed worldwide
design, quality, technical expertise and service.

Kingspan Environmental offer an array of products
and services that provide renewable energy,
water management and environmental solutions.
                                                                25
                                                                offices across
                                                                                                 40+
                                                                                                 countries in
Our Kingspan Solar thermal package solutions,                   Europe                           which we operate
have been used on prestigious buildings across the
globe with great success.

Kingspan Solar offer complete solar thermal solutions
for commercial, industrial, institutional and residential
applications. Our evacuated tubes use the original and
best technology and have been successfully on the
market for over 25 years. We pride ourselves on not
only our world class product, but on the design,
engineering, and technical service we provide our
customers every time.




                                                            2
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




TOTALLY INTEGRATED
ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS
KINGSPAN ENVIRONMENTAL HAS BEEN AT THE FOREFRONT OF INNOVATION FOR MORE THAN FIFTY YEARS.

Thought leaders in sustainability for the built environment, our ‘gold standard’ products feature in the world’s most
sustainable buildings and are tried and tested in more than 60 countries. And because we manufacture and design our own
world-class components, delivery is quick and reliable.


RENEWABLE ENERGY
Inspired thinking is at the heart of our renewable
energy offer. High performing wind turbines,
solar thermal tubes and panels, hot water
systems and heat pumps capture, store
and transform natural energy from the
sun and wind into reliable and highly
effective heating and cooling for
water and buildings.




              ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT                            WATER MANAGEMENT
             Our high performance environmental                   Our pioneering brands, Klargester for wastewater and
           containers are at the forefront of plastics            stormwater attenuation, and Kingspan Water for rainwater
          technology while our award winning telemetry            harvesting, offer a portfolio of proven and ground breaking
         solutions offer affordable level measurement             water management technologies.
        gauges and integrated energy management systems.
                                                                  www.kingspanenv.com
      As well as remarkable products, we offer world class        www.kingspansolar.com
     consultancy and environmental services, whether it’s a       www.kingspanwind.com
    Kingspan system or not.




                                                              3
                                         COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                  KINGSPAN SOLAR




BRISTOL LIDO OUTDOOR POOL, BRISTOL, UK




                                                        4
                                 COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                          KINGSPAN SOLAR




INTRODUCTION




                                                                    INTRODUCTION
SOLAR RADIATION ACROSS THE UK & IRELAND       6

HOW IT WORKS: SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM            7

BUSINESS CASE

•   WHY SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY?                  8
•   IS MY BUILDING SUITABLE?                  10
•   MARKET SECTOR APPLICATIONS                12

ENGINEERING, SERVICE & SUPPORT                14

COMMITTED TO GREEN BUILDINGS                  16

CASE STUDIES                                  19




                                                   5
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




SOLAR RADIATION ACROSS
THE UK AND IRELAND
SOLAR RADIATION IS A GENERAL TERM FOR THE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION EMITTED BY THE SUN.

It can be captured and converted into useful forms of energy, such as heat, using solar thermal collectors.
The technical feasibility and economical operation at a specific location depends on the available solar radiation.
The energy from the sun acting on the earth’s surface, over a 15 minute period, is more then the earth’s total energy
requirement for a year. The amount of yearly global radiation on a horizontal surface may reach over 2,200 kWh/m2 in
sunny regions. In Northern Europe, the maximum values are 1,100 kWh/m2 and are 943 kWh/m2 in London and 990 kWh/m2
in Rosslare, Ireland.

The supply of solar radiation in UK
and Ireland differs by a factor of 10
between summer and winter, e.g.
Rosslare: 6.36 kWh/m2/day in June;
0.64 kWh/m2/day in December.

Global radiation comprises direct and
diffuse radiation. As sunlight passes
through the atmosphere, some of it is
absorbed, reflected and scattered by air
molecules, clouds and dust particles,
this is known as diffuse radiation.
The portion of radiation that hits the
earth’s surface without any change in
direction is known as direct radiation.

In the UK and Ireland, diffused radiation
makes up between 40% (May) to 80%
(December) of the total solar energy
available in a year.




                                                               6
                  COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                           KINGSPAN SOLAR




HOW IT WORKS:
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM
                                                                         FACTS




                                                                                                                INTRODUCTION
                                                                         Solar thermal technology
                                                                         transforms direct and diffuse
      A               1                                                  solar radiation into useful heat
                                                                         using a solar collector, which
                                                                         should face as closely as possible
                                                                         to the south at an angle
                                                                         perpendicular to the sun.
                                                     E


                                                         D               PROCESS
                      2

                                                                         All components work together to
                                                                         heat water from sunlight:
                                                                          1   Sunlight hits the solar
                                                    4                         collector and heats thermal
                           C
              B                                                               transfer liquid passing
                                                                              through it.
                                                                         2 A pump circulates the heated
              F                                                               thermal transfer liquid from
          G                                                                   the solar collector to the
                  3                                                           water tank coil, where its
                                                                              heat transfers to water
                                                                              within the tank.
                                                                         3    The pump returns the cooled
                                                                              thermal transfer liquid to the
                                     A Solar collector                        solar collector for reheating.
                                         the efficiency and quality of
                                         the collector determines the    4 When needed, a back-up heat
                                         performance of the whole             source, such as a boiler,
                                         system.                              on-demand water heater,
                                                                              or electrical immersion
                                     B Pump station                           element, boosts the tank
                                     C Hot water storage tank                 water to the desired
                                     D Back-up heat source                    temperature before it is
                                                                              distributed to its end use.
                                     E   Hot water distribution
                                         system                               The differential temperature
                                                                              controller monitors and
                                     F Solar controller
                                                                              regulates the circulation rate
                                     G Expansion tank                         of the thermal transfer liquid,
                                                                              based on weather and hot
                                                                              water demand.

                                                                              The expansion tank regulates
                                                                              system pressure as the
                                                                              thermal transfer liquid
                                                                              expands and contracts.




                                 7
                                          COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                   KINGSPAN SOLAR




BUSINESS CASE:
WHY SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY?
THE SUN - AN UNLIMITED ENERGY RESOURCE
Every year the sun provides over 8000 times as much
energy as we consume worldwide. A well designed solar
thermal system can provide up to 70% of a buildings
annual needs.

This is why solar thermal systems are one of the most
cost-effective and environmentally-friendly renewable
energy solutions available – reducing fuel bills and
greenhouse gas emissions.




Solar thermal energy enjoys many economic and
environmental advantages over other forms of energy
currently used, including:


REDUCE YOUR ENERGY BILLS                    SUPERIOR SYSTEM PERFORMANCE                MARKET-BASED INCENTIVES

  Cost effective: economical, mitigates      Provides up to 96% solar energy            Government incentives, for example
  future energy shortages and price          absorption with 5% emmissivity.            the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI).
  increases.                                 Generates heat energy even on              A solar hot water system can be cash
  Immediate and permanent savings.           overcast and cloudy days.                  flow positive from day one.
  Enjoy FREE hot water all year round.       High performance, tailored solutions       A domestic solar hot water system
                                             for hot water, central / space heating     can last in excess of 25 years and
                                             and pool applications across a wide        pay for itself many times over.
                                             range of building sectors.
                                             Safe, reliable, durable and time-tested
                                             with a design life of over 30 years.
                                             Rapid installation and low
                                             maintenance.




                                                                   8
                                         COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                  KINGSPAN SOLAR




                                                                                                                                         INTRODUCTION
                                                                                  NATIONAL INCENTIVE SCHEMES


                                                                                     NATIONAL TAX CREDITS




                                                                            GROSS SYSTEM                         NET SYSTEM
                                                                               COSTS                               COSTS*


                                                                                                   * Dependent on available incentives




ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY                   ACCESSIBILITY AND SECURITY

 Non-toxic systems.                         Security: the price of solar energy
 Non-polluting: solar hot water             does not fluctuate.
 generation produces no greenhouse          Instant distribution: there are no
 gas emissions.                             expensive transportation costs for
 Non-consumptive: the suns radiation        solar energy because the sun shines
 is a limitless resource.                   everywhere.
 Going ‘green’ for commercial projects
 has now become a PR advantage.




                                                                  9
                                     COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                              KINGSPAN SOLAR




BUSINESS CASE:
IS MY BUILDING SUITABLE?
WHEN CONSIDERING A SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM FOR YOUR BUILDING,
THERE ARE KEY FACTORS THAT NEED TO BE CONSIDERED.
As each project has individual requirements, Kingspan will develop a bespoke package, taking into account:



                                       Limiting                                                Hot water,
 Location /                                              Roof pitch /
                    Orientation        factors,                             Roof area          heating and/or
 insolation level                                        slope
                                       e.g. shading                                            cooling demand




 KINGSPAN SOLAR TECHNICAL SERVICE




  The checklist opposite provides an example of
  a typical site assessment. To assist you further,
  Kingspan Solar offers a simple site assessment
  form (right) that, once completed, allows our
  technical team to size, design, and estimate
  savings on your project.




                                                           10
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
         KINGSPAN SOLAR




                                   INTRODUCTION




               11
                                 COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                          KINGSPAN SOLAR




BUSINESS CASE:
MARKET SECTOR APPLICATIONS

Leisure – Hotels, camping     Process and                    LEISURE
grounds, health clubs,        Manufacturing – Drying,
spas, and water parks.        industrial cooking,
Medical Facilities –          pasteurisation, and
Hospitals, clinics and        chemical manufacturing.
retirement homes.             Office.
Education – Schools,          Sports Facilities.
colleges, universities, and   Swimming Pools and
campus accommodation.         Water Parks.
Residential – Apartment
complexes.


       SWIMMING POOLS                                        AGRICULTURE




       RETAIL                                                OFFICE




                                                        12
             COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                      KINGSPAN SOLAR




                                             Commercial,
                                            industrial, and
                                              agricultural




                                                                      INTRODUCTION
HEALTHCARE                HOTEL
                                           businesses using
                                            a high volume
                                             of hot water




APARTMENTS                HOUSING




EDUCATION                 UTILITIES


                                                HOME AND SMALL
                                                BUSINESSES:
                                                 Dish and laundry
                                                 washing.
                                                 Swimming pools.
                                                 Baths and showers.
                                                 Space and radiant
                                                 floor heating.




                            13
                                      COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                               KINGSPAN SOLAR




ENGINEERING,
SERVICE & SUPPORT
AT KINGSPAN SOLAR WE AIM NOT JUST TO MANUFACTURE AND SUPPLY HIGH QUALITY
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS, BUT PROVIDE ENGINEERING, SUPPORT AND SERVICE THAT IS
SECOND TO NONE THROUGHOUT YOUR PROJECT – OFFERING THE ULTIMATE, SINGLE-SOURCE
SOLAR SOLUTION.


                     Energy
                                        Cost and              Proposal
 Project             assessment                                                    Installation         Commissioning
                                        payback               review and
 design concept      and system                                                    training             support
                                        proposal              approval
                     specification




 Kingspan Solar Service



FULL-SERVICE ENGINEERING
Each project is tailored to the exact specifications of the         We can provide project specific Auto CAD schematics and
individual brief and objectives. This means providing               roof layouts along with individual reports produced for
world-class design consultancy, engineering expertise and           each project.
comprehensive advice from initial site visit and assessment
                                                                    We offer a fast, project specific, tender bid and specification
to detailed design drawings and concepts, delivery and
                                                                    service. We use T*Sol & Polysun, the world renowned solar
installation support.
                                                                    simulation software, for system sizing.
We create a system tailored to the unique specifications of
                                                                    Call +44 (0) 28 38364500, to speak with one of our team,
your building and/or business, be it domestic, commercial or
                                                                    or go online to submit an inquiry at www.kingspansolar.ie or
industrial, in any country.
                                                                    www.kingspansolar.co.uk, and we’ll respond to your inquiry
At Kingspan Solar, we offer our customers over 25 years of          with tailored solutions.
solar thermal expertise and experience to supply technical
designs and cost effective solutions on all projects.




                                                                                                                  Example schematics
                                                                                                                  as supplied by the
                                                                                                                  Kingspan Solar
                                                                                                                  Design Team




                                                               14
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




                                                                                                                                   INTRODUCTION
 GUINNESS BREWERY, DUBLIN, IRELAND




CUSTOMER SERVICE                                                      WARRANTY
Our dedicated team provides focused customer service                  The 20 year warranty on our evacuated tubes reinforces our
including delivery scheduling and installer support, ensuring         confidence in the quality and longevity of the product.
a seamless, well co-ordinated customer experience.                    Please refer to our terms and conditions in the section
                                                                      “Specification and Warranty Statement”, page 89.
To ensure high levels of satisfaction, we conduct customer
surveys to gather important feedback that help us keep a
pulse on the marketplace.

SITE SERVICE SUPPORT
Our technical team provides off- and on-site installation
training and support in order to guide our installers to
deliver products that fulfill customers’ requirements and
expectations. Our team of fully qualified engineers provide
system checks and start-up support, ensuring installations
are fully operational and working from day of completion.

We offer a site inspection service throughout the installation
process as well as advice on operation and maintenance.




                                                                 15
                                          COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                   KINGSPAN SOLAR




COMMITTED TO
GREEN BUILDINGS
IN MARCH 2007, THE HEADS OF STATE AND                                    THE ROUTE TO NET-ZERO ENERGY BUILDINGS
GOVERNMENT OF THE 27 EU COUNTRIES                                        Kingspan solar thermal systems offer outstanding
                                                                         performance and durability, providing a valuable contribution
ADOPTED A BINDING TARGET OF 20% FINAL
                                                                         to a buildings overall energy efficiency and carbon reduction
ENERGY CONSUMPTION FROM RENEWABLE                                        targets on the route to ‘net-zero energy’.
ENERGY BY 2020.
Attaining this goal requires that buildings be energy
efficient and include a means of producing energy from
renewable resources.

                                                                                                                Education




                                             Apartments




                    Healthcare




     Office




                                                                                                                                  Commercial
                                                                                                                                  & industrial




                                                                                                                    Retail

                                                                                 Leisure




                                                 Processing




                                           EEMs                                                              -CO2

              ENVELOPEFIRST™              ENERGY EFFICIENCY                   INSULATE & GENERATE           NET-ZERO ENERGY
              Highly insulated building   MEASURES (EEMS)                     EnvelopeFirst™ + integrated   BUILDINGS
              envelope.                   Building services and controls.     renewable technologies,       Optimised energy efficient
                                                                              e.g., Kingspan Solar.         buildings that are energy
                                                                                                            neutral over the course of
                                                                                                            a year.




                                                                    16
                                                      COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                               KINGSPAN SOLAR




DESIGNING GREEN BUILDINGS
BREEAM




                                                                                                                                                        INTRODUCTION
                                                                                        T*SOL
BREEAM sets the standard for best practice in sustainable                               All systems should be
building design, construction and operation and assesses the                            designed using computer
environmental performance of any type of building, new and                              software to predict the
existing. BREEAM is used in a range of formats from country                             overall system performance.
specific schemes, adapted for local conditions, to                                      The computer software used
international schemes intended for the certification of                                 by Kingspan, T*SOL, is third
individual projects anywhere in the world.                                              party software that utilises
A number of Government departments or other public                                      weather data from various
bodies either require or encourage the use of BREEAM.                                   locations across the UK and
                                                                                        Ireland, collected every hour
                                       SECTION WEIGHTING                                for a typical year at that location.
                                                                                        The software also considers the load
 Category                 Part 1:       Part 2: Building          Part 3:
                        Asset rating   management rating   Organisational rating        patterns and tank sizes to accurately size these parts of a
 Energy                    26.5%              31.5%               19.5%                 system. Collector performance is predicted using data taken
 Water                     8.0%               5.5%                 3.5%
                                                                                        from the Solar Keymark ratings that are used in Europe.

 Materials and waste       13.5%              7.5%                16.0%                 The overall report produces a good picture of how a system
 Health and Wellbeing      17.0%              15.0%               15.0%                 is going to perform during a typical year. Below are typical
 Pollution                 14.0%              13.0%               10.5%                 calculations output by T*SOL.

 Transport                 11.5%                  –               18.5%                 SOLAR ENERGY CONSUMPTION AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION
 Landuse and ecology       9.5%               12.5%                5.0%
 Management                  –                15.0%               12.0%


      ASSESSMENT SCORE             ASSESSMENT RATING         STAR RATING
               < 10                    Unclassified                 –
              10 – 25                   Acceptable                 *
              25 – 40                      Pass                    **
             40 – 55                      Good                    ***
              55 – 70                   Very Good                 ****
              70 – 85                    Excellent               *****
               > 85                    Outstanding               ******
                                                                                        DAILY MAXIMUM COLLECTOR TEMPERATURE




                                                                                   17
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




COMMITTED TO
GREEN BUILDINGS
OUR COMMITMENT TO SUSTAINABILITY                                      “Energy efficiency and environmental sustainability
Kingspan’s primary contribution to meeting our global                  are at the forefront of our thinking.”
environmental challenges is to design, develop and supply              Gene M. Murtagh, Chief Executive, Kingspan Group.
new systems and solutions in a highly responsible and
efficient manner.                                                     integrated, more efficient, faster and safer. Kingspan always
Kingspan has set ambitious targets for reducing the effects           selects materials and systems to minimise the overall
of our operations and products on the environment. In fact,           ecological impact of buildings.
we have embarked on our own Net Zero Initiative, which in             VISION
essence aims to have all facilities running on entirely
                                                                      “To be a global leader in sustainable business and establish
renewable power by 2020. We continue to further our
                                                                      a leading position in providing sustainable, renewable and
engineering research and development programs to
                                                                      affordable best practice solutions for the construction sector.”
maximise the life cycle performance and end of life
procedures of every product we manufacture.                           SUSTAINABILITY POLICY
                                                                      Striving for sustainability in all our business products and
Through its employees, Kingspan instills an environmental
                                                                      operations is our corporate and personal responsibility.
awareness and responsibility that is reflected in the concept,
                                                                      Kingspan Solar aims to adopt and apply best practice
design, development and production of all its products
                                                                      sustainability principles by ensuring environmental, social
and services.
                                                                      and economic parameters are considered in an integrated
Kingspan promotes the use of construction techniques that             way in product and service delivery. To this end, Kingspan
respect the environment in terms of manufacturing,                    Solar will:
transportation, site installation, waste and end-of-life.
                                                                        Incorporate the ethos of sustainability into the vision and
We believe these construction methods are better
                                                                        values of the organisation.
                                                                        Continually improve operational performance through the
                     Packaging                                          setting of long-term objectives and targets related to
                                                                        sustainability and review progress regularly.
                                         Distribution
                                                                        Comply or exceed applicable legal and policy
                                                                        requirements related to the environmental and social
                                                                        aspects of the organisation.
Manufacturing
                                                                        Optimise energy and raw material usage and prevent or
                                                                        minimise pollution and environmental damage.
                                                                        Communicate and actively promote awareness and
                                                                        acceptance of this policy to everyone working for, or on
                                                                        behalf of, the organisation (including employees,
                                                                        shareholders, suppliers / sub-contractors and customers).
                                                                        Ensure employees are given adequate training in
                                                        Usage
                                                                        sustainability issues and are fully involved in helping
                                                                        deliver the Sustainability Vision & Policy.

         Materials                            Disposal




                                                                 18
                                          COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                   KINGSPAN SOLAR




CASE
STUDIES
BRISTOL LIDO SPA & SWIMMING POOL
BRISTOL, UK




                                                                                                                               INTRODUCTION
LOCATION      Bristol, UK                                     Bristol Lido, the oldest lido in the country, has been
APPLICATION   Domestic hot water and pool heating             transformed into a model of energy efficiency following
CLIENT        Bristol Lido / Solarsense                       a two-year restoration.
PRODUCT       720 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe tubes              The complex, including a 24-metre open-air swimming pool,
SAVINGS       Estimated associated fuel savings               now features 720 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe evacuated
              of over £2201 per annum
                                                              tubes which generate up to 70% of the lido’s annual hot
                                                              water needs.

                                                              The owners of the 150 year old Grade II listed Lido, are great
                                                              believers in conservation and wanted to find a way to heat
                                                              the vast amount of water used at the lido without relying on
                                                              expensive, fossil fuel resources. They conducted a great deal

“SAVING UP TO 70%                                             of research into sustainable energy options ahead of the
                                                              restoration and Kingspan Solar’s Heat Pipe collectors were
 OF ANNUAL HOT                                                the obvious answer. They tick all the boxes and far surpass
                                                              the competition in terms of delivering premium performance
 WATER NEEDS”                                                 matched with financial benefits.

                                                              The Heat Pipe collector enable the cost-effective heating of
                                                              water, whilst helping reduce carbon emissions in the process.




                                                         19
                                      COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                               KINGSPAN SOLAR




CASE
STUDIES
DAIRY FARM
TEIFI VALLEY, WALES, UK




LOCATION      Pembrokeshire, Wales, UK                            An organic dairy farm in Pembrokeshire, has found the
APPLICATION   Domestic hot water                                  perfect sustainable solution to its hot water needs.
CLIENT        Hywel James / Llani Solar Ltd
                                                                  The 500 acre farm, which houses a large organic dairy herd,
PRODUCT       180 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe evacuated tubes        has installed 180 Heat Pipe evacuated tubes to generate
PRODUCTION    10,000 kWh per annum                                enough hot water to meet its demanding cleaning
SAVINGS       £1,500                                              requirements.

                                                                  These high performance solar thermal collectors not only
                                                                  generate up to 70% of the farm’s annual hot water needs,
                                                                  they also deliver a dramatic reduction in its energy costs and
                                                                  carbon emissions.
“PRODUCES 10,000 kWh                                              Hywel James, who runs the farm in Pembrokeshire’s Teifi
 PER YEAR SAVING                                                  Valley, needed to find a way to heat 500 litres of water to
                                                                  90°C on a daily basis in order to clean the plant and its
 AROUND £1,500”                                                   equipment. Llani Solar Ltd specified 18m2 of Kingspan Solar
                                                                  Heat Pipe collectors, installed on a specially constructed
                                                                  south-facing canopy to maximise heat gain from the sun
                                                                  and also to provide shelter outside the milking parlour.
                                                                  The system is already reporting significant savings for the
                                                                  farm, producing around 10,000 kWh of heat per year with
                                                                  annual savings of around £1,500.




                                                             20
                                      COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                               KINGSPAN SOLAR




CASE
STUDIES
LEEDS METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY
LEEDS, UK




                                                                                                                                 INTRODUCTION
LOCATION      Headingley, Leeds, UK                               In preparation for the new intake of freshers, Leeds
APPLICATION   Domestic hot water and space heating support        Metropolitan University has unveiled a brand new
CLIENT        University Partnerships Programme (UPP)             development of high quality purpose-built student flats.
PRODUCT       720 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe tubes                  In keeping with its ethical and environmentally sustainable
SAVINGS       Estimated associated fuel savings                   ethos, the six new cluster blocks feature 72m2 of Kingspan
              of circa £2000 per annum
                                                                  Solar’s Heat Pipe evacuated tubes.

                                                                  These superior performance solar thermal collectors not
                                                                  only generate up to 70% of each building’s annual hot water
                                                                  requirements, but also provide central heating support,
                                                                  resulting in a dramatic reduction to both carbon emissions
“SAVING UP TO 70%                                                 and energy costs.

 OF ANNUAL HOT                                                    Carnegie Village is a £26m development situated on
                                                                  Headingley campus, a self-contained student community in
 WATER NEEDS”                                                     the heart of Leeds. The new flats have been fitted with 720
                                                                  Heat Pipe evacuated tubes solar thermal collectors that heat
                                                                  two 500 litre cylinders per block.

                                                                  The large-scale solar installation, carried out by Kingspan
                                                                  Solar Accredited Installers, sees Leeds Metropolitan
                                                                  University leading the way in sustainable thinking.




                                                             21
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




CASE
STUDIES
LEICESTER COLLEGE
LEICESTER, UK




LOCATION      Leicester, UK                                Leicester College, which is one of the largest in the UK,
APPLICATION   Domestic hot water                           is one of the first in the country to adopt evacuated tube
CLIENT        Leicester College                            collector technology to service its hot water needs as part
PRODUCT       300 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe tubes           of its commitment to sustainability.
SAVINGS       Up to 70% of hot water                       As part of a dramatic overhaul to upgrade its facilities for
                                                           students and in keeping with Building Regulations, the
                                                           college replaced its old gas boilers with 300 Kingspan Solar
                                                           evacuated tubes, which heat a 3,000 litre thermal store.
                                                           The Kingspan Solar Specification team has designed the
                                                           system to meet 70 percent of its hot water needs
“SAVINGS OF UP TO                                          all-year-round.

 70% OF HOT WATER”                                         “The performance of the Kingspan Solar tubes has
                                                            been nothing but impressive. We get solar heated
                                                            water in record time and there is minimum
                                                            maintenance required.’’
                                                            Robin Dalby, Maintenance & Development Co-ordinator, Leicester College.




                                                      22
                                         COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                  KINGSPAN SOLAR




CASE
STUDIES
ST. JAMES’ HOSPITAL
DUBLIN, IRELAND




                                                                                                                                 INTRODUCTION
LOCATION      NPRO Building, St. James’ Hospital, Dublin        Kingspan solar thermal range has been used as part of
APPLICATION   Domestic hot water                                a €28m project to build a new three storey multi-discipline
CLIENT        Health Service Executive                          facility. The new NPRO Building will provide treatment
INSTALLER     Haughton & Young Mechanical Contractor            areas, staff accommodation and training suites at
PRODUCT       48m2 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe tubes
                                                                St. James’ Hospital in Dublin.

                                                                The Kingspan Solar Specification team provided the system,
                                                                which saw the installation of 48m2 Kingspan Solar
                                                                evacuated tubes to provide heating to 2 x 2000ltr calorifiers.
                                                                The system met the demands of the project to achieve
                                                                considerable reduction on fossil fuel reliance and
“THE SYSTEM PERFORMS                                            enhancement of green sustainability credentials.

 EXTREMELY WELL AND WE                                          “The system has performed extremely well and we are
                                                                delighted with the results to date even considering the
 ARE DELIGHTED WITH THE                                         relatively poor year we have had weather wise. Again this
                                                                relates back to what we were told initially that evacuated
 RESULTS”                                                       tube performance will not be compromised too much in
                                                                cloudy weather due to their ability to perform well in
                                                                diffused sunlight.”




                                                           23
                                      COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                               KINGSPAN SOLAR




CASE
STUDIES
BREFFNI PARK STADIUM
IRELAND




LOCATION      Cavan, Ireland                              As part of a L300,000 renovation, Kingspan Breffni Park
APPLICATION   Domestic hot water                          Stadium became the exclusive home to the first-ever
CLIENT        Breffni Park Stadium                        Kingspan Solar fresh-water module system.
PRODUCT       300 Kingspan Solar Direct Flow tubes        Reducing carbon emissions, hot-water costs and with
PAYBACK       < 6 years                                   payback in less than four years, the GAA stadium has been
                                                          hailed as a shining example, for its effective use of
                                                          renewable technology.

                                                          “We have already been able to turn off our boilers,
                                                           which were powered by gas, saving us over L4,000
                                                           a year. Plus we are also able to use the hot water
“SAVING US OVER                                            generated by the system to heat our radiators.

 k4,000 A YEAR”                                            Again saving us money!’’
                                                           Kieran Callaghan, Chairman of Kingspan Breffni Park committee

                                                          As part of the renovation project, Kingspan Environmental’s,
                                                          Rainwater Harvesting system was also installed. It is used to
                                                          recycle excess water from the roof and pitch. This water is
                                                          also used for all the toilets and watering the field when
                                                          needed.




                                                     24
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




CASE
STUDIES
NOTTINGHAM TRENT UNIVERSITY
NOTTINGHAM, UK




                                                                                                                                  INTRODUCTION
LOCATION      Clifton Campus, Nottingham, UK                 A multi-million pound new build development at Nottingham
APPLICATION   Domestic hot water                             Trent University is benefiting from a major installation of
CLIENT        University Partnerships Programme (UPP)        3960 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe evacuated tubes, in what is
INSTALLER     MG Renewables                                  one of the UK’s largest ever solar thermal projects.

PRODUCTION    33,000 litres of hot water per day             The new Clifton Campus student accommodation was built using
PRODUCT       3960 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe tubes            the University Partnerships Programme’s (UPP) Eco Residence
SAVINGS       Estimated associated fuel savings              Model for sustainable development to considerably cut CO2
              of over £1000 per annum                        emissions and meet strict government targets.

                                                             Solar specialists MG Renewables specified 132 Kingspan Solar
                                                             evacuated tube collectors, covering over 6,000ft2 of roof area
“DELIVERING 33,000 LITRES                                    across 12 accommodation blocks to service the hot water needs

 OF HOT WATER PER DAY”                                       of 727 students. Heat Pipe collectors were specified for their
                                                             high performance and reliability and are now delivering 33,000
                                                             litres of hot water every day, lowering energy bills and providing
                                                             a 61 tonnes per year reduction in CO2 emissions.

                                                             “People think the weather in the UK and Ireland isn’t
                                                              suitable for solar power to work well, but that is a myth.
                                                              Solar energy systems such as Kingspan Solar’s work
                                                              even on overcast days.’’
                                                              Gerry Kennedy, Director, MG Renewables, Nottingham.




                                                        25
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




CASE
STUDIES
SCOTTISH SEABIRD CENTRE
SCOTLAND, UK




LOCATION      North Berwick, East Lothian, Scotland, UK        A leading tourism attraction and independent charity, the
APPLICATION   Hot water for kitchen and cafeteria              Scottish Seabird Centre offers visitors an interactive
CLIENT        Scottish Seabird Centre                          experience with a Discovery Centre, gift shop and café.
INSTALLER     Glendevon Energy                                 The 9m2 installation of Kingspan Solar’s Heat Pipe evacuated
PRODUCT       90 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe Tubes                tube collectors is helping to dramatically reduce energy
SAVINGS       6MWh and 1,600kg CO2 per year                    costs and CO2 emissions as part of the Centre’s ongoing
                                                               environmental initiative, ‘Plan Green Zero’.

                                                               Heat Pipe collectors were specified and fitted by Kinross
                                                               renewables supplier and installer, Glendevon Energy to
                                                               pre-heat water for the gas boiler system, providing up to
“PRODUCING 6MWh                                                70% of the annual hot water for the cafeteria and kitchen.

 PER YEAR”                                                     “We opted for Kingspan Solar collectors because they
                                                                were able to complement the specific design elements
                                                                of the project perfectly, while still delivering the
                                                                highest quality performance to meet the Centre’s
                                                                hot water needs.’’
                                                                Jamie Adams, Director, Glendevon Energy.

                                                               The installation is expected to contribute 6MWh to the
                                                               Centre’s hot water system each year, helping to avoid more
                                                               than 1,600kg of CO2 emissions in the process.



                                                          26
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




CASE
STUDIES
HURST PARK COURT CARE HOME, LIVERPOOL, UK
& FAIRWAY VIEW CARE HOME, NOTTINGHAM, UK




                                                                                                                                             INTRODUCTION
LOCATION      Huyton, Liverpool and Bullwell, Nottingham, UK             A major project to build 35 care homes over a two-year
APPLICATION   Hot water, including 82 en-suite bedrooms                  period has kicked off with the installation of 300 Kingspan
CLIENT        LNT Construction - Ideal Care Homes                        solar thermal Heat Pipe tubes across two sites in Liverpool
INSTALLER     Solar Save UK - Kingspan Solar Accredited Installer        and Nottingham.
PRODUCTION    16.71 MWh per annum across two sites                       LNT Construction specified Heat Pipe tubes to help provide
PRODUCT       300 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe tubes                         hot water for the homes, and comply with SBEM and Part L
SAVINGS       Average savings of over £1000 per annum                    Building Regulations. The 150-tube installation at each of the
                                                                         first two sites feed into pre-heat systems to meet the homes’
                                                                         domestic hot water needs. Across the two sites, the expected
                                                                         annual contribution to the care homes’ hot water is 16.71 MWh,
                                                                         helping avoid a significant 3,242kg of CO2 emissions.

“SAVING 3,242KG                                                          LNT Group Mechanical Engineer, Tom Nutt, said, “When
                                                                         looking to integrate solar thermal technology into the project,
 OF CO2 EMISSIONS”                                                       we wanted to be able to provide readily available hot water for
                                                                         residents all year round. After Kingspan’s design team
                                                                         produced an in-depth T*SOL simulation, it was clear that Heat
                                                                         Pipe collectors would be the far superior choice, particularly in
                                                                         terms of performance. What’s more, the tubes were installed
                                                                         by Solar Save UK, a Kingspan Solar Accredited Installer, which
                                                                         means we’re able to benefit from a 20 year warranty as well
                                                                         as top quality workmanship.”



                                                                    27
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




CASE
STUDIES
CHANGI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
SINGAPORE




LOCATION      Singapore                                          Singapore Changi International Airport, a major aviation
APPLICATION   Food preparation, cooking, washing and             hub in Southeast Asia has installed one of the largest solar
              staff showering                                    thermal systems in Southeast Asia. The installation uses
CLIENT        Singapore Changi International Airport             more than 10,000 Kingspan Solar evacuated tubes.
INSTALLER     Connections International Pte Ltd
                                                                 Commissioned in 1996, the system comprises 350 evacuated
PRODUCT       10,500 Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe Tubes
                                                                 tube solar thermal collectors to heat 66,000 litres of water
SAVINGS       Up to h 50,000 per year on electricity bill        in buffer tank storages.

                                                                 The heat generated by the systems is used for staff
                                                                 showering facilities in the Singapore Airport Terminal
                                                                 Services (SATS) and for food preparation, cooling and
“SAVING UP TO                                                    washing at in-flight catering centre in Changi International

 k50,000 PER YEAR ON                                             Airport Services (CIAS).

 ELECTRICITY BILL.”




                                                            28
                                         COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                  KINGSPAN SOLAR




CASE
STUDIES
CLIFF HOUSE RESORT & SPA
MAINE, USA




                                                                                                                               INTRODUCTION
LOCATION      Ogunquit, Maine, USA                           Committed to sustainability and preserving the
APPLICATION   Domestic hot water and space heating           environment, the 5 star Cliff House Resort & Spa has
CLIENT        Cliff House Resort & Spa                       installed one of Maine’s largest solar thermal systems.
INSTALLER     Nelson & Small Energy Conservation             The installation uses 2,100 tubes on 70 collectors.
              Products, Inc.
                                                             This solar installation will save an estimated 50,000 litres of
PRODUCT       70 Heat Pipe collectors
                                                             propane annually and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by
PAYBACK       < 6 years                                      more than 63.5 tonnes per year.

                                                             Solar energy will be used to provide heat and hot water for
                                                             the Resort’s Spa building, which includes 32 guest rooms and
                                                             10 treatment rooms. The Resort estimates it will reduce
                                                             fossil fuel consumption in this building by 30%. A grant from
“SYSTEM PAYBACK                                              the U.S. Department of Agriculture, as well as federal tax
                                                             credits, helped offset project costs and reduce payback to
 LESS THAN 6 YEARS.”                                         less than six years.

                                                             Kingspan Solar not only supplied the collectors, but
                                                             designed, specified and supplied all the components,
                                                             programmed the controls and commissioned the entire
                                                             system prior to handover, providing the ultimate solar
                                                             thermal solution.




                                                        29
                                      COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                               KINGSPAN SOLAR




ROBY LODGE CARE HOME, LIVERPOOL, UK




LONGFIELD ACADEMY FOR ARTS & SCIENCES, KENT, UK




                                                     30
                                COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                         KINGSPAN SOLAR




PRODUCT RANGE
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS PRODUCT OVERVIEW      32

KINGSPAN SOLAR HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS         34




                                                                   PRODUCT RANGE
KINGSPAN SOLAR DIRECT FLOW COLLECTOR        38

KINGSPAN SOLAR FRAMES                       40

VARISOL, AWARD WINNING SOLAR COLLECTORS     42

FLAT PLATE SOLAR COLLECTORS                 44

UNIQUE FEATURES OF KINGSPAN SOLAR TUBES     46
•   TUBE DESIGN                             46
•   BENEFITS                                47

EVACUATED TUBE COMPARISONS                  50
•   FIN-IN-TUBE COPY / SINGLE-WALLED TUBE   50
•   SYDNEY TUBE / DOUBLE-WALLED TUBE        55

KINGSPAN PUMP STATIONS                      56




                                                 31
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
WE OFFER A RANGE OF SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS TO
SUIT EVERY APPLICATION.

KINGSPAN SOLAR EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTOR                             KINGSPAN SOLAR'S UNIQUE VARISOL DESIGN
The Kingspan Solar collector is the most efficient, longest         World leading evacuated tubes and a new click-fit design,
lasting solar collector on the market today. Made in Europe         combine to make the world’s first modular solar thermal
since 1982, our evacuated tubes have withstood the test             collector.
of time.
                                                                    Varisol technology provides
Each collector consists of a highly insulated manifold and a        a modern and adaptable
series of evacuated tubes. The vacuum inside each tube              alternative to traditional
provides perfect insulation, protecting the system from             rigid manifold systems.
outside influences, such as cold and windy weather or high          Its precise sizing and
humidity.                                                           modular flexibility means it
                                                                    can be sized to the exact
  Highly efficient – super fast heat transfer
                                                                    requirements of the end
  Ease of installation and maintenance
                                                                    user, so they only use and
  Available in Direct Flow (DF400) and Heat Pipe (HP400
                                                                    pay for what is needed for
  and HP450) options
                                                                    ultimate results.
  ‘Plug and play’ design
                                                                    It is completely expandable so customers can grow their
                                                                    solar systems as their needs change.


                                                                    INSTALLATION COULDN’T BE EASIER




                                                                    Insert Varisol tube...   rotate down...




                                                                    click into position.




                                                               32
                                         COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                  KINGSPAN SOLAR




FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR                                                    SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Kingspan also offers a range of durable and very efficient              Kingspan also supplies a range of
flat plate collectors to meet the needs of a wide range of              components in order to provide complete
applications from small residential systems to large scale              solar thermal solutions, including:
commercial installations.
                                                                        Pump Stations
Robust, durable and high performance, our flat plate panels             Pump Stations contain a circulating pump
deliver excellent levels of efficiency combined with flexibility        that circulates the heat transfer fluid
in installation.                                                        through the solar loop (see page 56).




                                                                                                                                PRODUCT RANGE
                                                                        Cylinders
                                                                        In a solar system, the tank is almost as
                                                                        important to the collection of energy as
                                                                        the collector.

                                                                        Kingspan Tribune tanks are designed
                                                                        specifically for solar systems to
                                                                        maximize their output.

                                                                        Expansion Tanks
                                                                        In closed loop systems, an expansion
                                                                        tank is required to compensate for fluid
                                                                        expansion and contraction.
                                                                          Different sizes available.
                                                                          ASME and non-ASME rated
                                                                          tanks available.

                                                                        Solar Controllers
                                                                        Differential Temperature Controllers
                                                                        are required to activate circulating
                                                                        pumps and motorized valves and
                                                                        monitor system performance. They can
                                                                        record data from all sensors in the solar
                                                                        thermal system.

                                                                          Kingspan offers a wide range of
                                                                          controllers for different system types
                                                                          and requirements.
                                                                          Many different accessories available including
                                                                          LAN module, data logger and BACnet module.

                                                                        Propylene Glycol
                                                                        Kingspan Solar recommends Tyfocor Propylene Glycol,
                                                                        a high temperature glycol formulated specifically for
                                                                        solar thermal systems.




                                                                   33
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




KINGSPAN SOLAR
HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS
Manifiold (glycol)

Condenser




Steam



Heat Pipe




Figure 1: How a Heat Pipe works.




HOW IT WORKS
An absorber plate is located inside a glass tube where a              The heat pipe is a very efficient method of transferring
vacuum is pulled to keep the losses to the environment as             the energy from the tubes to the glycol in the manifold.
low as possible. 99.999999% of the air is removed from                Each tube plugs into a dry socket in the manifold where the
inside the glass enclosure during the manufacture of the              glycol runs past it. This allows for individual tubes to be
tubes to mimimize heat loss. The heat pipe is the method of           removed from the system without having to drain the glycol.
heat transfer from inside the tube to the manifold, where a           The system can also be commissioned, flushed and filled
water glycol mixture flows past the condenser heat at the             prior to inserting the tubes into the collectors, an important
top of the heat pipe and pulls the energy away.                       point for large systems that need to be commissioned
                                                                      before a building is occupied. When the time comes, simply
On the back of the copper absorber plate is welded a small
                                                                      insert the tubes into the system and it is ready to produce
copper tube. This tube is sealed at the bottom and, before it
                                                                      hot water.
is sealed at the top, a small amount of fluid is added to the
tube and a vacuum pulled inside the tube. The vacuum
inside the heat pipe causes the water to boil at 29,4 °C
                                                                                                                             Dry socket
instead of its usual 100°C. The absorber plate collects
                                                                                                                       Manifiold (glycol)
energy from the sun and becomes hot, causing the water in
the heat pipe to boil. The steam naturally rises up to the top
of the heat pipe and into the condenser head which is
located inside the manifold. Glycol flowing past the
condenser head causes the water to condense, heating the
glycol and causing the water to run back down to the bottom
of the heat pipe allowing the process to continue when
significant light is available (Figure 1).




                                                                 34
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




The manifold itself is formed from heavy duty aluminum                   Cover
                                                                         Melamine Foam Insulation
extrusions on the front and back. Inside is the condenser
manifold where the heat transfer occurs between the                      Condenser Manifiold
condenser and the glycol flowing past. To install the tubes
                                                                         Condenser Socket
simply open the manifold cover, line the tubes up with the
manifold, and press them into place. When finished, close the
manifold cover and this will retain the tubes in position.
The manifold is the only area of the system that becomes
hot and is not protected by a vacuum, so it is protected with




                                                                                                                                           PRODUCT RANGE
high tech melamine foam insulation. This insulation has a
very low U-value and is stable at the high temperatures the
collector can achieve.
                                                                         End
                                                                         Connection




                                                                         Retaining Strip




                                 TiNOx Selective Coating              Soda Lime Glass                      Flexible Neck   Condenser
                                                                                                                           Head




       Rubber End              Vacuum Area                 Copper                  Getter      Heat Pipe
       Bumper                                              Absorber Plate




The image above shows the other key components of the                    If the vacuum is lost in one of the tubes, the getter will turn
heat pipe tube. The getter is a layer of barium that is                  white to indicate this. The TiNOx coating used on the tubes
deposited on the inside of the tube after the vacuum is                  is designed to absorb 96% of the sun’s energy that strikes it
drawn. This protects the vacuum over time from any air                   while emitting only 4% back to the environment. This is
molecules that may make their way through the glass.                     currently the best available coating for solar collectors.




                                                                    35
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




KINGSPAN SOLAR
HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS
OUR HEAT PIPE HAS A FEATURE THAT MAKES IT UNIQUE WHEN COMPARED TO ANY
OTHER EVACUATED TUBE ON THE MARKET TODAY:

THERMOSTATIC CONTROL
When the hot water storage reaches its maximum temperature, the solar pump stops and
additional heat will not be removed from the collector. This will cause the tubes to become
very hot. To protect the glycol in the manifold, our heat pipe tubes have a patented
thermostatic control device. This activates automatically in the condenser head and prevents
the temperature in the manifold from becoming hot enough to damage the glycol.                 Normal
                                                                                               operation
We offer two options for the unique temperature limitation device. When the temperature
rises to 90˚C/135˚C, a stack of bimetallic disks flexes, closing a valve that will not allow
additional steam from the heat pipe to enter the condenser head.

When flow is restored to the collectors and the temperature falls below 90˚C/135˚C, the
disks snap back and the valve reopens restoring the system to normal operation.

The HP450 range is designed for industrial applications where high water temperatures          Limiting
                                                                                               temperature
are required for the purpose of wash downs, process heat, etc. The HP400 range is
designed for applications that require a lower input water temperature such as washing
and showering needs.




                                                               36
                                                                              COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                                                       KINGSPAN SOLAR




                                                    CERTIFIED EFFICIENCIES                                      HP400 / HP450                                 2m2                         3m2
                                                               Keymark                       Keymark            Number of tubes                                20                             30
                                                               Aperture                      Absorber           Dimensions
                            η0                                  0.750                         0.794             Absorber Area (m2)                            2.01                        3.021
                                1                                                                               Overall Dimensions (mm)                 1952 x 1418 x 93             1952 x 2127 x 93
                            a                                    1.18                          1.25
                                                                                                                Width of Manifold (mm)                        1418                        2127
                             2
                            a                                   0.010                         0.010
                                                                                                                Length (tube and manifold) (mm)               1952                        1952
                                                                                                                Depth (mm)                                     93                             93
                                              Heat Pipe Collector Efficiency                                    Aperture Area (m2)                            2.16                        3.23




                                                                                                                                                                                                           PRODUCT RANGE
                                                                                                                Fluid Volume (ltr)                             1.2                            1.7
                 0.9
                                                                                                                Inlet and Outlet Dimensions (mm)               22                             22
                 0.8
                                                                                                                Weight (empty) (kg)                            48                             71
                 0.7
                                                                                                                Mounting
Efficiency (-)




                 0.6
                                                                                                                Recommended Inclination (˚)                  20-70                        20-70
                 0.5                                                                                            Performance Data
                 0.4                                                                                            Efficiency                           Based on Aperture             Based on Aperture
                                                   400 W/m2
                 0.3                                                                                            Eta 0                                         0.75                        0.75
                                                   600 W/m2
                 0.2                               800 W/m2                                                     a1 (W/m2K)                                    1.18                            1.18
                 0.1                               1000 W/m2
                                                                                                                a2 (W/m2K2)                                  0.0095                      0.0095
                  0                                                                                             Solar Keymark Licence Numbers                             HP400: 011-751793
                       20           30   40   50     60 70        80      90 100   110 120   130 140 150        Operating Data
                                                       Collector Temperature (˚C)                               Flow Rate (ltr/h)
                                                                                                                Rated                                         160                             240
                                                                                                                Minimum                                       120                             180
                                                                                                                Maximum                                       300                          480
                                                                                                                Maximum Operating Pressure                   10 Bar                      10 Bar
                                                                                                                Stagnation Temperature (˚C)                   166                             166
                                                                                                                Heat Transfer Fluid                      Water / Glycol               Water / Glycol
                                                                                                                Materials
                                                                                                                Absorber                                     Copper                      Copper
                                                                                                                Coating                                 Selective Coating           Selective Coating
                                                                                                                Absorbance (%)                                 95                             95
                                                                                                                Emissivity (5)                                 5                               5
                                                                                                                Mounting Frame and Clips                 Stainless Steel,            Stainless Steel,
                                                                                                                                                        Aluminium, EPDM             Aluminium, EPDM
                                                                                                                Glass                              Low Iron - Transm. 0.92       Low Iron - Transm. 0.92
                                                                                                                Vacuum                                     <10-6 mbar                  <10-6 mbar
                                                                                                                Temperature Limitation (˚C)                 90 / 135                     90 / 135
                                                                                                                Quality Certification / Solar Keymark         Yes                             Yes




                                                                                                           37
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




KINGSPAN SOLAR
DIRECT FLOW COLLECTOR
HOW IT WORKS                                                        DIRECT FLOW COLLECTORS ARE AVAILABLE IN
Direct flow solar collectors consist of a row of solar tubes        2 DIFFERENT SIZES
and a highly insulated manifold. The heat medium to be                                                                    DF400
heated is passed down through the collector tube within                                                     2m     2
                                                                                                                                        3m2
a coaxial heat exchanger. The vacuum inside each tube               Number of Tubes                          20                         30
provides perfect insulation and therefore protects the
                                                                    Dimensions
system from outside influences such as cold and windy
                                                                    Absorber Area (m2)                      2.010                      3.021
weather or high humidity. This vacuum insulation also               Overall Dimensions (mm)            1952 x 1418 x 93           1952 x 2127 x 93
ensures that the energy collected from the sun is very              Width of Manifold (mm)                  1418                       2127
efficiently and effectively transferred into usable heat.           Length (tube and manifold) (mm)         1996                       1996
                                                                    Depth (mm)                               97                         97
THE VERSATILE SOLUTION                                              Aperture Area (m2)                       2.15                      3.23
The flexible installation options of direct flow collectors         Fluid Volume (ltr)                       3.6                        5.6
provide the perfect solution when the ideal position on the         Inlet and Outlet Dimensions (mm)         22                         22
building is not available.                                          Weight (empty) (kg)                       51                        78
                                                                    Mounting
Direct flow systems can be installed on a pitched or                Recommended Inclination (˚)             0-90                       0-90
horizontal surface, and the tube can be rotated 25˚ to              Performance Data                      Based on                   Based on
compensate for installations that deviate from south.                                                     Aperture                   Aperture
As the collector is a fully pumped unit, there is no minimum        Efficiency
angle for the collector.                                            Eta 0                                   0.773                      0.779
                                                                    a1 (W/m2K)                               1.43                       1.07
This makes it most suitable for installations where the             a2 (W/m2K2)                            0.0059                     0.0135
product needs to be installed below 20˚ or above 70˚.               Solar Keymark Licence Numbers      011 - 7S1946 R              011 - 7S1946 R
                                                                    Operating Data
                                                                    Flow Rate (ltr/h)
                                                                    Rated                                    160                        240
                                                                    Minimum                                  120                        180
                                                                    Maximum                                  300                        480
                                                                    Maximum Operating Pressure              8 Bar                      8 Bar
                                                                    Stagnation Temperature (˚C)              286                        286
                                                                    Heat Transfer Fluid                Water / Glycol             Water / Glycol
                                                                    Materials
                                                                    Absorber                               Copper                     Copper
                                                                    Coating                               Selective                  Selective
                                                                                                           Coating                    Coating
                                                                    Absorbance (%)                           95                         95
                                                                    Emissivity (5)                            5                          5
                                                                    Mounting Frame and Clips           Stainless Steel,           Stainless Steel,
 1   Ideal slope 40˚                                                                                     Aluminium,                 Aluminium,
2    Roof kit angled 40˚                                                                                    EPDM                       EPDM
3    Elevated 20˚                                                   Glass                                Low Iron -                 Low Iron -
                                                                                                          Transm.                    Transm.
4    Horizontal ideal slope                                                                                 0.92                       0.92
5    Horizontal façade                                              Vacuum                                <10-6mbar                  <10-6mbar
6    Flat                                                           Quality Certification /
                                                                    Solar Keymark                            Yes                        Yes
7    Vertical façade




                                                               38
                                                                   COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                                            KINGSPAN SOLAR




                                      Direct Flow Collector Efficiency                                                           Rubber end bumper

                 0.9                                                                                                          TiNOx selective coating

                 0.8                                                                                                                 Soda lime glass

                 0.7                                                                                  Vacuum area
Efficiency (-)




                 0.6                                                                                  Copper absorber plate

                 0.5                                                                                  Getter

                 0.4
                                           400 W/m2
                 0.3
                                           600 W/m2




                                                                                                                                                        PRODUCT RANGE
                 0.2                       800 W/m2
                 0.1                       1000 W/m2

                  0
                       20   30   40   50     60 70      80   90 100      110 120   130 140 150
                                               Collector Temperature (˚C)




THE ROYAL DANISH ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS SCHOOL
OF ARCHITECTURE, COPENHAGEN, DENMARK




                                                                                                 39
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




KINGSPAN SOLAR
FRAMES
SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Manifold
                                                                                          Tube Retainer


Evacuated Tubes

                                                                                                 Frame




                                                                                                                           Connection Kit




                                                                                          Tube Retainer




MOUNTING HARDWARE (FRAMES) FOR OUR EVACUATED
TUBES (REFERS TO HEAT PIPE AND DIRECT FLOW)
Kingspan offers a selection of frames to hold the collector at          The connections at the end of the manifold use a redundant
the proper angle. All Kingspan frames are made from                     double o-ring seal to allow for expansion and contraction,
extruded aluminum supports and stainless steel hardware                 if multiple manifolds are connected in series. The connection
for the ultimate durability. Frames are supplied partially              kit provides the adaptors necessary to adapt this to 22mm
assembled with all clips in the correct locations and legs              copper pipe at the end of
bolted together, facilitating fast and accurate installation.           collector banks.
                                                                        Connecting multiple
Mounting the frame to the roof is another area that requires
                                                                        collectors is easy with the
particular attention. The mount will depend on the type of roof
                                                                        interconnection kit. One
and exactly how the collectors are to be mounted. Kingspan
                                                                        end of the manifold simply
Solar offers a wide variety of mounting hardware and provides
                                                                        slides into the other and
the experience to select the correct system for the application.
                                                                        the interconnection kit
From asphalt shingle, to tile, to EPDM, we can help you choose
                                                                        provides the hardware to
the correct mounting hardware for the application.
                                                                        properly align these end
                                                                        fittings.




                                                                   40
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




                                                                           PRODUCT RANGE
APARTMENT BLOCKS, GERMANY




CLIFF HOUSE RESORT & SPA, MAINE , USA




                                                       41
                                                COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                         KINGSPAN SOLAR




VARISOL, AWARD WINNING
SOLAR COLLECTORS
THE REVOLUTIONARY NEW DESIGN OF VARISOL OFFERS A MODERN
AND FLEXIBLE ALTERNATIVE TO THE RIGID MANIFOLD SYSTEM.


                                                                                    ADDITIONAL BENEFITS
                                                                                    Delivering all the benefits of Kingspan Solar’s market-leading
                                                                                    evacuated tubes, Varisol offers the combination of total
                                                                                    flexibility, high quality and proven performance.

                                                                                    The evacuated tubes are pre-assembled with the Varisol
                                                                                    connector for ease of installation and collector sizes of up to
                                                                                    150 tubes. The technology is suitable for both domestic and
                                                                                    commercial applications and is completely expandable
                                                                                    enabling customers to grow their solar thermal systems as
                                                                                    their requirements change.

                                                                                    Precision sizing means customers only need to pay for
                                                                                    exactly what they need. For installers they are quick and
                                                                                    easy to install and distributors benefit from improved stock
                                                                                    control with no manifolds to stock or invest capital in. They
                                                                                    are also environmentally friendly, using 100% recyclable
                                                                                    polymer material.

                                                                                    Varisol has lowered its carbon footprint by eliminating the
                                                                                    need for brazing and welding as well as energy intensive
                                                                                    materials, such as copper and aluminium. The system is also
                                                                                    more lightweight and requires less packing and boxes,
                                                                                    therefore minimising the impact of transport.




                                                                                    A copper pocket is over-moulded into the
 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION   DF                       HP                              polymer header to house the condenser
 Dimensions (mm)           1950 x 70.9 x 70.9       1965 x 70.9 x 70.9              and ensure a dry connection of the tubes.
 Weight (kg)               2.2                      2.13
 Volume (l)                0.19                     0.05
 Max. Operating pressure   6                        6
 Min. slope                0                        20
 Max. Slope                90                       80
 Max. Load                 2.5                      2.5
 Heat transfer medium      Propylene Glycol         Propylene Glycol
 Max. field size           150 tubes = 21m2 (gross) 150 tubes = 21m2 (gross)


“Quick and easy to install, Varisol allows
 individual tubes to be simply clicked together
 to create solar collectors of varying sizes.”




                                                                               42
                                 COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                          KINGSPAN SOLAR




                                                                    PRODUCT RANGE
 RETIREMENT HOME, ITALIAN ALPS




“This versatile product provides the
 perfect solution when the ideal position
 on the building is not available.”




                                                43
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




FLAT PLATE
SOLAR COLLECTORS
HOW IT WORKS
Flat plates are a very simple method for capturing the                  environment. On the front side of the panel is a plate of glass
energy form the sun and turning it into hot water. A copper             that the sun shines through. The glass also provides insulation
plate is coated with a special coating that absorbs as much             for the collector plate from the cold environment outside.
of the sun’s radiation as possible. On the back of this plate           A frame around the outside holds everything together and
are a series of tubes that are welded directly to the back of           keeps moisture out.
the plate. Glycol flows from a manifold on one end of the
collector to another manifold at the other end. As it passes            Both ends of the manifolds have union fittings that allow for
through the tubes on the back of the plate, it is heated by             a connection kit to be attached, or another panel. For arrays
the energy that the plate has absorbed from the sun.                    of multiple collectors, one collector simply screws into the
                                                                        next and seals with a flat washer. A plug is screwed into one
To keep as much energy in as possible, the collector plate is           end of each of the manifolds and the connection kit added to
surrounded on five sides by insulation. This insulation prevents        connect up an array of collectors.
the loss of energy from the hot plate to the surrounding




                                                                              “Kingspan offers three sizes of flat plate.
                                                                               This allows for optimal placement of the
                                                                               panels on the roof and significant
                                                                               flexibility in the output of the system.”




                                                                   44
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




                                                                                                                                                                       PRODUCT RANGE
 GUATEMALA



KEY FEATURES                                                         SPECIFICATION / TYPE                     FPW25                FPW21                 FPW18
There are many flat plate products on the market today,              Dimensions (mm)                      1988 x 1218 x 90     1988 x 1041 x 90      1927 x 927 x 90
differing significantly in terms of design, construction             Weight (kg)                                44                   37.2                  34
quality, performance and size. Kingspan flat plate collectors        Sealing Material                                 EPDM & Silicone & Aluminium Frame
offer high efficiency, combined with robust design and               Gross Area (m2)                           2.42                 2.07                  1.79
                                                                     Aperture Area (m2)                        2.24                  1.92                 1.62
construction, providing solar thermal systems that are
                                                                     Absorber Material                            Almeco Tinox Highly Selective Aluminium
designed to last and perform for many years.
                                                                     Thickness (mm)                             0.3                  0.3                  0.3
                                                                     Absorptance (%)                            95                   95                    95
                                                                     Emittance (%)                               4                    4                    4
                                                                     Glass Material                                        Low Iron Tempered Glass
                                                                     Insulation Material                                          Rockwool
                                                                     Efficiency
                                                                     eta 0 (zero loss efficiency - n0a)        0.785
                                                                     k1 (W/m2K) (1st heat loss                 3.722
                                                                     coefficient - A1a)
                                                                             2 2
                                                                     k2 (W/m K ) (2nd heat                     0.012
                                                                     loss coefficient - A2a)
                                                                     Stagnation Temperature                   203˚C
                                                                     at 1000 W/m and 30˚C




                                                                45
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




UNIQUE FEATURES OF
KINGSPAN SOLAR TUBES
TUBE DESIGN
‘FIN-IN-TUBE’ DESIGN
In a evacuated tube system, a copper absorber plate is
welded to a heat pipe tube and sealed inside a single wall
glass tube to collect the sun’s energy. Most other evacuated
tubes are a Sydney design in which two glass tubes are
formed into a vacuum flask with the selective coating
surface on the inner glass tube and the absorber plate and
hydraulic fittings are housed inside the cavity of an open
ended flask.


  Heat Pipe Tube Cross Section                                        Sydney Tube Cross Section


  Low-iron content                                                    Borosilicate glass
  soda lime glass

  Selective coating                                                   Selective coating

                                                                      Vacuum




                                                                      Copper heat pipe
  Copper absorber fin

  Copper heat pipe                                                    Borosilicate glass

                                                                      Absorber plate
  Vacuum




Kingspan Solar's sealed glass tubes protect all components
inside a controlled environment where outside conditions
cannot affect heat production and heat transfer. Moisture will
not build up around the tube’s components and they will not
corrode.




                                                                 46
                                      COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                               KINGSPAN SOLAR




                                                                                                            CARPE, SOUTH AFRICA




                                                                                                                                    PRODUCT RANGE
BENEFITS
There are three core objectives -                                    The Hail Impact Test
  Performance
                                                                     Kingspan Solar's evacuated tubes are one of the few tubes
  Longevity
                                                                     from the major solar thermal manufacturers to have passed
  Consistency
                                                                     this European trial that is covered under EN 12975-2
These main objectives are fulfilled through the following:           specification.

HIGH QUALITY GLASS
Outside air will seek to penetrate and compromise the
insulation properties of a vacuum – quality glass can prevent
this from happening.

Our tubes are constructed of low-iron content soda lime
glass. We generally think of glass as being completely
transparent, but glass actually absorbs some of the light
passing through it, typically allowing only 94% of light to
assist the heating process. Low-iron content soda lime glass
has one of the highest transmission characteristics of any           Shot impact point

high-strength glass on the market today.
                                                                     The test involves firing a one inch ice ball at 50 mph, five
                                                                     times at the same point on the tube (image above). Kingspan
                                                                     tested borosilicate glass to quantify the performance
                                                                     difference as compared to soda lime glass.




                                                                47
                                      COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                               KINGSPAN SOLAR




UNIQUE FEATURES OF
KINGSPAN SOLAR TUBES
STATE-OF-THE-ART MANUFACTURING
Kingspan Solar tubes are manufactured using European
sourced parts in a state-of-the-art facility in Northern
Ireland. The evacuated tube manufacturing process is fully
automated, removing the potential for human error and
providing consistently high levels of production quality.




                                                             48
                                      COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                               KINGSPAN SOLAR




UNIQUE GLASS TO METAL SEAL                                           SUPERIOR VACUUM
The seal between the glass and the heat pipe where the pipe          The vacuum and its insulation properties are the most
emerges from the neck of the tube is critical to maintaining         important elements of an evacuated tube. The vacuum is
the vacuum and its insulation properties. The tubes feature a        drawn to 1x10-6 mbar, signifying that 99.9999999% of the air
patented hermetic seal that fuses metal and glass together.          is removed from the tube. It is extremely difficult to remove
The two materials are bonded so the seal remains intact              this much air from any space in a commercial production
under all operating conditions.                                      environment without using state-of-the-art manufacturing
                                                                     techniques.




                                                                                                                                     PRODUCT RANGE
                                                                     “Kingspan Solar tubes maintain their vacuum,
                                                                      continuing to perform for over 30 years.”

                                                                     All evacuated tubes use a barium getter to attract and
                                                                     collect outgassed air or stray molecules that can infiltrate
                                                                     the evacuated tube and degrade the vacuum. our tubes
                                                                     provide the largest getter surface area in the industry,
                                                                     maintaining their vacuum and continuing to perform for
                                                                     over 30 years in many cases. It is not surprising that
Unique glass to metal seal
                                                                     Kingspan Solar tubes contain one of the best vacuum
                                                                     levels on the market.




Inferior product
mechanical seal




                                                                49
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




EVACUATED TUBE
COMPARISONS
KINGSPAN SOLAR EVACUATED TUBES LAST
LONGER AND PERFORM BETTER THAN ANY
OTHER EVACUATED TUBE ON THE MARKET.

In the following section, competitor’s tubes have been
photographed and compared to the Kingspan Solar tube to
demonstrate the key differences in quality and production.

The two types of evacuated tubes are:
  Fin-in-tube or single wall tubes – as discussed earlier, our
  tube is a ‘Fin-in-Tube’ type design which has the heat pipe
  sealed inside a single wall glass tube; and
  Sydney Tube or double wall tubes – where two glass tubes
  are formed into a vacuum.

This section aims to give an overview of the differences in
both types of tubes and outline of the main differences
between Kingspan Solar and other tubes on the market.




SYSTEM COMPARISON: KINGSPAN SOLAR VS. FIN-IN-TUBE COPY

HIGH QUALITY HEAT PIPE SEAL
Kingspan Solar Tube                                                     Competitor tube


                                                                                                              ✗


                                         Heat pipe sealed with
                                         spin closing and TIG
                                         weld. Double protection
                                         with 100% automated                              Heat pipe sealed with
                                         inspection.                                      a plug.




                                                                   50
                                                    COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                             KINGSPAN SOLAR




FLEXIBLE NECK
Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe Tube                                                       Competitor tube


                                                                                                                                                             ✗




                                                                                                                                                                    PRODUCT RANGE
 High quality flexible stainless steel neck (relieves stress on the glass to
 metal seal with high quality, UV stable EPDM rubber flange.                         Stiff neck technology stresses the glass / metal seal.




TEMPERATURE LIMITATION DEVICE
Kingspan Solar Heat Pipe Tube                                                       Competitor tube


                                                                                                                                                             ✗


 Unique patented and ‘patent pending’
 temperature limiting technology used                                                Empty heads – no mechanical
 within the Kingspan Solar condensers.                                               temperature limitation.




QUALITY GLASS WELDING & BLENDS
Kingspan Solar Tube                                                                 Competitor tube


                                                                                                                                                             ✗



                                                                                                                              Highly visible glass blend lines
 30 years glass blending experience with                                                                                      often with air bubbles in the glass
 solar tubes. Processes perfected and                                                                                         blends which can result in
 fully automated.                                                                                                             fractures after installation.




                                                                               51
                              COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                       KINGSPAN SOLAR




EVACUATED TUBE
COMPARISONS
SYSTEM COMPARISON: KINGSPAN SOLAR VS. FIN-IN-TUBE COPY

HIGH QUALITY PROTECTIVE END BUMPER
Kingspan Solar Tube                                           Competitor tube


                                                                                                          ✗



                          High quality EPDM rubber end                          Low cost option
                          protector on the tube.                                – no end protection.




SINGLE PIPE
Kingspan Solar Tube                                           Competitor tube


                                                                                                          ✗


                                Heat pipe is a single
                                hermetically sealed                                   Mechanical / soldered
                                copper pipe within the                                join within the vacuum
                                vacuum space.                                         space.




                                                         52
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




HIGH QUALITY RUBBER FLANGE
Kingspan Solar Tube                                                    Competitor tube


                                                                                                                             ✗




                                                                                                                                  PRODUCT RANGE
                                      High quality rigid EPDM
                                      rubber flange. Insulates                                        Thin rubber end flange to
                                      and protects the glass to                                       hide the mechanical glass
                                      metal seal.                                                     to metal seal.




LARGER GETTER AREA, MORE ROBUST VACUUM
Kingspan Solar Tube                                                    Competitor tube


                                                                                                                             ✗



 Getter flash shows consistent and                                       Getter flash has undefined
 defined length at top end of tube.                                      length at centre of tube.




                                                                  53
                                 COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                          KINGSPAN SOLAR




EVACUATED TUBE
COMPARISONS
SYSTEM COMPARISON: KINGSPAN SOLAR VS. SINGLE WALL / FIN-IN-TUBE

KINGSPAN SOLAR TUBE

 Tube Diameter 65mm

                        TiNOx Selective Coating                                                 Flexible Neck     Condenser
                                                                                                                  Head




    Rubber End         Vacuum Area                            Getter        Heat Pipe
    Bumper




SINGLE-WALLED TUBE

 Tube Diameter 102mm                                                                                                          ✗
    Metal End Bumper                                   Al Nitrate Coating           Heat Pipe         Condenser
                                                                                                      Head




                                         Getter                                   Mechanical Glass
                                                                                  to Metal Seal




                                                  54
                                   COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                            KINGSPAN SOLAR




SYSTEM COMPARISON: KINGSPAN SOLAR VS. SYDNEY / DOUBLE-WALL TUBE

KINGSPAN SOLAR HEAT PIPE TUBE




                         TiNOx Selective Coating                                           Flexible Neck   Condenser
                                                                                                           Head




                                                                                                                           PRODUCT RANGE
    Rubber End          Vacuum Area                     Getter          Heat Pipe
    Bumper




SYDNEY TUBE


    Rubber End
    Bumper
                      Al Nitrate Coating
                      (on inner glass)
                                                           Heat Pipe          Outer
                                                                              Glass
                                                                                       Vacuum
                                                                                       Area
                                                                                                  Inner
                                                                                                  Glass
                                                                                                                       ✗




                      Getter                               Mechanical Glass           Condenser
                                                           to Metal Seal              Head




                                                   55
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




KINGSPAN
PUMP STATIONS
ALL SOLAR THERMAL APPLICATIONS                                                                     P
REQUIRE A PUMP SYSTEM TO MOVE FLUID                                      T            T

THROUGH THE SOLAR LOOP.
KINGSPAN SOLAR RECOMMENDS THE USE
OF CLOSED LOOP GLYCOL SYSTEMS AND
OFFERS A SERIES OF PUMP STATIONS
SUITED FOR USE IN THESE SYSTEMS.

Systems will differ in the number of collectors in them,
the length of piping and the type of heat exchanger used.
All of these parameters will affect the choice of the proper
pump station for the system. Kingspan Solar’s offering
includes a wide variety to handle from small systems with               Figure 2: Typical pump station without heat exchanger.

only a few collectors to very large systems that require a
custom design.

In a closed loop system, there are a large number of                                               P
components required to satisfy the maintenance and safety                T            T
requirements of the system. The pump station is a collection
of these components in one small preassembled package.
One main difference between the various offerings is if a heat
exchanger is offered in the pump station. This will depend on
whether or not the heat exchanger is included within the tank.
The various Kingspan Solar offerings have been categorised                                                                       Ball valve
based on if they include the heat exchanger or not.
                                                                                                                                 Pressure
                                                                                                                                 relief
All heat exchangers in the pump stations are double walled
with positive leak detection. Most codes will require these for                                                                  Check valve
solar systems to separate the water and glycol mixture, even
though the glycol mixture is termed ‘non-toxic’.                                                                                 Pump

The controls are another thing that are closely tied with the
                                                                                                                                 Balance
pump stations. The controls are required to activate the                                                                         valve
pumps when there is energy to be harvested from the solar
                                                                                                                                 Flow meter
collectors. The various different pump stations will require the
solar controllers to be programmed differently depending on                                                                      Heat
how the system is hooked up, etc. Kingspan Solar offers the                                                                      exchanger

speciality controls that go with the pump stations and                                                                           Air
                                                                                                                                 separator
provides a program for the particular system selected.
This ensures that the overall solar system will function as
intended.                                                               Figure 3: Typical pump station with built-in heat exchanger.




                                                                   56
                                                   COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                            KINGSPAN SOLAR




SOLAR PUMP STATIONS
A Kingspan Solar Pump Station provides a circulator for the                          A range of solar pumping stations are available for both
solar system. In addition, most features that are required on                        domestic and commercial applications. The selection of the
hydronic systems are provided on the pumping station,                                pump station depends on the size of the collector array, the
making the piping of the system much faster than if all the                          required flow rate and the overall pressure loss in the system.
devices had to be plumbed by hand. The pump operation is                             Our Standard Flow 2-12 LPM pump station is shown below.
controlled by the solar controller, which will activate the                          For other options, please contact us.
pump when there is energy to be gained from the sun.




                                                                                                                                                       PRODUCT RANGE
                                                                                                                   340
                                I        H                       G
           J




      K
                                                                 F

                                                             E
       L                                                                                   430
                                                                 D




                                                             C




                                                             B
                                                                                                                280



                                                         A
                                                                                                                  150
                                M




A    Flow meter                     H   Supply temperature / check & ball valve

 B   Flush / fill ports             I   Collector connections - 22mm
                                        compression (KSP0025).
 C   Balance valve                      28mm ISO228 male (KSP0033).
 D   Circulator pump                J   Flow temperature / check & ball valve
 E   Expansion tank connection      K   Air trap bleed
                                                                                                  450
 F   Pressure gauge                 L   Air trap
 G   Pressure relief valve          M   Tank Connections - 22mm
                                        compression (KSP0025).
                                        28mm ISO228 male (KSP0033).



Figure 4: Solar pump station.




                                                                                57
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




KINGSPAN
PUMP STATIONS
LARGER SYSTEMS                                                         SMALLER PUMP SKIDS
Kingspan has a wide range of pump skids for larger projects            The smaller pump skids utilize up to three pumps in parallel
as well. The larger stations are built on skids with electrical        to achieve the desired flow rates. These pump stations are
enclosures and all of the necessary components in place.               available either with or without a heat exchanger. All pumps
These units range from semi custom, all the way to full                used on these systems are variable speed to optimize the
custom pump skids, depending on the job and number of                  electrical and thermal efficiency of the specific system.
collectors.                                                            FULL CUSTOM PUMP SKIDS
All of these skids include all instrumentation required to             For larger systems, Kingspan offers a full custom pump skids
monitor the performance of the system and verify that it is            design service to fit your needs. These units can include
working properly. The controller included with these systems           simplex or duplex pumps, fixed or variable speed pumps in
comes preprogrammed for the particular system and all                  any configuration to meet your needs. If your project
documentation is included for the installation.                        requires a custom pump skid, please contact Kingspan for
                                                                       design and specification assistance.




                                                                  58
                              COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                       KINGSPAN SOLAR




SYSTEM TECHNICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
SIZING GUIDELINES                             60

COLLECTOR LAYOUT & ITS EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM   72




                                                                 SYSTEM TECHNICAL
                                                                  CONSIDERATIONS




                                                   59
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




SIZING GUIDELINES

SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS CAN BE USED IN A VARIETY OF OF COMMERCIAL AND
DOMESTIC APPLICATIONS.

When using solar thermal for a particular application,               SOLAR PERFORMANCE
there are many things to consider in designing the system.           We are all used to fossil fuels providing energy in our lives.
This section provides information on what is required for a          They provide the same energy regardless of the conditions
solar thermal system and how Kingspan sizes based on                 outside; a gallon of propane provides 26.96 kWh on a cloudy
information about the building. This section is for guidance         and sunny day. Fossil fuels represent concentrated energy
only and designs should be reviewed by our technical team.           that was provided by the sun millions of years ago.
All solar thermal systems should be fully designed by a
competent engineer. Kingspan Group plc or any of its
companies do not take responsibility for any systems
                                                                     “A Kingspan solar thermal system can
designed using the following information.                             be very effective in replacing fossil fuel
                                                                      usage for up to 30 years with very little
USES FOR SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY
                                                                      maintenance or replacement parts
There are many processes that require heat energy.
                                                                      necessary.”
The most common usage of solar thermal collectors is to
heat domestic hot water. This is a simple application that
                                                                     The sun produces an abundance of energy, but it is spread
requires minimal disruption to the existing systems in the
                                                                     out and requires much more collection area to provide
building and excellent payback in most applications.
                                                                     equivalent energy to fossil fuels. A 30 tube collector will
The energy created from the solar collectors can also be             provide about as much energy on its peak day as a gallon of
used to heat buildings, pools or for AC reheat.                      propane. However, unlike a gallon of propane the collector
Most commercial buildings will use water or glycol for               will continue to provide energy as long as it is exposed to
transport of energy throughout the building for the heating          sunlight instead of ending up as carbon dioxide and water.
system and this is another application that is good to tap           Solar systems can be utilised to offset a large portion of the
into with solar thermal collectors.                                  fossil fuels that we currently use, but they require a different
Pools require large amounts of heat energy in order to offset        method of sizing than traditional fossil fuel systems.
the losses from evaporation and solar collectors can provide         If everything is designed and sized correctly, the solar
a large portion of this energy that is required.                     system can be very effective in replacing fossil fuel usage for
                                                                     up to 30 years with very little maintenance or replacement
AC reheat is used when the air is over cooled to remove the          parts necessary.
humidity and then heated by a separate coil to bring the air
back up to the desired temperature. This is a great
application for solar because the demand is usually the
highest when the sun is out and shining.

In addition, many industrial processes use large amounts of
heat. The solar thermal system can provide a good portion
of the overall energy needs for these processes. Breweries
are a great example where a lot of energy is needed to heat
the beer to the desired temperature during the brewing
process.




                                                                60
                                                  COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                           KINGSPAN SOLAR




DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEMS
Domestic hot water systems are the most common use for
solar thermal energy (Figure 5). They are typically sized
to provide up to 70% of the overall hot water demand for
the structure and the balance is made up by a backup hot
water heater.

The solar collectors are typically mounted on the roof of the
building and plumbed to a heat exchanger that is either                  Kingspan Solar has a simple site assessment form that,
immersed in the tank, or an external plate type. When the                once completed, allows our technical team to size, design,
                                                                         and estimate savings on each project.
sun shines on the collectors, the solar pump activates and
runs glycol through the collector manifolds. The solar collectors
will raise the temperature of the glycol and this energy is              system, but the software will provide a far more accurate
transferred to the water in the tank via a heat exchanger.               calculation of what is needed. Kingspan Solar will be happy
The key information required for sizing these systems is how             to run these solar reports for your project with a completed
                                                                         site assessment form.




                                                                                                                                           SYSTEM TECHNICAL
much water is used on a daily basis, when it is used and how




                                                                                                                                            CONSIDERATIONS
much the solar collectors will produce. Determining the hot
                                                                         DETERMINING HOT WATER DEMAND
water usage is the key factor in the design. The output of
                                                                         Solar hot water systems are sized very differently from
the collectors is simulated in software using historical
                                                                         traditional water heaters. A traditional water heater will look
weather data from the location that the collectors are going
                                                                         at the maximum possible demand of the building and then
to be installed, along with calculations based on the usage
                                                                         size the tank and burner so that this demand can always be
pattern of the building. These are critical factors in
                                                                         met. The only consideration for this is how many taps there
determining the number of solar collectors and the size of
                                                                         are and how much they can flow.
the tanks. Information in this section can be used to
approximate the number of collectors and tank size in the                The solar system will be sized to meet a portion of the hot
                                                                         water for the structure, but not all of the demand. Typically
                                                                         this will be between 20% and 70% of the yearly demand for
                                                                         the structure. There are several reasons for this:
                                                                         1. There are more sun hours in the summer than in the
                                                                            winter. Sizing a system to meet the winter demand will
                                                                            mean that it is much too large in the summer.
                                                                         2. The weather affects the output of the solar system.
                                                                            Often, the storage will be large enough to allow solar
                                                                            energy to be carried over from a sunny day to a cloudy
                                                                            day, but several successive cloudy days will deplete the
                                                                            solar storage and require a backup system.
                                                                         3. Energy produced above what can be used in the building
                                                                            must be dissipated. This prevents the overheating of
                                                                            the system and will ensure a long life for all components.
                                                                            Any energy that must be dissipated will not contribute to
                                                                            the payback of the system.


Figure 5: HP collectors (standard using dual stream pump)




                                                                    61
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




SIZING GUIDELINES

A solar system is not designed to provide all of the hot water        hot water, so one will have to be added. The simplest way to
which is why a backup system is required. The backup                  measure hot water demand is using an ultrasonic flow meter.
system should be sized normally because the minimum                   This meter simply attaches to the outside of the cold water
contribution of a solar system is zero and the backup system          pipe going into the water heater and will log how much
must insure that all demand is met under all circumstances.           water enters the water heater. The hot water delivery
The backup system will not run as often as it would if the            temperature and cold water temperature complete the data
solar system were not there, but during some periods may              needed to measure the hot water energy for the building.
have to run at full capacity.

There are two ways to determine the demand from a                     “Kingspan will assist in the design,
structure; measurement and estimation. Measuring is the                sizing and specification of all
best way to ensure that the solar system is sized properly.            commercial solar thermal systems.”
Most buildings will not have a measurement system for the




 GWU, FOGGY BOTTOM CAMPUS, WASHINGTON DC




                                                                      Typical T*SOL report




                                                                 62
                                     COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                              KINGSPAN SOLAR




Ground water temperature: Important for sizing both the                                        90
                                                                                                                                12:00       Summer solstice
solar collectors and the tanks. This will vary with season                                     80
with the highest temperature coming around August and                                          70
                                                                                                               10:00                                   14:00




                                                                   Solar elevation (degrees)
the lowest in February or March.                                                               60                                   Equinox
Shading: Also greatly affects the output of the collectors.                                    50
Any time the collectors are in a shadow, they will not                                         40           8:00                                               16:00
produce energy. This should be considered early on in the                                      30
project, as not all locations are a good fit for solar                                                                          Winter
                                                                                               20                              solstice
systems. The sun’s path varies greatly depending on the                                                 6:00                                                     18:00
                                                                                               10
time of year, so a device called a solar pathfinder should
                                                                                               0
be used to check if the shading is an issue and when it                                             30         80      130        180       230            280         330
occurs. Figure 6, right, shows the sun’s path at different                                           East               Solar azimuth (degrees)                        West
times during the year.                                             Figure 6: Sun position chart illustrating how the sun moves across the
                                                                   sky throughout the year.
Panel orientation: For optimal performance, the collectors
should face due south. Slight deviations from south will




                                                                                                                                                                                SYSTEM TECHNICAL
                                                                                                                                                                                 CONSIDERATIONS
not affect performance much; in fact they can be
                                                                                     Consumption Type                                    Hot water requirement per day and
orientated within 45° of south and still have about the                                                                                 person at a temperature of 60°C (Ltr)
same performance.                                                                                                                         Average                 From - To

Building recirculation loop: Most commercial hot water                               Retirement home                                        45                     30 - 65
systems will have a recirculation loop on them to provide                            Kitchen - breakfast                                     2                         2-3
instant hot water at the taps throughout the building.                               Kitchen - noon / evening                                5                         4-8
This is a major source of energy loss from the hot water
                                                                                     Swimming pool - public / private                     40/20                         –
system. It is important to know the length, insulation and
                                                                                     Sauna - public / private                             70/35                         –
operating hours of the recirculation loop for aiding in
sizing the system. The solar system has to be oversized                              Hospital                                               80                     60 - 120

in order to help provide this energy.                                                Sports facilities - total                               –                     35 - 50

System operating temperature: Commercial systems                                     Sports facilities - showers                            25                     20 - 30

generally operate at high temperatures to protect against                            Hotel (** - ***)                                       50                     30 - 80
legionella bacteria growth in the tank. Some systems for                             Hotel (**** - *****)                                   80                     80 - 150
laundry or dish service will operate at higher                                       Guest house, inn                                       30                     20 - 50
temperatures than this. The higher the temperature,                                  Holiday house                                          40                     30 - 50
the more solar collectors will be needed to provide the
                                                                                     Camping site                                           20                     15 - 35
energy for the system.
                                                                                     Youth hostel, holiday hostel                           20                     15 - 30
                                                                                     Student hall of residence                              25                     15 - 60

                                                                   Figure 7: Typical domestic hot water demand




                                                              63
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




SIZING GUIDELINES

(A) CALCULATE THE HOT WATER HEAT REQUIREMENT
The amount of energy to heat the daily hot water demand           Again, continuing the example of the 4 person domestic
(QHW) is calculated using the formula:                            household:

  QHW = Volume of Daily DHW x Cw x (ΔT)
                                                                             2.40.4.(45-10)
                                                                    Vcyl =                     = 224 Ltr
Volume of Daily Hot Water (l)                                                     (60 - 10)
Cw                   = Specific heat capacity of water
                       (1.16 Wh/kgK)                              The tank size is rounded up to the nearest available size,
ΔT                   = Temperature difference between cold        in this case = 250 Litres
                       water temperature and desired
                       water temperature                          (C) SIZING THE COLLECTOR AREA
                                                                  To size the required collector area the following formula
Continuing example of 4 person domestic household:
                                                                  is used:

  QHW = 160 x 1.16 Wh/kgK x (60-10) = 9280Wh = 9.28kWh                       ED
                                                                    AR =
Therefore the heat requirement = 9.28 kWh/day                                SC


(B) CALCULATE THE STORAGE VOLUME                                  Expanding this formula:
For domestic solar systems typically the storage volume of
the tank should be equal to 2 times the daily hot water                         No. of Days x QHW x Solar Fraction
demand.                                                             AR =
                                                                             Yearly Solar Irradiation x Av. System Eff.
To correctly size the storage volume the following formula
should be used:


           2.Vn.P. (Th - Tc)
  Vcyl =
             (Tdhw - Tc)

Vcyl   = Minimum volume of tank (Ltr)
Vn     = DHW demand per person / day (Ltr)
P      = Number of people
Th     = Temperature of hot water at outlet (°C)
Tc     = Temperature of cold water
Tdhw   = Temperature of stored water




                                                                   APARTMENT BUILDING, ARNSTADT, GERMANY




                                                             64
                                                                  COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                                           KINGSPAN SOLAR




SYSTEM EFFICIENCY
The system efficiency is strongly dependent on the solar                                                     In undersized systems with small collector areas, the solar
fraction of the system. When there is a high solar fraction                                                  fraction is low but the system efficiency is high. In oversized
the system efficiency is lower.                                                                              systems with large collector areas the solar fraction is high
High solar fractions result in a higher return temperature to                                                but the system efficiency is low.
the solar collector, the effect of this is that less solar                                                   The counter effect of the 2 variables can be seen in
irradiation can be absorbed by the collector, hence reducing                                                 Figure 8 below:
the system efficiency.




                                                                  Optimised for
                                                                  contribution and cost
                                                Maximum                                   Maximum consumer
                                                collector yield                           coverage




                                                                                                                                                                               SYSTEM TECHNICAL
                                                                                                                                                                                CONSIDERATIONS
                                                                                                                                  SF
                    System Efficiency SE




                                                                                                                                                    Solar Fraction SF




                                                                                                                                  SE




                                                                                             Absorber Surface Area A
                                           Figure 8: Relationship between solar fraction and system efficiency




                                                                                                       65
                                                                     COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                                              KINGSPAN SOLAR




SIZING GUIDELINES

To simplify the selection of collector area, the following                                            INSULATION
graphs have been created to quickly determine the correct                                             The insulation has to be UV stable where exposed to the
collector size.                                                                                       sunlight and has to be resistant to high temperatures in
If the same daily DHW demand was required using an                                                    excess of 170˚C. To prevent high heat losses through the
evacuated tube collector, from Figure 9 below we would see                                            pipework it is recommended to use insulation with a
a collector area of 3m2 for a solar fraction of 60%.                                                  minimum thickness equal to half the pipe diameter and
                                                                                                      an U value in [W/(mK)] of U ≤ 0.035 [W/(mK)].
IMPORTANT                                                                                             It should be noted that REIA recommend an insulation
For Kingspan Solar evacuated tube collectors we recommend                                             thickness equal to 100% of the internal diameter.
a minimum tank storage of 100 Ltrs per m2 of collector area,
                                                                                                      UNSUITABLE MATERIALS
in this case:
                                                                                                      We do not recommend the use of the following material to
System sized as 3m2 of tube, therefore the tank volume                                                be used in solar systems:
should not be less than 3 x 100 Ltrs = 300 Ltrs.
                                                                                                         Plastic pipes (PEX)
                                                                                                         Multi-layer aluminium / plastic pipes (ALU-PEX)
                      10
                                                                                                         Galvanised metal pipes
                      8
                                                                                                      SUITABLE FITTINGS
Absorber area in m2




                      6                                                                    60%           Compression fittings
                                                                                           50%           Press fittings (with gasket rated for temperatures above
                      4
                                                                                           40%           150˚C)
                      2
                                                                                                         Brazed fi ttings
                      0                                                                                  Fittings supplied with solar stainless steel tubing, i.e.
                           0   50    100     150      200      250       300   350   400
                                                                                                         Waterway, Aeroline etc.
                                           DHW demand in Ltr/day, 45°C
                                                                                                      Note: The use of solder ring fi ttings on copper pipework is not recommended.
Figure 9: Thermomax DF & HP evacuated tube collectors
                                                                                                      On long pipework, runs allowances should be made for
                                                                                                      expansion in the pipework, please see Figure 10 below.
PIPEWORK AND PIPEWORK SIZING
                                                                                                          Temperature Raise              Steel Pipe                Copper
Suitable Materials
                                                                                                                (°C)                 Expansion (mm/m)         Expansion (mm/m)
The following piping materials are suitable for use in a solar
                                                                                                                  50                       0.48                     0.66
system:
                                                                                                                  100                      1.08                      1.49
                       Black steel pipe (a.k.a. gun barrel)
                                                                                                                  120                      1.32                      1.83
                       Copper tubing
                                                                                                      Figure 10: Pipe expansion due to temperature
                       Stainless steel tubing




                                                                                                 66
                                      COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                               KINGSPAN SOLAR




PIPEWORK SIZING
For domestic pipe sizing we recommend a minimum flow                Figure 11 below shows recommended pipe sizing for typical
rate of 60 Ltrs/hr/m2. For commercial systems lower                 domestic systems.
minimum flow rates of 40 Ltrs/hr/m2 can be used.
                                                                      Collector        Flow Rate       Pipe Diameter
In order to minimise the pressure drop through the solar              Area (m2)          Ltr/hr           Copper         DF       HP
pipework, we recommend that the flow velocity through the                                              External (mm)   (mbar)   (mbar)
solar pipework should not exceed 1 m/s.                                   2                120                15 x 1    8.54     1.76
Ideally flow velocities between 0.4 and 1m/s should be used,              3                180                15 x 1    12.57    2.56
resulting in a pressure drop of between 1 and 2.5 mbar/m
                                                                          4                240                15 x 1    17.08    3.52
pipe length.
                                                                          5               300                 22 x 1    21.11    4.32
The required internal diameter of the pipework can be sized
                                                                          6                360                22 x 1    25.14    5.12
using the following equation:
                                                                          8                240                22 x 1   33.68     7.04
                       Where:
              Vs       i = Internal diameter (mm)                   Figure 11: Typical domestic pipe sizing
   i = 4.6




                                                                                                                                         SYSTEM TECHNICAL
                       Vs = System flow rate (Ltr/min)




                                                                                                                                          CONSIDERATIONS
              v
                       = Velocity of fluid (m/s)

Pipework with an outside diameter of less than 15mm should
never be used, in this example we would increase pipe size
from 8mm to 13mm (= 15mm OD pipe with a 1mm wall
thickness).




 ANCHOR TRUST CARE HOME, SURREY, UK




                                                               67
                                      COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                               KINGSPAN SOLAR




SIZING GUIDELINES

Stagnation in a solar system can be caused by a number of           STEAM REACH
reasons such as:                                                    During stagnation the heat transfer fluid in the collectors
  Oversized systems                                                 may vaporise. The vapour will expand into the connecting
                                                                    pipe work. In large systems with direct flow collectors, the
  Undersized expansion vessel
                                                                    volume of heat transfer fluid in the collector will be large
  Poor set up of the system – it is essential that all solar        and the vapour may travel a significant distance along the
  systems are installed and commissioned by fully trained           connecting pipework.
  and technically competent installers who fully understand
  the requirements of a high performance solar thermal              Where sensitive components such as pumps, valves and
  system                                                            expansion vessels may be affected by the high temperature
                                                                    vapour, a steam reach calculation should be performed to
  Air locks or leaks in the system
                                                                    assess the areas of the system that could be affected.
  Prolonged periods of low hot water demand. Using our
  range of control panels this can be overcome by using a
  heat dissipation function




 THE ALPS, ITALY




                                                               68
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




                                                                    There are several ways to combat overheating:

                                                                    1. design the system and size it correctly, thus avoiding need
                                                                       for dissipation in many applications;
                                                                    2. open a spill valve from at the top of the tank and allow
                                                                       hot water to spill out when the tank reaches its maximum
                                                                       temperature;
                                                                    3. divert flow from the collectors through a wet or dry
                                                                       cooler to cool the flow from the collectors once the tank
                                                                       has reached temperature as per Figure 12;
                                                                    4. utilise an existing facility to dump heat, such as an
                                                                       oversized cooling tower, a section of snow melt tubing in
                                                                       concrete, an AC reheat system or a pool.

                                                                    Allowing the collectors to stagnate for an extended period of
                                                                    time will cause issues with the system in the long term.




                                                                                                                                     SYSTEM TECHNICAL
                                                                                                                                      CONSIDERATIONS
                                                                    This is true of both flat plates and evacuated tube systems.
                                                                    Some systems, however require heat dissipation:

Figure 12: Heat dissipation Option A                                1. systems with seasonal use, such as a resort that closes
                                                                       down during the off season; and
                                                                    2. systems with changes in usage throughout the week,
This is why it is crucial to design systems properly. Adding
                                                                       such as a school or office building, where they are not
more collectors and increasing the solar fraction makes the
                                                                       used, or underutilized on weekends.
system more susceptible to stagnation where there are long
periods of sunlight. An error by which the system is                Kingspan Solar offers a full line of components for heat
oversized by 30%, may create serious stagnation issues.             dissipation and will assist in selecting the correct
Therefore it is always best to undersize systems and                components for each individual project.
underestimate the number of collectors.




                                                               69
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




SIZING GUIDELINES




 SWIMMING POOL, GAIARINE, ITALY




We can assist you with designing solar systems for the                 summer. Pool systems do not typically have any external
following applications:                                                storage, but rather use the water in the pool for energy
  Swimming Pools                                                       storage. This means that during the day the pool may rise in
                                                                       temperature several degrees above the set point and then
  Process Heat
                                                                       cool off at night.
  Heating System
                                                                       If the temperature cannot vary above a limit in a pool, then a
SWIMMING POOLS                                                         system utilizing storage tanks can be used. At this point, the
Swimming pools are a great use for solar thermal energy.               system is designed much like a heating system with how the
The collectors can be used to heat just the pool, or it can act        storage interacts with the heating demand.
as an additional energy sink for systems for hot water or              A heat exchanger suitable for pools is required for all pool
heating. Their low temperature provides for some of the                systems. The chlorinated water cannot be run through the
most efficient systems possible.                                       solar system in any circumstance. For fresh water pools, a
Pools use an incredible amount of energy, much more than               stainless steel heat exchanger must be used and for salt
most people would think. Indoor pools and outdoor pools are            water pools, a titanium heat exchanger is required.
very different in how the energy is lost and gained.                   Since the flow rate of the water from the pool through the
                                                                       existing boiler system is typically much higher than the solar
SIZING POOL SYSTEMS
                                                                       flow rate, the heat exchanger will generally be a shell and
Pool systems are sized at a maximum of 50% solar fraction.
                                                                       tube type rather than a plate type.
A system sized at an annual solar fraction of 50% will
produce 100% of the pool load on a sunny day in the




                                                                  70
                                      COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                               KINGSPAN SOLAR




PROCESS HEAT
Process heat refers to any application that requires heat in         temperature and then heated by a separate system back up
the form of hot water. Examples of this are in processing            to the desired temperature. The overall energy provided in a
milk, brewing beer, food products and other industrial               system such as this is around 25% of the load.
processes. These systems vary significantly, depending on
                                                                     For further information on solar thermal systems for heating
application, demand, existing infrastructure, temperature of
                                                                     applications, please contact Kingspan Solar.
the application, and when the energy is used. Kingspan Solar
can assist with the design of these systems on a project             CONCLUSIONS
specific basis and advise what system specification is               There are many applications where solar thermal systems
required to achieve optimum operation.                               can be utilised to save money. Kingspan Solar can advise,
                                                                     design and size these systems specifically for a particular
HEATING SYSTEMS
                                                                     application. The design of solar systems is different from
Heating systems are another use for solar thermal energy.
                                                                     systems that use fossil fuels as energy and this must be
Kingspan Solar evacuated tubes are an excellent fit for
                                                                     taken into account in the design. A well designed solar
heating systems because of their high efficiency in cold
                                                                     system will provide years of performance and savings.




                                                                                                                                    SYSTEM TECHNICAL
conditions. Heating systems can refer to systems that are




                                                                                                                                     CONSIDERATIONS
either used for traditional space heating or AC reheat, where        “A well designed solar system will
the air coming in to the building is cooled below the desired         provide years of performance and savings.”




 NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIVERSITY, TAIWAN




                                                                71
                                      COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                               KINGSPAN SOLAR




COLLECTOR LAYOUT
& ITS EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM
COMMERCIAL BUILDING APPLICATIONS, REQUIRING MANY ROOF-MOUNTED
COLLECTORS, MUST BE CAREFULLY CONFIGURED SO ENERGY GENERATION
IS MAXIMIZED AND THE SYSTEM FITS THE ROOF SPACE AVAILABLE.


Choosing how many collectors are in a bank will affect the
choice for piping as well as the pump for the system. This
section examines the choices that must be made when
laying out collectors on the roof and how these choices
impact the overall performance of the system.




 GWU, FOGGY BOTTOM CAMPUS, WASHINGTON DC                                 Inset: YARBOROUGH PAVILION, LINCOLN, UK




                                                             72
                                         COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                  KINGSPAN SOLAR




COLLECTOR ANGLE
The majority of commercial applications will be installed on             The solar fraction will also help determine the angle of the
flat roofs, so the chosen collector frame will have to hold the          collectors. As the solar fraction increases above 50%, the
collectors at the correct angle for optimum energy collection            panels should be tilted steeper to even out the summer and
and production. The angle affects when the production will               winter production. Typically, a solar fraction of 50% will
be the highest. Sunlight shining straight on to the collector            indicate that some days during the summer will produce
will produce the highest output.                                         more energy than the system can store, however this will
                                                                         vary some by location. The production cannot be exactly
For northern regions, collectors that are orientated at 0.7
                                                                         leveled by collector angle alone; even at 90° (horizontal) the
times the latitude of the installation will produce the most
                                                                         production will be more in the summer than the winter due
overall energy during the year; however the energy is
                                                                         to the length of the days.
heavily biased to the summer time when the sun is the
highest in the sky.                                                      Note: All collectors have restrictions on the angles at which
To balance the production more evenly throughout the year,               they can be installed. Please refer to individual data sheets
the collectors should be set at the latitude of the installation.        for further information.
The time of year when the energy is most required should be




                                                                                                                                          SYSTEM TECHNICAL
                                                                                                                                           CONSIDERATIONS
examined. For example, if a school dormitory that is heavily
occupied during the school year is to have a solar system
added, then it should be tilted to the steepest angle possible
to bias the production away from the summer months when
it is not needed.




 ARNSTADT, SCHILLERSTRASSE, GERMANY




                                                                    73
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




COLLECTOR LAYOUT
& ITS EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM
SETTING FLOW RATES
All solar thermal collectors can operate at a variety of flow         The flow rate for the system should be selected carefully.
rates, depending on the application. The flow rate will affect        Flow rates that are too small will cause a large increase in
the pressure drop of the collectors and also change the               temperature across a bank of collectors, reducing efficiency
temperature increase across the bank. Generally a low flow            and potentially creating temperatures above where the
rate is desired because it minimizes the pressure drop                system is designed to operate. Flow rates that are too high
through the system resulting in smaller pipes and less                will cause the pump to shut on and off frequently causing
energy to run the pump. The flow rate selected needs to take          undue wear and tear on the pump. Ideally systems should
the heat exchanger into account to ensure sufficient heat             use a controller that measures the temperature increase and
transfer from the solar system to the tank.                           adjusts the pump flow rate accordingly. Systems should be
                                                                      designed so that the temperature rating of the components
The temperature increase across the collectors is driven by
                                                                      is not exceeded.
the level of radiation, the angle of the sun and the outdoor
temperature. Once the energy output of the collector is               Generally systems with a lower solar fraction and larger
known, the increase in temperature can be computed.                   storage will be able to utilise lower flow rates in the system.
                                                                      Systems that have high solar fractions, smaller storage,
                                                                      or those for heating, cooling, or high temperature industrial
                                                                      applications will need higher flow rates.




 VIESTE HOTEL, ITALY




                                                                 74
                                                              COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                                       KINGSPAN SOLAR




PRESSURE DROP
Kingspan solar thermal collectors are designed to connect to                      With heat pipe collectors, the maximum number in series for
each other to form banks with the use of an ‘interconnection                      most applications is five. Depending on other components in
kit’. One end of the collector plugs directly into the other                      the system, this may be reduced to four. For flat plate
end making a neat connection between the collectors.                              collectors, 8 vertical or 5 horizontal collectors may be
                                                                                  connected in series.
Flat plate collectors connect to one another in parallel,
where as evacuated tube collectors connect in series.                             Calculating the pressure drop for the entire system is a more
This changes the pressure drop in a bank of collectors                            difficult task. The piping, heat exchangers, valves, elbows and
drastically (Figure 13). Evacuated tubes will increase in                         tees all make a difference in the pressure drop for the entire
pressure drop as more are added where as flat plate                               system. This value is required for sizing the pump. Kingspan
collectors will have similar drops in pressure as more                            Solar can assist in the correct sizing of the pump, as well as
collectors are added to the bank.                                                 the piping in the system to make sure the pump is sized
                                                                                  accurately.
                               14
                                                                                  BALANCING




                                                                                                                                                    SYSTEM TECHNICAL
                               12




                                                                                                                                                     CONSIDERATIONS
                                                                                  The system flow will tend to go to the banks with the lowest
Pressure Drop (foot of head)




                               10                                                 pressure drops in them, so a method of balancing the
                                                                                  collectors is needed. There are two methods of doing this:
                               8
                                                                                  REVERSE RETURN (TICHELMANN)
                               6
                                                                                  A reverse return or ‘Tichelmann’ system is a system where
                               4
                                                                                  the flow for any bank of collectors goes through the same
                                                                                  length of piping regardless of where it is located on the roof.
                               2                                                  Figure 14 (overleaf) illustrates how this concept works.
                                                                                  The first collector connected to the return will be the last
                               0
                                    0   1    2            3       4      5        collector connected to the flow. Both flow and return pipe
                                            Flow Rate (GPM)                       work will run next to each other in the array to insure that
Figure 13: Pressure drop in heat pipe collector                                   both lengths are equal. The pipe diameter must be the same
                                                                                  length throughout the array so that the pressure drop is
                                                                                  always the same for the supply pipe and return pipe.
There are many factors to consider how many collectors can
be connected in series before they have to be arranged in
parrallel banks. For evacuated tubes this is manily dependant
on the pressure drop for the overall system to size the pump,
but there is a constraint that a single bank of collectors
cannot exceed 4 GPM flow because of flow velocities in the
copper manifold. Flat plates can have more connected
together because they are connected in parallel rather in
series, but consideration must be given to how evenly the
flow will distribute through the collectors in parallel. As the
banks get larger, the flow will become more uneven in the
individual collectors within a bank.




                                                                             75
                                          COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                   KINGSPAN SOLAR




COLLECTOR LAYOUT
& ITS EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM




Figure 14: Reverse return system                                          Figure 15: System with balancing valve


The advantage of this type of pipe system is that there is no             2. Where each of the collector banks are identical in
need for extra components to balance the system; in theory                   construction a reverse-return (Tichelmann) pipe
it is naturally balanced. The disadvantage is that the largest               arrangement may be used.
diameter of pipe must be used throughout the system,                      Using balance valves allows collectors to be in banks with
increasing cost. The pipe run is generally longer as it must              different numbers of collectors and the pipe diameter to be
meander past all collectors, but often these systems need                 optimized for the flow rate going through it at any point in
balancing valves because small differences in the system will             the system. Balance valves do add an additional component
not allow it to be perfectly balanced. Additionally, all collector        to each collector bank, but allow for quick and easy
banks must contain the same number of collectors, or the                  adjustability in the system.
system will not be balanced. Reverse return works well for
small systems where the collectors are tightly arranged on                COLLECTOR SPACING
the roof.                                                                 For systems with multiple rows of collectors, the banks must
                                                                          be spaced sufficiently far apart so that they will not shade
HYDRAULIC BALANCING                                                       each other. The general rule of thumb is that there should be
On collector arrays with multiple banks of panels it is                   no shading from one bank to the next on the winter solstice
important that the correct flow rate is achieved on each bank             at noon. This will be the lowest that the sun will get in the
of collectors. Incorrect flow rates, in particular low flow rates         sky and will not prevent all shading between banks (the sun
on individual banks can reduce the overall efficiency of the              is at zero degrees when it sets all year), but will leave the
system. In extreme cases the individual bank may stagnate                 collectors largely exposed during the critical times of day
and this could result in damage to the collectors and other               throughout the year.
system components.
                                                                          MOUNTING
The two methods to best achieve the correct hydraulic
                                                                          A wide variety of mounting kits is available to suit almost
balance are high temperature balancing valves or a reverse-
                                                                          any installation. Where collectors are arranged in banks or
return (Tichelmann) pipe arrangement:
                                                                          laid flat, sufficient space of approximately 500mm should be
1. Individual solar rated balancing valves (flowsetters) on
                                                                          left between each bank to allow for servicing. Due to the
   each bank are the preferred method of achieving the
                                                                          wind turbulence around the edges of the roof, we
   correct flow rates. Where the collector banks contain
                                                                          recommend that approximately 1 metre should be allowed
   varying numbers of panels or differently sized panels this
                                                                          between the collectors and the edge of the roof.
   is the only method of achieving the correct flow rates.




                                                                     76
                                                    COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                             KINGSPAN SOLAR




Collectors should NOT be left exposed for long periods                              commissioned, collector covers are available to prevent
before commissioning. Long exposure to the sun when fluid                           exposure. It is also possible to rotate the tubes in Kingspan
is not being circulated through the system will cause                               Solar panels (DF range only) to prevent the selective
significant degradation of the fluid and possible damage to                         absorber coating (blue side) being exposed to the sun.
solar collectors. Collectors should only be installed when the                      However, although this will minimise the solar irradiation
required plant, tanks, pipework and controls etc have been                          falling on the absorbers, it is only recommended for short
installed and tested. Where collectors need to be installed                         periods.
for more than a few days before the system is



         Reference            Value           Unit
              b               2.00             m
              h                1.20            m
            Beta              37.00             ˚
          Gamma               13.12             ˚                                    b                                               h




                                                                                                                                                    SYSTEM TECHNICAL
                                                                                                                                                     CONSIDERATIONS
         Gamma at          21.12.12:00          -
                                                                                             β             d1
   Results
      Reference               Value           Unit                                                                                  α
                                                                                                                 γ
              d               6.75             m
              d1               5.16            m
                                                                                                       d



Figure 16: Diagram showing minimum spacing between collectors, data used = Dublin, collectors at 37˚

α = Roof pitch
β = Collector inclination + roof pitch
γ = Angle of sun above the horizon
b = Height of solar collector: 1952mm
Direct Flow collector = 1952mm
Heat Pipe collector = 1952mm
d1 = b x sin(β - α) / tan(γ - α)
d = (b x cos(β - α)) + d1
h = √ b2 – d2


CONCLUSIONS
The arrangement of the collectors on a roof depends on                              Pressure drop through the system is important when sizing
many factors. The arrangement must be determined in order                           pumps and piping. The system must be balanced to make
to size other system components, such as pumps and heat                             sure the flow through each collector bank is equal
exchangers. By varying the flow rate through the system,                            (depending on the number of collectors) and is at the value
the temperature increase across the collectors can be                               which is designed. Also, if the banks are to have isolation
controlled. Different systems will utilise different flow rates,                    valves, a pressure relief valve is required for safety.
depending on the purpose and solar fraction of the system.                          These are all important considerations when designing a
                                                                                    solar system.




                                                                               77
                                   COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                            KINGSPAN SOLAR




TYRONE GAA, OMAGH, COUNTY TYRONE, NORTHERN IRELAND




                                                     78
                            COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                     KINGSPAN SOLAR




CONTROLS
& MONITORING
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM CONTROLS,
COMPONENTS & MONITORING                 80




                                                               MONITORING
                                                               CONTROLS &




                                             79
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM CONTROLS,
COMPONENTS & MONITORING
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM CONTROLS ARE AN INTEGRAL PART TO THE ENTIRE
SYSTEM. THERE ARE SEVERAL DIFFERENT OPTIONS FOR SOLAR THERMAL
CONTROLLERS THAT WILL PROVIDE THE NECESSARY FUNCTIONS FOR
CONTROLLING MONITORING AND REPORTING.


CONTROLLING A SOLAR SYSTEM                                             One option that is becoming more and more utilised is speed
The basic algorithm for controlling a solar system is very             control on the solar pump. This involves varying the speed of
simple. A sensor is placed in the collector bank and another           the pump depending on the rise in temperature that the
in the bottom of the tank. When the difference in                      collectors are producing. The pump will run faster when the
temperature between the sensors exceeds a set point, a                 sun is intense and slower when there is less sunlight.
relay in the controller will close and activate the solar pump.        This reduces the energy consumed by running the pump,
The difference in temperature shows there is meaningful                as well as short cycling of the pump whereby it turns on and
energy to be collected. The pump will run until this                   off quickly because there isn’t much solar radiation.
temperature difference falls below a threshold, meaning                Some controllers offer variable speed (0 – 10V) outputs
there is no longer energy to collect.                                  instead of straight relays to connect to an inverter and vary
                                                                       the speed of the pump.
Additionally, there are other points to monitor in the system.
The controller examines the temperature in the tank and                SOLAR CONTROLLERS
ensures that the maximum temperature is never exceeded.                Solar controllers are devices that are manufactured
The temperature in the solar loop is also monitored and the            specifically to control solar systems. The controllers will
controller will shut down the solar pump if the temperature            differ in the number and type of inputs, number and type of
becomes so high that it may damage components in the                   outputs.
solar loop.
                                                                       Solar controllers are a convenient and inexpensive way for
More complicated systems can utilise additional functions in           controlling commercial solar systems.
the controller. A system that uses two tanks will utilise a
                                                                       They come preprogrammed with many of the common
function in the controller that switches a valve between the
                                                                       systems already in them and are easy to connect to the
tanks when a temperature set point is reached so that the
                                                                       overall system. The units provide excellent data logging
solar energy is diverted to the correct tank. More than two
                                                                       capabilities and this data can be accessed over the Internet.
tanks will simply utilise more inputs and outputs on the
                                                                       Where it is possible, Kingspan Solar includes a program on a
controller. Systems with additional pumps can utilise
                                                                       memory card that is customized to your exact system to
additional temperature sensors for activating the pumps.
                                                                       insure that all parameters are programmed properly in the
Because the controller has a large number of inputs and                controls.
monitors the temperatures in key locations within the
system, it is also often used for data recording. This usually
means that the temperatures and flow rates measured by
the controller are recorded on a memory card at regular
time intervals. This data can then be recalled and processed
to see how the solar system has been performing and
provide an estimate of the system savings.




                                                                  80
                                                          COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                                   KINGSPAN SOLAR




 NORTH OF TURIN, ITALY


Solar Controller Summary

                         SC300                                         SC400                                                SC500




                                                                                                                                                                                 MONITORING
                                                                                                                                                                                 CONTROLS &
System voltage                  _
                         230 V (+ 15 %), 50 Hz                         115 ... 230 V~, 50/60 Hz                             115 ... 230 V~, 50/60 Hz
                                         _
                         optional 115 V (+ 15 %), 60 Hz

Own consumption          <
                         _4W                                           <
                                                                       _ 0.8 W                                              <
                                                                                                                            _ 0.8 W

Inputs                   6                                             5                                                    5
                         T1 - T5: temperature recording (Pt1000)       T1-T4: temperature recording (Pt1000)                T1-T4: temperature recording (Pt1000)

                         T6: temperature recording                     T5: temperature recording                            T5: temperature recording
                         (Pt1000) or pulse recording                   (Pt1000) or pulse                                    (Pt1000) or pulse

Additional input         1 x direct sensor (flow rate / temperature)   No additional inputs                                 1 x direct sensor (temperature / flow rate)
                                                                                                                            1 x direct sensor (temperature / pressure)

Outputs                  3                                             2                                                    2

                         R1 and R2: TRIAC output for RPM control       R1 and R2: TRIAC output for RPM control              R1 and R2: TRIAC output for RPM control
                         R3: relay switched output

Additional output        1 x alarm output                              1 x potential-free switching output for the safety   1 x potential-free switching output for the safety
                                                                       extra-lowvoltage                                     extra-low voltage

Hydraulic schemes        40                                            11                                                   11

Ambient temperature      0 °C ... +45 °C                               0 ... +50 °C,                                        0 ... +50 °C

Data logging             SD card                                       No data logging                                      SD card

Degree of protection     IP 20 / DIN 40050                             IP 22, DIN 40050 (without front panel: IP 20)        IP22, DIN 40050 (without front panel: IP20)

Dimensions (X x Y x Z)   170 x 170 x 46 mm                             110 x 160 x 51 mm                                    110 x 160 x 51 mm

Weight                   450 g                                         350 g                                                370 g




                                                                                           81
                                      COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                               KINGSPAN SOLAR




SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM CONTROLS,
COMPONENTS & MONITORING
PERFORMANCE MONITORING
The Internet remote display allows permanent monitoring and         Not only the momentary values for each solar energy system
performance analysis of one or more solar energy systems.           are visualised but also the changes in temperature over time
The Kingspan Solar router allows visualisation of the               using simple diagrams. If a heat meter is also used then,
operation of solar thermal systems.                                 in addition to momentary values, the system is capable of
Temperature and performance data are clearly displayed for          displaying energy balances and CO2 savings. By logging in
analysis in an Internet browser window.                             with a personal user name and password the operator can
                                                                    use the Internet to monitor the system from any location in
                                                                    the world.
                                                                    This allows simultaneous management and monitoring for
                                                                    correct operation of multiple systems. The raw data archived
                                                                    on the server can be downloaded for detailed analysis with
                                                                    the TS Analyzer 2 software. Historical information is
                                                                    permanently available for comparative monitoring of system
                                                                    functions. This allows malfunctions and the origins of faults to
                                                                    be quickly recognised, analysed and corrected, which greatly
                                                                    improves the operational reliability of the system.


OPERATION
A Kingspan Solar controller cyclically sends measurements to
the Inernet router. The device processes the data and
forwards it to a central server via cable modem. The server
archives this information and presents it visually in the
Internet - as system images, graphics, tables, diagrams and
even as a slide show. These visualisations can also be sent
from the router to a smartphone or laptop via WLAN or via
mediabox to a monitor or a projector.
                                                                    Figure 17: Internet router system




 WABASCA WATER WORLD & FITNESS CENTER, WABASCA, CANADA




                                                               82
                                COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                         KINGSPAN SOLAR




VARISOL INSTALLATION, IRELAND




                                                                   MONITORING
                                                                   CONTROLS &




APARTMENT BLOCKS, GERMANY




                                               83
                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM CONTROLS,
COMPONENTS & MONITORING
PUMPS
FIXED SPEED CONTROL
Pumps are a very important part of a solar system.                    The next thing that must be examined is the power rating on
The sizing of pumps is covered in the components sizing               the pump. The relays in all controllers have a maximum
section, but here we look at the electrical side of the pumps.        current that they may provide to the motor and operate at
The motors on pumps are rated terms of the voltage, phase             a particular voltage. The standard solar controllers, for
and horsepower and it is very important to understand the             instance, are able to handle motors that draw up to about
meaning of these terms when choosing a pump for a                     2 Amps at 115V. Most BMS systems will have 24VAC as an
particular job.                                                       output and will require a magnetic starter, where as PLCs
                                                                      can be customized with several different voltage outputs,
Most of the time the motor for a particular pump can be
                                                                      but their current output is quite small and will need to be
specified with several different voltages and phases. A site
                                                                      run through a magnetic starter as well.
visit to the building should examine the voltages that are
available and ensure that there is enough extra power on a            A magnetic starter is similar to a relay, but intended for
circuit to handle an additional pump or pumps. The first              higher currents and they have overload protection on them
thing to examine is what voltages are available. On small             to stop the motor if it exceeds its capacity. They are switched
systems, 120V will typically be used because it is readily            on via a small current that runs through a magnetic coil
available and most small pumps are rated for this condition.          and pulls an armature to another position to switch on a
Larger systems will use either 240V or 480V because they              much higher current through the contacts closed by the
are more efficient at turning the pumps.                              armature. Figure 19 shows a cutaway of a relay exposing the
                                                                      components within. The spring switches the magnetic starter
The voltage also helps determine the number of phases that
                                                                      off when the current is switched off to the coil.
are available. 120V circuits in the North America are
automatically single phase. 240V circuits can be either               The magnetic starter can also operate at two different
single phase (technically split phase), or three phase where          voltages; the coil can be switched by 24VDC and the contacts
as 480V systems are more than likely three phase.                     can connect 240VAC. The correct motor starters should be
Determining the number of phases present is very important            chosen based on the horsepower and voltage of the motor
because it will dictate the motor that is chosen on the               and the available switching voltage from the controller.
pump and the design of the motor contactors used in the
electrical system.




                                                                                                                             Contacts


                                                                      Armature




                                                                      Spring                                                      Coil




                                                                                                                                 Yoke




Figure 18: Contactor                                                  Figure 19: Magnetic starter




                                                                 84
                                                                       COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                                                KINGSPAN SOLAR




The following table can be used to compute the current                                                       For larger systems, a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) is
rating of the motor.                                                                                         required. A VFD is a device that connects between the
                                                                                                             power supply and the pump and varies the frequency of
       Motor                  115 V                230 V                 230V                  460V
     Horsepower           Single Phase           Split phase            3-phase               3-phase        the current going to the pump motor to achieve
           1/6
                                                                                                             different speeds. The speed of an AC motor is
                                4.4                   2.2                    –                     –
                                                                                                             dependent on frequency of the power being fed to it;
           1/4                  5.8                   2.9                    –                     –
                                                                                                             in the UK and Ireland, this is always 50 Hz. The inverter
           1/3                   7.2                  3.6                    –                     –         can change this frequency and thus the rotational
           1/2                  9.8                   4.9                   2.2                   1.1        speed of the pump. A pump motor must be VFD duty
           3/4                  13.8                  6.9                   3.2                   1.6        rated in order to be used with a VFD.

            1                    16                   8.0                   4.2                   2.1        The VFD needs an input from an outside control as to
          1 1/2                  20                    10                   6.0                  3.0         how fast it should spin the motor. This is usually a
                                                                                                             0-10VDC, or 4-12mA signal. Some solar controllers can
            2                    24                    12                   6.8                   3.4
                                                                                                             supply this output (see Solar Controller Summary table
            3                    34                    17                   9.6                  4.8
                                                                                                             page 81). Most BMS will have the option for an analog
            5                    56                   28                    15.2                  7.6        output and PLCs can be configured for this if specified
Note that these are peak currents and may vary by motor. Consult the literature provided by the pump         in advance. There is a program in the inverter that will
manufacturer to verify these values.
                                                                                                             translate the signal from the controller into the motor
                                                                                                             speed that will need to be programmed, along with the
VARIABLE SPEED CONTROL
                                                                                                             motor parameters.
It is desirable in solar systems to vary the motor speed




                                                                                                                                                                         MONITORING
                                                                                                                                                                         CONTROLS &
depending on the amount of energy the solar system is                                                        Often times the VFD is skipped in solar systems
collecting. This will help ensure the maximum output from                                                    because of its additional expense and the difficulty of
the system and reduce the energy used to run the pumps                                                       programming it. On large systems, the unit can pay for
within the system. A desired increase in temperature across                                                  itself within a few years with the electricity saved and
the solar collector is set and the pump speed is varied to                                                   also provide an increase in the solar production.
maintain this value. This is all handled in the controller.                                                  These systems generally last longer because the motor
                                                                                                             and pump aren’t being driven as hard as a fixed speed
                                                                                                             set up and they are also not being switched on and off
                                                                                                             as frequently.




Figure 20: Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)




                                                                                                        85
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM CONTROLS,
COMPONENTS & MONITORING
VALVES
Motorized valves are also common components on solar thermal systems. They are used to
divert flow from one place to another and are actuated by the controls when a certain set of
conditions is met. Valves will commonly be either two way or three way valves.

A two way valve is a simple switch; in one position it will allow flow through and in the other
it blocks it. Two way valves are usually used in pairs where one valve will open and another
close to divert flow from one portion of the system to another. This is used commonly when
shifting flow between tanks.

Three way valves are another common type of valve in solar systems. They consist of an inlet
and two outlets where the flow will be diverted to depending on the position of the valve.
One outlet is considered the normally open position of the valve where flow will be diverted
when no power is applied to the valve and the other is the normally closed position where
                                                                                                  Figure 21: Motorised 3 Port Valve
flow will be diverted when the valve is activated. Valves can be power open, spring return
(as described above) or power open / power close where energy is required to change the
state of the valve in either direction.

Valves will have voltage and current ratings on them as well. For smaller valves, they will not
draw much current and can be connected to the controller directly. Larger valves will require
a relay to operate properly. To switch the valve form one position to another, a small motor
and gears are used.


 GALDERMA R&D SNC, SOPHIA ANTIPOLIS, BIOT, FRANCE




                                                               86
                              COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                       KINGSPAN SOLAR




CERTIFICATION &
WARRANTY STATEMENT
•   HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS                  88
•   DIRECT FLOW COLLECTORS                89
•   VARISOL HEAT PIPE COLLECTORS          90
•   VARISOL DIRECT FLOW COLLECTORS        92
•   HAIL IMPACT TEST CERTIFICATION        93
•   WARRANTY STATEMENT                    95




                                                                 WARRANTY STATEMENT
                                                                   CERTIFICATION &




                                               87
         COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                  KINGSPAN SOLAR




HEAT PIPE
COLLECTORS




                        88
         COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                  KINGSPAN SOLAR




DIRECT FLOW
COLLECTORS




                                            WARRANTY STATEMENT
                                              CERTIFICATION &




                        89
          COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                   KINGSPAN SOLAR




VARISOL HEAT PIPE
COLLECTORS




                         90
COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
         KINGSPAN SOLAR




                                   WARRANTY STATEMENT
                                     CERTIFICATION &




               91
         COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                  KINGSPAN SOLAR




VARISOL DIRECT FLOW
COLLECTORS




                        92
               COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                        KINGSPAN SOLAR




                                                  WARRANTY STATEMENT
                                                    CERTIFICATION &




TURIN, ITALY




                              93
          COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                   KINGSPAN SOLAR




HAIL IMPACT TEST
CERTIFICATION




                         94
                                                COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                         KINGSPAN SOLAR




WARRANTY
STATEMENT
KINGSPAN SOLAR WARRANTY STATEMENT FOR SOLAR
Subject to the following provisions, Kingspan Solar warrants that the Goods will be free from defects in material and
workmanship for a period of 20 years in relation to VACUUM TUBES and a period of 5 years for MANIFOLDS and KITS
from their date of manufacture. “RESTRICTED PRODUCTS” are limited to a period of 12 months warranty. The warranty is
given by Kingspan Solar subject to the following conditions:

A. The 20 year warranty period on Vacuum Tubes is conditional on                   5.   Kingspan Solar shall be entitled to examine any Goods, which are the
   installation by a Kingspan Solar Approved Installer, and subject to                  subject of any claim by the Buyer, and to remove such Goods or any
   the collector(s) being properly maintained according to the                          part thereof for testing. No tests carried out by the Buyer will be
   manufacturer’s recommendations. (See Installation Manual for                         recognized by Kingspan Solar unless carried out strictly in
   further details). Otherwise a default 5 year warranty period on                      accordance with a method previously agreed by Kingspan Solar as
   Vacuum Tubes applies.                                                                being suitable for the purpose.
B.   Kingspan Solar shall be under no liability in respect of any defect in        6.   Any valid claim in respect of the Goods which is based on any defect
     the Goods arising from any information drawing design or                           in the quality or condition of the Goods or their failure to meet
     specification supplied by the Buyer.                                               specification is notified to Kingspan Solar in accordance with these
C.   Kingspan Solar shall be under no liability in respect of any defect                Conditions. Kingspan Solar shall be entitled to repair or replace the
     arising from fair wear and tear, wilful or accidental damage,                      Goods (or the part in question) free of charge or at the Company’s
     negligence, abnormal working conditions, failure to follow the                     sole discretion refund to the Buyer the Price (or a proportionate part
     Kingspan Solar’s instructions, misuse or alteration or repair of the               of the Price) but Kingspan Solar shall have no further liability to the
     Goods without approval.                                                            Buyer.

D.   The above warranty does not extend to parts materials equipment               7.   Kingspan Solar shall not be liable to the Buyer by reason of any
     not manufactured by Kingspan Renewables in respect of which the                    representation (unless fraudulent) or any implied warranty condition
     Buyer shall only be entitled to the benefit of any such warranty or                or other term or any duty at common law (including but without
     guarantee as is given by the manufacturer to the Company.                          limitation the negligence of Kingspan Solar its employees agents or
                                                                                        otherwise) or under the express terms of the Contract for any loss of
E.   The defect has been reported by the Buyer to Kingspan Solar within
                                                                                        production loss of profits or anticipated profits loss of contracts
     the warranty period.
                                                                                        operation time or anticipated savings loss of business or of expected
F.   The installation of the Goods having been carried out by fully trained             further business loss of or corruption to data damage to the Buyer’s
     and competent person(s).                                                           reputation or goodwill damages costs or expenses payable by the
G. The Goods having been subjected to neither “prolonged stagnation                     Buyer to any third party or any other indirect special or
   conditions” nor exhibiting signs of “extreme temperature exposure”.                  consequential loss or damage or claim (whether caused by the
                                                                                        negligence of Kingspan Solar its employees agents or otherwise)
1.   The Buyer shall not make any statement or representation or give
                                                                                        which arise out of or in connection with the supply of the Goods or
     any warranty to any third party in respect of any Goods other than in
                                                                                        their use or resale by the Buyer.
     the terms made or given by Kingspan Solar to the Buyer nor shall


                                                                                                                                                                  WARRANTY STATEMENT
     the Buyer have any authority to commit Kingspan Solar to provide              8.   Without prejudice to the provisions of clauses 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 the
     any service in relation to the Goods.                                              entire liability of the Buyer under or in connection with the Contract      CERTIFICATION &
                                                                                        shall not exceed the Price of the Goods.
2.   The Company’s liability to the Buyer for death or injury resulting
     from its own or that of its employees’ agents’ or subcontractors’             9.   Kingspan Solar shall not be liable to the Buyer or be deemed to be in
     negligence and damage suffered by the Buyer as a result of any                     breach of the contract by reason of any delay in performing or any
     breach of the obligations implied by Section 12 of The Sale of Goods               failure to perform any of the Company's obligations in relation to the
     Act 1979 shall not be limited.                                                     Goods if the delay or failure was due to any cause beyond the
                                                                                        Company's reasonable control. Without limiting the foregoing, due to
3.   If Kingspan Solar fails to deliver the Goods for any reason other than
                                                                                        causes beyond the Company’s reasonable control.
     any cause beyond the Company’s reasonable control or the Buyer's
     fault then Kingspan Solar shall only be liable to the Buyer for and           10. For comprehensive details regarding “Warranties and Liability”
     the Company’s liability shall be limited to the excess (if any) of the            please refer to the “CONDITIONS OF SALES” section 7.
     cost to the Buyer (in the cheapest available market) of similar goods
     to replace those not delivered over the Price of the Goods.
4.   The Buyer shall examine all delivered Goods forthwith.
     Any claim based on any defect in the quality or condition of the
     Goods or their failure to correspond with specification shall be
     notified to Kingspan Solar within 7 days from the delivery date or
     where the defect was not apparent on reasonable inspection within a
     reasonable time after discovery of the failure. If delivery is not
     refused and the Buyer does not notify Kingspan Solar the Buyer shall
     not be entitled to reject the Goods.



                                                                              95
                                    COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                             KINGSPAN SOLAR




THE ROYAL DANISH ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS SCHOOL
OF ARCHITECTURE, COPENHAGEN, DENMARK




                                                   96
                            COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                     KINGSPAN SOLAR




KINGSPAN
INSULATED PANELS                        98

BENCHMARK                               99

INSULATION                              100

INSULATED DOOR COMPONENTS               101

ACCESS FLOORS                           101




                                                               KINGSPAN




                                              97
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




KINGSPAN

INSULATED PANELS
Kingspan Insulated Panels has established a leading global             PowerPanel Integrated Solar PV Solutions
position in design and manufacture of high quality, high               PowerPanel is a fully integrated insulated panel and solar
performance insulated panel systems for all sectors of the             photovoltaic systems. The systems are suitable for new and
construction industry.                                                 refurbishment applications and can be installed at the same
                                                                       time as the insulated roof panels.
Insulated Panels’ websites contain downloads for
construction details, model specifications and data sheets,            CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTS
as well as product information, case studies, photo galleries          Controlled Environment insulated panel systems are
and much more.                                                         designed for use within temperature controlled and
                                                                       hygiene-safe environments.
INSULATED ROOF & WALL SYSTEMS
Kingspan’s range of insulated panels have been successfully            FireSafe, hygienic and fibre-free, these insulated panel
used worldwide on retail, distribution, commercial, industrial,        systems are suitable for internal and external walls, roofs
leisure, residential, healthcare and education projects.               and ceilings with an internal ‘box within a box’ modular box
The performance advantages of Kingspan Insulated Roof &                system also available.
Wall Systems are well recognised by property investors,                www.kingspanpanels.com
building owners, designers and contractors.




INTEGRATED SOLAR SOLUTIONS
Renewable energy products complement roof and wall
panels and can be easily integrated into any building project.
Renewable energy can contribute significantly to the energy
used within a building, thereby reducing bills and carbon
footprint.

EnergiPanel Solar Air Heating System
EnergiPanel™ is a new, innovative, insulated solar-air heating
system designed for wall applications as a supplement to the
main heating system.




                                                                  98
                                        COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                                 KINGSPAN SOLAR




BENCHMARK
BENCHMARK is your reference point for the complete                   DESIGN WALL SYSTEMS
insulated building envelope. Benchmark brings together all           The Design Wall Series features a range of premium
the elements to help create stunning architectural wall and          insulated panels with distinctive profiles, textures and
roof façades to fit your building designs and specifications.        colours, laid vertically or horizontally, for complete design
With a wide choice in colour and texture, from modern                flexibility.
metallic to warm wood finishes, BENCHMARK combines style             ROOF SYSTEMS
and performance, offering the complete façade solution               A range of roof system featuring Envirodek insulated roof
without compromise.                                                  deck designed for green roof systems, and Roofliner and
                                                                     Topspan insulated panels that are ideal for
ENGINEERED FAÇADE SYSTEMS
                                                                     standing seam waterproofing systems
BENCHMARK build options have been developed to                       and single-ply membranes.
complement our range of metallic and non-metallic façades.
                                                                     www.kingspanbenchmark.com
Two systems, featuring insulated panel technology, create
high performance envelopes that are simple and fast to
install, eliminating complexities in design when using one or
a mixture of façades.




Konnect Wall System
A revolutionary, factory pre-engineered multi-spanning
module with excellent thermal, structural and fire
performance providing the ideal platform for the
BENCHMARK façade range.

Karrier Panel System
an alternative building method to the Konnect
                                                                                                                                     KINGSPAN




Wall System, BENCHMARK Karrier Panel System
is a unique insulated panel specifically
designed and tested to support the BENCHMARK
range of façades. The system provides excellent
weather resistance, thermal, acoustic, fire and                        Manufacturing
structural performance.                                                Sales




                                                                99
                                     COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                              KINGSPAN SOLAR




INSULATION
Kingspan Insulation is a market leading manufacturer of         ENGINEERED TIMBER SYSTEMS
premium and high performance rigid insulation products and      Kingspan Insulation offers a range of highly insulated and
insulated systems for building fabric and building services     airtight engineered timber building fabric systems for both
applications.                                                   domestic and non-domestic buildings. The solutions include:
INSULATION FOR ROOFS, WALLS & FLOORS                            Kingspan TEK® Building System
Kingspan Insulation has a vast product range including          Kingspan TEK® Building System consists of structural
premium performance rigid Kooltherm® insulation; high           insulated panels (SIPs) connected with a unique jointing
performance rigid Therma® insulation; and Unidek high           system for walls and roofs, and intermediate floors using
performance rigid extruded polystyrene insulation.              I-beams or open web joists.




To complement the range Kingspan Insulation                     Factory Insulated Timber Frame Systems
have developed Optim-R™, the next                               Kingspan insulated timber frame systems are widely used by
generation insulation solution that                             developers, contractors and self-builders across the private
is up to five times more energy                                 and affordable housing market and are suitable for the
efficient than other commonly                                   construction of buildings up to six storeys high.
available insulation materials.
                                                                www.kingspaninsulation.com




                                                              100
                                      COMPLETE SOLAR THERMAL SOLUTIONS
                                               KINGSPAN SOLAR




INSULATED DOOR COMPONENTS                                         ACCESS FLOORS
Kingspan manufactures a wide range of insulated door              Kingspan Access Floors is the world’s leading raised access
panels and hardware components that are used within               floor and underfloor service distribution solution provider
Industrial and Residential sectional overhead doors.              with extensive knowledge and experience across a wide
These components are incorporated into completed                  range of building types including office and data centre
sectional door assemblies through approved partner                applications.
organisations who provide a complete supply, installation         Floors voids are available with standard product from 20mm
and aftercare service package.                                    up to 2000mm, but a project specific design service is
www.kingspandoor.com                                              available for voids of any height.




                                                                  Kingspan Access Floors manufactures wide range of
                                                                  products, including: steel encased chipboard core systems
                                                                  ready to accept loose lay carpet; lock down panels for added
                                                                  security; high quality laminated panels for data centres;
                                                                  panels laminated with wood stone or granite; systems
                                                                  offering enhanced acoustic properties; and even systems
                                                                  that provide an economical raised flooring platform.

                                                                  www.kingspanaccessfloors.com
                                                                                                                                 KINGSPAN




                                                            101
180 Gilford Road,
Portadown BT63 5LF

Tel: +44 (0) 28 38364500
Fax: + 44 (0) 28 38364501

www.kingspansolar.ie


Tadman Street, Wakefield,
West Yorkshire WF1 5QU

Tel: +44 (0) 1924 376026
Fax: +44 (0) 1924 385015

www.kingspansolar.co.uk

				
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