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Chapter 13

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					13.1
       DECISION SUPPORT
         SYSTEMS (DSS)
    MANAGEMENT LEVEL COMPUTER
               SYSTEM
      COMBINES DATA, MODELS,
     USER - FRIENDLY SOFTWARE
       FOR SEMISTRUCTURED &
   UNSTRUCTURED DECISION MAKING
                *
13.2
        COMPONENTS OF DSS
                      MIS
             KWS                     MODEL BASE
       TPS                           Statistical
                                            Forecasti
                                     ng
             DBMS                           Operatio
                                     nal    Planning


                   DSS SOFTWARE
                    User Interface


13.3                    USER
                   DSS & MIS
DIMENSION        DSS                 MIS


PHILOSOPHY       INTEGRATED TOOLS, STRUCTURED INFORMATION
                 DATA, LANGUAGE      TO END USERS


SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR DECISION IDENTIFY INFORMATION
                 PROCESS             REQUIREMENTS


DESIGN           ITERATIVE PROCESS   DELIVER SYSTEM BASED
                                     ON FROZEN REQUIREMENTS


13.4
     DECISION SUPPORT
       SYSTEMS (DSS)
  • REPRESENTATIONS: Graphs;
     Charts; Lists; Reports; Symbols
  • OPERATIONS: Logical, Mathematical
     Manipulation of Data
  • MEMORY AIDS: Update, Refresh
     Memory
  • CONTROL AIDS: User Controls
     Activities & Functions
13.5
                       *
        EXAMPLES OF DSS SYSTEMS
AMERICAN AIRLINES             PRICE & ROUTE SELECTIONS

CHAMPLIN PETROLEUM            CORPORATION PLANNING & FORECASTING

EQUICO CAPITAL CORPORATION    INVESTMENT EVALUATION

FRITO-LAY, INC..              PRICE, ADVERTISING, PROMOTION

GENERAL DYNAMICS              PRICE EVALUATION

JUNIPER LUMBER                PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION

Kmart                         PRICE EVALUATION

NATIONAL GYPSUM               CORPORATE PLANNING, FORECASTING

SOUTHERN RAILWAY              TRAIN DISPATCHING & ROUTING

TEXAS OIL & GAS CORPORATION   EVALUATION OF DRILLING SITES
13.6
       COMPONENTS OF DSS
 • DATABASE: Current & Historical Data
   from Many Sources, as Required
 • MODEL BASE: Collection of Mathematical
   & Analytical Building Blocks
 • MODEL: Abstract Representation of a
   Phenomenon
 • SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS: What - If
   Questions; Impact of Changes in Inputs
                       *
13.7
        BUILDING DSS
 • FOCUSES ON NEEDS OF USER
 • WHAT CAPABILITIES DO USERS
   CONSIDER IMPORTANT?
 • TEND TO EMPLOY ANALYTICAL
   MODELS
 • CUSTOMIZED TO SPECIFIC USERS
                *
13.8
  GROUP DECISION-SUPPORT SYSTEM
             (GDSS)
            INTERACTIVE
      COMPUTER-BASED SYSTEM
      FACILITATES SOLUTION OF
     UNSTRUCTURED PROBLEMS
  BY DECISION MAKERS WORKING AS
               GROUP
                 *
13.9
        ADVANTAGES OF GDSS
 •   IMPROVED PRE-PLANNING
 •   INCREASED PARTICIPATION
 •   OPEN, COLLABORATIVE ATMOSPHERE
 •   IDEA GENERATION FREE OF CRITICISM
 •   EVALUATION OBJECTIVITY
 •   IDEA ORGANIZATION & EVALUATION
                     *


13.10
        ADVANTAGES OF GDSS
 • SETTING PRIORITIES & DECISION
   MAKING
 • DOCUMENTATION OF MEETINGS
 • ACCESS TO EXTERNAL INFORMATION
 • PRESERVATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL
   MEMORY
 • ELECTRONIC QUESTIONNAIRES
                    *

13.11
        WHAT IS GDSS?
• Hardware - facility, computers,
  network, display boards
• Software - organize and gather data,
  comms
• People - participants, trained
  facilitator
     GDSS SOFTWARE TOOLS
 •   ELECTRONIC BRAINSTORMING
 •   IDEA ORGANIZERS
 •   QUESTIONNAIRE EVALUATION TOOLS
 •   TOOLS FOR VOTING; SETTING
     PRIORITIES
  • STAKEHOLDER IDENTIFICATION &
     ANALYSIS
  • POLICY FORMATION TOOLS
  • GROUP DICTIONARIES
13.13
                     *
        ELECTRONIC MEETING SYSTEM
                  (EMS)

       COLLABORATIVE GDSS
   USES INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
   TO MAKE GROUP MEETINGS MORE
            PRODUCTIVE
    FACILITATES COMMUNICATION
          DECISION MAKING
                 *
13.14
        HOW GDSS ENHANCED
          DECISION MAKING
 •   IMPROVED PRE-PLANNING
 •   INCREASED PARTICIPATION
 •   OPEN, COLLABORATIVE ATMOSPHERE
 •   IDEA GENERATION FREE OF CRITICISM
 •   EVALUATION OBJECTIVITY
 •   IDEA ORGANIZATION & EVALUATION
                     *


13.15
        HOW GDSS ENHANCED
          DECISION MAKING
 • SETTING PRIORITIES; MAKING
   DECISIONS
 • DOCUMENTATION OF MEETINGS
 • ACCESS TO EXTERNAL INFORMATION
 • PRESERVATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL
   MEMORY
                    *


13.16
        EXECUTIVE SUPPORT
          SYSTEMS (ESS)
   STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEM
    DESIGNED FOR UNSTRUCTURED
          DECISION MAKING
    THROUGH ADVANCED GRAPHICS
       AND COMMUNICATIONS
                 *

13.17
13.18

    EXECUTIVE SUPPORT SYSTEMS
               (ESS)
COMMUNITY


                              MANAGERS
            ACTION
                       EMS


EXECUTIVE                    MIS
                             TPS
                 ESS
                             DBMS
STRATEGY                     DATABASE
       EXECUTIVE SUPPORT
         SYSTEMS (ESS)
  • BRIEFING BOOKS: On-Line Data, Fixed
     Format Reports for Executives
  • DRILL DOWN: Ability to move from
     Summary to Lower Levels of Detail
  • Designed for Specific Needs of CEO
  • Extensive Support Staff
  • Executive has 24 Hour per Day Ability to
     Examine, Control Progress Throughout
     Organization
13.19                   *
  MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES

 • BUILD SYSTEMS TO FULFILL
   EXECUTIVE INFORMATION
   REQUIREMENTS
 • INTEGRATE DSS & ESS
                 *



13.20

				
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