Chapter 12 by dffhrtcv3


									Chapter 12
The Artificial Intelligensia and Virtual Worlds
Artificial Intelligence
o   Study of mental faculties through the use of
    computational models
o   Getting machines to exhibit behavior that, if it
    were performed by a human, we would call
o   Coined in 1956
Miller’s theory
o   Magical number seven – human beings can
    deal consciously withonly about seven (+ or –
    2) items of information at a time
o   Universal Turing computing machine
o   Good at algorithmic reasoning
o   Heuristic problem solving more difficult
Expert Systems
o   1971 Feigenbaum created a program clled
    DENDRAL which could figure out, from
    mass spectrometry data, which organic
    compound waas being analyzed
    n   Used knowledge base
    n   Heuristic rules
Systems continued
o   Prospector
o   Xcon (configurations of minicomputers)
o   SHRDLU – language understanding program
Areas for AI/Expert Systems
o   Game-Playing
o   Theorem-proving
o   Memory/decision making capabilities
Objections to Expert Systems
o   Theological objection
o   Heads in the sand objection
o   Mathematical objection
o   Argument from consciousness (no feelings or
o   Arguments from various disabilities
Arguments continued
o   Lady Lovelace’s objection (can’t originae
o   Argument from continuity in the nervous
    system (our nervous system is continuous –
    computers are discrete
o   Argument from informality of behavior (we
    are irrational)
Arguments continued
o   Argument from ESP – people have ESP and
    computers do not
AI and Ethics
o   Medical systems
o   Battlefield decisions
o   If machines become intelligent what moral
    obligations do we have for them? – Would
    they have rights? Would they experience pain,
    pleasure, etc.?
o   Major theme in AI
o   Spiritual machines – will they surpass human
    brain power?
o   Should computers have a direct connection to
    our brains so that computers can add to
    human intelligence?
New issues
o   Cybersex
o   Deceptions?
o   Prejudices
o   Virtual ethics?
o   obsessions
Additional concerns
o   Speed
o   Privacy and anonymity
o   Nature of medium (stolen without being
o   Aesthetic attraction
o   Increased availability of potential victims
Concerns continued
o   International scope
o   Power to destroy
o   What is virtual reality? Where can it go……

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