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THE STONE AGES AND EARLY CULTURES

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					CHAPTER 2
SECTION 1: THE FIRST
      PEOPLE
        
 Prehistory: the time before writing was
  invented, which includes the STONE
  AGE.
 The first humans lived during the Stone
  Age.
 The Stone Age is divided into 3 periods
  based upon the type of tools that were
  made: Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and
  Neolithic
 Tool: any handheld object that has been
  changed to help a person do a task.
  What is the Paleolithic
           Era?
            
 AKA The Old Stone Age
 Lasted until about 10,000 years ago
 Tools were made out of sharpened stones or bones
 Most were used to cut food
 More advanced tools were made over time such as
  the hand ax and spear
 As tools developed, people formed societies,
  communities of people who share the same culture
  What is the Paleolithic
      Era? (cont.)
            
 Early humans lived in hunter-gatherer societies
 Spoken language developed over time
 Artwork during this time were carved figures made
  of stone, ivory or bone, and cave paintings, which
  may have had religious meaning
 Very little is known about their religious beliefs
  SECTION 2: EARLY
 HUMAN MIGRATION
         
 Climate patterns around the world began to change
  the earth’s geography
 People had to migrate, or move to new places to
  survive
  What are the Ice Ages?
            
 1.6 million years, the Earth experienced long periods
  of freezing weather called the Ice Ages
 Ocean levels were lower than today and places that
  are underwater now used to be dry land!
 Land bridges were exposed allowing people to move
  more easily to other continents
Ex: The Bering Strait Land Bridge, which connected
Asia to N. America
 How did early humans
  settle in new lands?
            
 Migration took hundreds of thousands of years
 Began in Africa abut 2 million years ago
 Early humans branched out to other continents such
  as Asia, Europe, Australia, and even on to North and
  South America
 Must have used land bridges to move around

Open your textbooks to page 37 and let’s analyze the
map of Early Human Migration.
  How did people adapt
  to new environments?
           
 Fire- kept people warm, but they didn’t know how
  to “make” it yet
 Sewed animal skins to keep warm
 Took up shelter in caves or built small dwellings
 Developed new types of tools during the Mesolithic
  Era such as hooks, spears, bow and arrow (still used
  stone and bone)
 Developed new technology such as canoes, pottery,
  and keeping pets for protection and hunting such as
  dogs.
 Section 3: Beginnings of
       Agriculture
             
 The discovery that plants grew from seeds was one
  of the major advances of the late Stone Age
 This created a tidal wave of changes and advances
  that swept across the world!
   What is the Neolithic
           Age?
            
 AKA the New Stone Age
 began about 10,000 years ago in Southwest Asia
 Learned to make drills and saws out of stone and
  how to make fire
 This age ended when people began to make tools out
  of metal and how to produce food
       How was farming
        “discovered”?
              
 The climate began to warm up and new plants began
  to grow such as barley and wheat
 People began to settle where these new plants grew
 Soon learned they could plant seeds themselves
 This shift from gathering plants to planting them is
  called the Neolithic Revolution
 First occurred in Southwest Asia
 What is domestication?
           
 It is the process of changing plants or animals to
  make them more useful
 People began to plan only the largest grains and
  sweetest fruits, which led to agriculture, or farming.
 People also learned how to use animals such as
  keeping herds of sheep or cattle to use for food and
  clothing
 Also used animals for heavy pulling or
  transportation
 Using animals greatly improved farming
       How did farming
       change societies?
              
 Because of farming, people could focus on other
  activities
 People used plant fibers and domesticated animals to
  make cloth
 Began to build permanent settlements
 World’s population began to grow as people were
  able to control their food production
 Specialization in jobs (basket-weaving, tool-making,
  etc.)
    How did farming
 change societies? (cont.)
           
 Religious groups began to form and people put up
  megaliths, huge stones used as monuments
Ex: Stonehenge in England
 Prehistoric gods probably represented air, water,
  fire, or earth
 People prayed to their ancestors (ancestral worship)

				
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posted:7/1/2013
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