The Water and Sanitation Crisis in the occupied Palestinian territory by pptfiles


									    “Thirsting for Justice”
Israel’s control of water in the
Occupied Palestinian Territory

         World Water Day 2013
-Myth: the climate in
Israel/Palestine is arid;
Israel is « making the
desert bloom»

-Reality: the region is
rich in water; the water
shortages in the OPT
are the result of Israeli
Palestine has enough water

                    Clemens Messerschmid
Israel retains control over all sources of
    water in the West Bank and retains
       significant control over water
              resources in Gaza

 Israel extracts close to 90 per cent of
        the water from the aquifer
        underneath the West Bank

  Palestinians have no access to the
               Jordan River
          Between 1967 and 1995
Israel takes control over all water resources through series of
  military orders

Ariel Sharon hands over Palestinian water infrastructure to
  Mekorot for value of x shekels (guess!)

Consequences to Palestinians:

1.Only 23 licenses issued for new Palestinian wells
2.Number of wells reduce from 413 in 1967 to 300 in 1983

 De-development of Palestinians water sector & human
              induced water scarcity
           1995 Oslo II: greater Palestinians
                dependency on Israel
                          Interim Agreement= 5 years
 Ground water             Israel’s annual          Palestine’s annual
 resource                 allocation               allocation
 Western Aquifer          340 MCM (94%)            22 MCM (6%)

 Northeastern Aquifer     103 MCM (71%)            42 MCM (29%)

 Eastern Aquifer          40 MCM (42%)             54 MCM (58%)(+ 78
                                                   for future needs)

 Totals                   483 MCM (or 80 %         118 MCM (or 20% of
                          of the total)            total)

Oslo quantities allocated to Palestinians haven’t been met, Palestinians extract
                   less water today than they did before Oslo.
    Contrast with Israeli settlements
Average water consumption:
Palestinians: 50-70 lpcpd
Israelis: 300 lpcpd (settlers at 369 lpcpd)
WHO recommended: 100 lpcpd

Large discrepancies within same area:

  Israeli             Liters/Person/          Nearby        Liters/Person/
  settlement          Day                     Palestinian   Day
  Ro’i                431
                                              Al-Hadidiya   20
  Niran               433                     Al-Oja        82
  Argaman             411                     Al-Zubeidat   82
 Figures by BTselem

  Prime beneficiaries of appropriation of shared water
  resources are Israeli citizens, settlers in particular, at
               the expense of Palestinians
The West Bank
                 Permits “blackmail”

Large water infrastructure projects in the West Bank require Joint
   Water Committee (JWC) approval. Israel conditions approval of
   essential Palestinian projects to Palestinian approval of
   settlement projects.

 Aprox. 200 000 people with no connection to the water
  network paying up to 400 % more for every liter of water than
  those connected
 Only one Palestinian-operated wastewater treatment plant
 Less than a third of the communities in the West Bank are
  connected to the sewerage network, with the remainder
  dependent on self-installed cesspits and septic tanks
                                   Area C: settlers represented in
• West Bank                       planning committees deciding on
• Between 2009 and 2011            fate of Palestinian communities
  the Israeli military has
  destroyed:                        Water infrastructure demolition
• 173 water, sanitation and          rates in 2012 have persisted.
    hygiene (WASH)
    structures in the West
    Bank including:
•        • 57 rainwater
                                    Denial of access to water trigger
    collection cisterns.              for displacement, particularly in
                                      areas slated for settlement
•      • 40 wells supplying
                                      expansion (Jordan Valley, south
  communities with water.
                                      Hebron hills)
•      • Irrigation equipment
  vital for food production
    and at least 20 toilets and
Cistern demolition in the south
         Hebron hills
  Consequences of settlements on access to
Settlement infrastructure has been
   planned to take into account
   expropriation of water resources.
   Route of the wall takes into account
   key catchment areas for future
   extractions from strategic western

Violent actions from Israeli settlers have
   restricted or denied Palestinian
   access to water resources (springs)

Several Israeli settlements in the West
   Bank do not treat their wastewater
       Settlements trade: profiting from Palestinian
                   water appropriation
Agriculture is main source of income for Israeli
   settlements in West Bank

Agricultural settlements, particularly those in the
   Jordan Valley, rely on their own water wells
   inside the West Bank operated by Mekorot.
   Some wells owned and operated by private
   agricultural export company Mehadrin.

The approx 9,400 Israeli settlers in the West Bank
   consume the equivalent of a third of the water
   consumed by 2.6 million Palestinians
                                                      Water Print of some Israeli
                                                      agricultural exports to Europe:
Water for agriculture subsidized by the               1 Avocado = 154 gallons of
  government of Israel .                              water
                                                      1 Mango = 118 gallons of water
                                                      1 Date = 8 Gallons of water
  Mekorot: Israel´s national water
• Palestinians in the West Bank have to buy over half
  of their water from Mekorot (extracted from the
  West Bank!) at insufficient quantities

• Israeli settlements supplied by wide high pressure
  pipelines and Palestinian communities much
  smaller diameter pipes

• Discriminatory pricing policy (settlers subsidised on
  water for agriculture)

• Mekorot now with business contracts in US, Brazil,
  Argentina, India, Portugal and expanding on basis
  of its experience in the West Bank
• 69 % of West Bank Palestinians not connected to mains
  sewerage and dependent on cess pits and septic tanks,
  often emptied directly into surrounding environment—a
  direct result of inability to develop adequate sewage and
  wastewater treatment and management.

• 40% of the sewage produced in the West Bank
  originates from the settlements. Each year, settlements
  dump approximately 35 MCM of sewage in the
  environment, damaging Palestinian fields and water
Downstream from Ariel
settlement wastewater
The Gaza Strip
   Overview of water and sanitation
          situation in Gaza
• Coastal Aquifer, Gaza’s sole source of fresh water,
  unsuitable for human consumption
• UN estimates aquifer unusable by 2016 leaving 1.7
  million Palestinians with no alternatives
• Dependence on desalinated brackish water for
  drinking. However, this is expensive.
• 60% of households connected to sewage network.
  However, sewage treatment plants stretched beyond
  capacity; 85-90 million litres of sewage are dumped
  in the sea every day.
Outflow pipe for Khan Younis
Wastewater Treatment Plant
     Effect of the blockade on water
         and sanitation in Gaza

• Israel prevents entry of essential materials
  necessary for construction and rehabilitation of
  water and sanitation infrastructure (94% of items
  cleared to enter in principle according to July 20,
  2010 guidelines)
• Restricted fuel and electricity necessary to
  operate water and wastewater services
• At times has delayed entry of essential water
  purification chemicals such as chlorine.
  Operation ‘Pillars of Defense’:
14 November – 21 November 2012

Israel targeted water distribution truck killing
driver and his 8-year old son
            Damage to water and
           wastewater infrastructure
• Coastal Municipality Water
  Utility: Damage to major
  water infrastructure during
  Cast Lead estimated at $US      From 2005 to 2010, Israel destroyed at least
  6 million                        305 wells located in the buffer zone – the
                                  Israeli-declared closed border area with Gaza,
• UN Fact Finding Mission on        which contains the vast majority of land for
                                   agricultural production in Gaza - with a total
  the Gaza Conflict
  (Goldstone Report): “there          cost of replacement of $9   million.
  was a deliberate and
  systematic policy on the part
  of the Israeli armed forces
  to target ... water
                         What can you do?
   •     Join the Thirsting for Justice Campaign

World Water Day 2013 (March 22): organize a teach-in on water justice for Palestinians.
Register at

To top