DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF RECTANGULAR MICROSTRIP by iaemedu

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									        INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF Engineering & Technology (IJECET),
   International Journal of Electronics and Communication ELECTRONICS AND
   ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME
COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)

ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)                                                     IJECET
Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June, 2013, pp. 132-138
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp                                           ©IAEME
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        DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF RECTANGULAR MICROSTRIP
            ANTENNA FOR QUAD AND TRIPLE BAND OPERATION

                       P. Naveen Kumar 1*, S.K. Naveen Kumar 1 and S.N.Mulgi 2
        1
            Department of Electronics, University of Mysore, P.G. Center, Hemagangothri, Hassan,
                                             Karnataka, India
            2
              Department of PG Studies and Research in Applied Electronics, Gulbarga University,
                                    Gulbarga-585106, Karnataka, India



   ABSTRACT

           A novel design and development of rectangular microstrip antenna is realized for
   quad band operation from conventional rectangular microstrip antenna (CRMA) by loading
   slits on the conducting patch. The quad bands are achieved by incorporating three slits along
   the width of CRMA. The magnitude of each operating bands are 3.75%, 2.52%, 7.3%, and
   5.36% respectively. Further these quad bands can be converted to triple bands by placing two
   slits along the length and one along the width of CRMA without changing the nature of
   radiation characteristics. This antenna gives 11.20%, 2.22% and 19.61% of impedance
   bandwidth at each operating band and enhances the gain. Details of the antenna designs are
   presented and experimental results are discussed. The proposed antennas may find
   application in radar communication systems.

   Keywords: quad band, triple band, impedance bandwidth, gain.

   1.          INTRODUCTION

           The microstrip antennas (MSAs) are becoming popular in all types of communication
   systems because of their attractive features and characteristics such as small size, light
   weight, low profile and easy to fabrication [1]. But the main limitations of MSAs are their
   narrow impedance bandwidth and lower gain. The antenna operating more than one band of
   frequencies are quite attractive because each band can be used independently for
   transmit/receive applications. Many researchers have disposed so many techniques in the
   literature to realize dual, triple or multiband operation of CRMA by aperture coupling [2],
                                                   132
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),
ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME

corner truncation [3], shorting pins on the patch [4], using stacked patches [5] etc. Among all
slot/slit loading is very simple, easy to incorporate and design. Realization of quad bands
using slit along the width and length of CRMA and conversion of quad bands to triple bands
without much changing the radiation characteristic is found to be rare in the literature.

2.     DESIGNING

        The proposed antenna are designed using low cost glass epoxy substrate materials of
thickness h=1.66mm, relative permittivity εr = 4.2. Figure 1 shows the geometry of (CRMA)
which is designed by using basic equations available in the literature [1]. The antenna is
designed for the resonant frequency of 4 GHz. The CRMA consists of radiating patch of
length L and width W. The feed arrangement consists of quarter wave transformer of length
Lt and width Wt which is used for better impedance matching between the microstripline
feed of length Lf , width Wf and center point (Cp) along the width of the rectangle
microstripline patch. At the tip of microstrip line feed a 50 coaxial SMA connector is used
for feeding the microwave power.




                                 Fig.1 Geometry of CRMA.


        Figure 2 shows the geometry of vertical slits rectangular microstrip antenna
(VSRMSA). Here the three vertical slits are placed along the width of the patch at an equal
distance from the non radiating edges of the patch. The upper vertical slit is placed at a
distance 1.1cm and lower slits are placed at 0.69 cm from the edges of the patch. The length
of the slit is taken as Ls which is equal to 0.75cm and width of the slits is Ws which is equal
to 0.1cm. The dimensions of slits are taken in terms of λ0, where λ0 is the free space
wavelengths in cm corresponding to the design frequency of 4 GHz.




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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),
ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME




                                Fig. 2 Geometry of VSRMSA

        Figure 3 shows the geometry of horizontal slits rectangular microstrip antenna
(HSRMSA) which is derived from VSRMSA. In this figure, the lower vertical slits used in
VSRMSA are replaced horizontally and are located at the centre of non radiating edges of the
patch. The design parameters of CRMA, VSRMSA and HSRMSA are given in Table 1.

            Table. 1 Designed parameters of CRMSA, VSRMSA and HSRMSA
                               L = 1.68 cm         W = 2.32cm
                               Lt = 0.96cm         Wt = 0.05cm
                               Lf = 0.75cm         Wf = 0.32cm
                               Ls = 0.75cm         Ws = 0.1cm




                                Fig. 3 Geometry of HSRMSA

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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),
ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME

3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

       The impedance bandwidth over return loss less than -10dB for the proposed antennas
is measured on vector network analyzer. The variation of return loss versus frequency of
CRMA is shown in Fig. 4. From this figure it is seen that, the antenna resonates for single
band of frequency BW1. The magnitude of BW1 is found to be 3.50% which is calculated
by using the equation,

                              ( f − f )
                  Bandwidth =  2 1  ×100 %
                                  fc 

where f2 and f1 are the upper and lower cutoff frequencies respectively, when its return loss
reaches -10dB and fc is the center frequency between f1 and f2.

         Figure 5 shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of VSRMSA. From this
figure it is seen that, the antenna resonates for quad band of frequencies BW2, BW3, BW4 and
BW5. The magnitude of each operating band is found to be 3.75%, 2.52%, 7.3% and 5.36%
respectively. The quad band operation is due to the independent resonance of patch and slits
inserted on the conducting patch of VSRMSA [7].
         Figure 6 shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of HSRMSA. From this
figure it is seen that, the antenna resonates for triple band of frequencies BW6, BW7 and BW8.
The magnitude of each operating band is found to be 11.20%, 2.33% and 19.6% respectively.
It is clear from the figure that, BW6 is increased from           3.75% to 11.20% when it is
compared with the BW2 of Fig. 4 and also BW4 and BW5 shown in Fig. 5 are merges together
and gives BW8 which is 19.6%. Hence the use of slits in HSRMSA is quite effective in
converting the quad bands to triple bands and enhances the bandwidth at each operating
bands.



                                                0
                            Return Loss (dB)




                                               -5



                                               -10



                                               -15                             BW1




                                               -20


                                                 0   2                     4         5
                                                         Frequency (GHz)




                 Fig. 4 Variation of return loss versus frequency of CRMSA



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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),
ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME


                                                                0


                                                                -5


                                                            -10




                             Return Loss (dB)
                                                                                                  BW3          BW4 BW
                                                            -15                      BW2                             5


                                                            -20


                                                            -25


                                                            -30


                                                            -35


                                                                     2       4       6       8     10    12    14        16
                                                                                          Frequency (Hz)


                Fig. 5 Variation of return loss versus frequency of VSRMSA

       The gain of the proposed antennas is measured by absolute gain method. The power
transmitted Pt by pyramidal horn antenna power received Pr by antenna under test (AUT) is
measured independently. With the help of these experimental data, the gain (G) in dB of
AUT is calculated by using the formula,

                                                                  Pr                       λ0 
                  ( G )dB   = 10 log                                  - ( G t )dB - 20log      
                                                                  Pt                       4πR dB

        where, Gt is the gain of the pyramidal horn antenna and R is the distance between the
transmitting antenna and AUT. Using the above equation the maximum gain of the VSRMSA
and HSRMSA is found to be 1.5 dB and 3.62 dB respectively. Hence HSRMSA is quite
effective in enhancing the gain from 1.56 to 3.62 dB.


                                                           0
                                                                                         WB 6

                                                           -5                                                      BW8
                                       Return Loss (dB)




                                                          -10


                                                          -15

                                                                                                     BW7
                                                          -20


                                                          -25


                                                          -30
                                                                     2   4       6       8     10    12       14     16
                                                                                     Frequency (GHz)


               Fig. 6 Variation of return loss versus frequency of HSRSMA


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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),
ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME

       The radiation patterns of antenna are measured in an anechoic chamber. The co-polar
and cross-polar patterns in the E- plane and H- plane of the antenna are presented in Figure 7-
9. The E and H plane radiation pattern of antennas are broadsided in nature and are nearby
same with each other.
                                                   0

                                        30                                    330




                             60                                                                    300




                                                    -50     -40         -30     -20         -10         0
                        90                                                                                  270




                             120                                                                   240




                                        150                                   210

                                                180                                       Eco of Antenna
                                                                                          Hco of Antenna
                                                                                          Ecross of Antenna
                                                                                          Hcross of Antenna

          Fig. 7 E and H plane radiation patterns of CRMSA measured at 3.97 GHz
                                               0
                                         30                             330




                                   60                                                      300




                                                -50       -40     -30     -20       -10      0
                             90                                                                   270




                                  120                                                      240




                                         150                            210
                                               180                                  Eco of Antenna
                                                                                    Hco of Antenna
                                                                                    Ecross of Antenna
                                                                                    Hcross of Antenna


        Fig. 8 E and H plane radiation patterns of VSRMSA measured at 7.95 GHz

                                                0
                                         30                             330




                                   60                                                       300




                                                -50       -40     -30     -20       -10       0
                             90                                                                   270




                                  120                                                       240




                                         150                            210
                                               180                                        Eco of Antenna
                                                                                          Hco of Antenna
                                                                                          Ecross of Antenna
                                                                                          Hcross of Antenna


         Fig. 9 E and H plane radiation patterns of HSRMSA measured at 7.7 GHz

                                                   137
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),
ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME

4. CONCLUSION

        From the detailed experimental study it is concluded that, by using three vertical slits
in CRMSA i.e. VSRMSA makes the antenna to resonate for quad band of frequencies and
gives a peak gain of 1.56 dB. Further by replacing vertical slits into horizontal slits i.e.
HSRMA the antenna converts quad bands to triple bands and gives a maximum impedance
bandwidth of 19.6% in triple bands. This antenna also enhances the gain to 3.62 dB when
compared to the gain of VSRMSA without changing much in the radiation characteristics.
The proposed antennas are simple in their design and fabrication and they use low cost
substrate material. These antennas may find application in radar communication systems.

REFERENCES

[1] I. J. Bahl and P. Bhartia, Microstrip antennas, MA: Artech House, 1982.
[2] M.N. Jazi, Z.H. Firouzeh, H.M. Sadeghi and G. Askari, “Design and implementation of
    aperture     coupled microstrip IFF antenna”, Progress In Electromagnetic Research
    Letters, Vol.4, No.1, 1-5, 2008.
[3] N. Kulkarni, S. N. Mulgi and S. K. Satnoor, “Design and development of corner
    truncated U and inverted U-Slot multiband tunable rectangular microstrip antenna”,
    Progress In Electromagnetic Research Letters, Vol. 29, 185-199, 2012.
[4] S.C. Pan and K.L.Wong, “Dual frequency triangular microstrip antenna with a shorting
    Pin”, IEEE trans Antennas Propag., pp.1889,1997.
[5] K.Oh, B. Kim and J. Choi, “Design of dual and wideband aperture stacked patch antenna
    with double-sided notches”, Electron Lett., (UK), 40, pp.643, 2004.
[6] J. Y. Sze and K. L. Wong, (2000). “Slotted rectangular microstrip antenna for bandwidth
    Enhancement”, IEEE Trans. Antennas & Propagat., Vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1149-1152.
[7] Q.Q. Wong, B.Z and J.He, “Wideband and dual-band design of a printed dipole antenna
    IEEE Antennas Wireless propag Letter, pp.1, 2008.
[8] Nagraj Kulkarni and S. N. Mulgi, “Corner Truncated Inverted U - Slot Triple Band
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    Issue 1, 2012, pp. 1 - 9, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.
[9] M.Veereshappa and Dr.S.N.Mulgi, “Design and Development of Triple Band
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