The Cultural Revolution - deanibtopics

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					The Cultural
Prelude to the Cultural Revolution

  After the disastrous GLF, two high ranking CCP
   members began to shape China’s new economic
   policies: Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping
  Mao began to grow suspicious of their popularity and
   disliked the direction the new reforms were taking
  He enlisted the help of Lin Biao (Defense minister and
   PLA field marshal) to regain his dominance
  Lin Biao created a compilation of quotes from Mao,
   called the Little Red Book
    It was distributed to the PLA, but grew in popularity
     Revolutionary Literature

 The PLA made study of the Little Red Book
   What message does this send?
 1963’s Diary of Lei Feng also helped to increase Mao’s
   Lei Feng was a devoted PLA truck driver who was
    crushed doing his duty and became a symbol of the
    revolutionary cause—too bad he was totally made up!
      Divisions within the CCP

 The Wu Han Affair
 The performance of a play that contained a veiled
  criticism of Mao’s treatment of Peng Duhuai during
  the GLF served as a catalyst for deepening some
  divisions within the party leadership
   Hardline Maoists who believed no one should oppose
    Mao in any way vs. Moderates
 The Hardliners proclaimed the need for a struggle
  against any and all “counter-revolutionaries”
                    The Origins

 The Central Cultural Revolution Group
   Created in May 1966 to direct the Cultural Revolution, which
    initially was meant to purge the party of “the representatives
    of the bourgeoisie who have sneaked into the party, the
    government, the army ad various spheres of culture” (Mao)
 University Students
   Tapped by Lin Biao to hang revolutionary posters and
    challenge the education system, unrest begins to spread
 Mao’s Re-emergence
   Symbolic swim in the Yangtze (July 1966)
   Downgrade of Liu Shaoqi
                The Red Guards

 Galvanized by the August 1966
  Rally, the Red Guards became the
  primary instruments of the
  Cultural Revolution
 “We have to depend on them to
  start a rebellion, a revolution,
  otherwise we may not be able to
  overthrow the demons and
  monsters. We must liberate the
  little devils. We need more
  monkeys to disrupt the palace”
  (Mao, 1965-interesting!)
 Why did Mao launch the Cultural

 Remove opposition
 Remold China so deeply that it could never change back in
  order to ensure the survival of revolutionary spirit
 Obliterate the failure of the GLF
 Undermine intellectuals and bureaucrats and restore the
  peasant nature of China’s revolution
 Differentiate China from the USSR, which was too
 Test the young party members who had no experience
                Early Purge

 Within months, both Deng Xiaoping and Liu Shaoqi
  had been targeted by the Red Guards for being
 Both were openly attacked and formally dismissed
  from their posts, though their fates were very
              Out of Control

 How did the Red Guards carry out the Cultural
 How were they aided by Mao and the PLA?
 What were the Four Olds?
 Why did Mao eventually need to reign in the Red
    A Glimpse of the Damage

 4900 out of 6800 “places of cultural interest” in
  Beijing were destroyed, the Forbidden City survived
  only because of PLA protection
 “If you didn’t beat people you weren’t showing a
  proper hatred for the enemy or a proper love for the
  people.” –Red Guard
 11 foreign embassies were attacked
 In Confucius's hometown, over 6600 acts of
  vandalism occurred in a 4 week period

 What was the effect of the PLA once they were
  instructed to enter the fray in 1967?
 How did Mao try to restore stability between 1967
  and 1969?
 To what extent was the course of the Cultural
  Revolution directed by Mao?
                 Cleaning Up…

 “Up to the Mountains and Down to the Villages”
  Campaign, 1967-72
   Over 12 million youths move to the countryside in order to
    learn the “dignity of labor”- or was there an ulterior motive?
   “…a bad version of the peace corps”
 “Cleansing of the Class ranks” Campaign, 1968-71
   PLA squads replaced the Red Guards to continue the
    persecution of counter-revolutionaries and capitalists (how
    could there be any left?)
      Thousands beaten, tortured, and killed
        The Fall of Lin Biao, 1971

 By the early 1970s, the Cultural Revolution had diminished, but while
  threats to Mao were absent, questions over his potential successor
 Some began to cast doubt on Lin Biao, questioned his influence, and
  told him he must submit to self criticism
 Lin Biao became involved in a plot to assassinate Mao, and then
  tried to escape China, but his plane crashed killing him and his family
  (no, I am not making this up)
 Afterwards, Mao’s propaganda machine began to denounce Lin
  Biao, which led to great disillusionment among the Chinese people
 It also opened the door for the return of Deng Xiaoping and the
  enhancement of Zhou Enlai -more on that later!
 The Cultural Revolution had come full circle…
Deepen the criticism of Lin [Biao] and Confucius, energetically increase production, 1975
              Final Questions

 To what extent did the Cultural Revolution achieve its
 Evaluate the role of Mao’s cult of personality on the
  Cultural Revolution.
 “The glorification of the leader and nation inevitably
  leads to the devaluation of the individual and the
  destruction of human rights in the single party state.”
  To what extent do you agree, using 2 examples
  chosen from different regions?

                              Red Guards
   Mao Zedong
                              PLA
   Zhou Enlai
                              Gang of Four
   Peng Dehuai
                              Rightists
   Liu Shaoqi
                              Danwei
   Deng Xiaoping
                              Trofim Lysenko
   Lin Biao
                              Cadres
   Jiang Qing
   Gao Gang & Rao Rashi

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