A REVIEW OF CYBERBULLYING AND CYBER THREATS IN EDUCATION-2

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					  International Journal of JOURNAL OF COMPUTER (IJCET), ISSN 0976-
 INTERNATIONALComputer Engineering and Technology ENGINEERING
  6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME
                          & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET)

ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online)                                                  IJCET
Volume 4, Issue 3, May-June (2013), pp. 324-330
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       A REVIEW OF CYBERBULLYING AND CYBER THREATS IN
                         EDUCATION

           Ashwini Manish Brahme 1,      Dr. Shivaji Mundhe2,      Ashwini Chavan3,
                              Sunil B Joshi4,     Poonam Sawant5

       1
         (Assistant Professor, Sinhgad Institute of Management and Computer Application
                                      (SIMCA),Narhe, Pune )
       2
         (Director, Sinhgad Institute of Management and Computer Application (SIMCA),
                                           Narhe, Pune )
       3
         (Assistant Professor, Sinhgad Institute of Management and Computer Application
                                      (SIMCA),Narhe, Pune )
       4
         (Assistant Professor, Sinhgad Institute of Management and Computer Application
                                      (SIMCA),Narhe, Pune )
       5
         (Assistant Professor, Sinhgad Institute of Management and Computer Application
                                      (SIMCA),Narhe, Pune )



  ABSTRACT

          Cyberbullying is the use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) such
  as Internet, mobile etc to give trouble to other by sending the message, email and many more.
  In today’s Internet world people send email, create their own website, send text messages,
  image via cell phone, do instant messaging, chatting, seek for new friends etc. Unfortunately
  there are increasing reports of teenagers and their aggressive behavior and becoming victim
  of Cyberbullying. This research paper describes about Cyber crime and Cyber bullying. The
  research is intended to find out the Cyber threats in schools, students and community. Cyber
  bullying is an emerging concern which is needed to more focus in education and the
  teenagers/students.

  KEYWORDS: ICT, Cyber Crime, Cyberbullying, Cyber threat, IM



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  6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME

 I.      INTRODUCTION

          Crime is a sociological problem that hasn’t been solved in 4000 years of recorded
  history. Cybercrime is just the most recent vehicle of cold war. There was clearly vision (or
  luck) when the following statements were made in the 1992 movie “Sneakers”:
      • “The world isn’t run by weapons anymore, or energy or money. It’s run by ones and
          zeroes, little bits of data. It’s all just electrons.”
      • “There’s a war out there, old friend, a world war. And it’s not about who’s got the
          most bullets. It’s about who controls the information: ...what we see and hear, how we
          work, what we think. It’s all about the information.” — Universal City Studios, Inc
          Cyberbullying: Cyberbullying is nothing but the use of ICT (Information and
  Communication Technologies) such as Internet, mobile etc to give trouble to other by
  sending the message, email and many more. Cyberbullying or Cyber threats material—text or
  images—may be posted on personal Web sites or blogs or transmitted via e-mail, discussion
  groups, message boards, chat, IM, or cell phones. To add to this we can say that Cyber
  threats are either direct threats or “distressing material”—general statements that make it
  sound like the writer is emotionally upset and may be considering harming someone else,
  harming himself or herself, or committing suicide.

II.      LITERATURE REVIEW

      1. Cyber Crime & Cyber threat

  Cyber crime is an unlawful act where in the computer is either a tool or a target which is used
  for creation of Cyber threat and Cyber terrorism as a premeditated use of disruptive activities
  or the threat in cyber space, with the intention to further social, ideological, religious,
  political or similar objectives, or to intimidate any person in furtherance of such objectives.
  The Cyber Criminals may be children and adolescents aged b/w 6-18 years, they may be
  organized hackers, may be professional hackers or crackers, discontented employees,
  cheaters or even psychic persons.
  According to the ENSIA report on Cyber Threat Landscape Analysis of 2012 (The
  EU’s cyber security agency ) the top ten threats in socially important technology areas such
  as mobile, social media, critical infrastructure, cloud, and big data are Drive-by exploits
  (malicious code injections that exploit web browser vulnerabilities), Worms/Trojans, Code
  injection attacks, Exploit kits (ready to use software packages to automate cybercrime),
  Botnets (hijacked computers that are remotely controlled), (Distributed) Denial of Service
  attacks (DDoS/DoS), Phishing (fraud mails and websites), Compromising confidential
  information (data breaches), Rogueware/ scareware and Spam.

      2. Cyberbullying

  Author Belsey(2006) highlighted that Cyberbullying has on normal school functioning,
  educators, parents, policy makers, and researchers are quickly looking for the best way to
  deal with this newest form of harassment.
  According to the author Beran, T., & Li, Q. (2005) of Cyber-harassment: A study of a new
  method for an old behavior in the Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32(3), 265-
  277 described that the face to face bullying and Cyberbullying. Little research has been

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performed that has adequately examined the relationship between bullying at school and
Cyberbullying, so its similarity to traditional bullying remains relatively unknown.
Hinduja and Patchin (2008) postulate that one main difference between the two forms of
harassment is that where physical power is an essential component of traditional bullying,
computer proficiency alone is enough to empower one to commit such acts online.
         Educators Guide to Cyberbullying and Cyber threats – Nancy Willard, M.S.J.D.
April 2005- 2007 (Parent Guide to Cyberbullying and Cyber threats), this article discuss
about the types of cyber bullying and their impact on students and teenagers and legal issues
which should be considered with this. This article elaborates the problem that it is be
difficult to tell which type of threat will be there when school officials or law enforcement
are first appraised of an online threat.
         In case of Cyberbullying may be it is in school or off school various things will occur
such as the student who is victimized at school is also being bullied online. But other times,
the person who is victimized at school becomes a cyberbully and retaliates online. Still other
times, the student who is victimized will share his or her anger or depression online as
distressing material. When school officials respond to a report of cyberbullying or a
cyberthreat, it is exceptionally important to take the time to fully investigate the situation—
through an analysis of online as well as Real World interactions. Students should be held
accountable for harmful material posted online, but punishing the student who is being
victimized at school for responding to this victimization online will only increase the
potential for additional harmful acts.
         The Parent Guide to Cyberbullying and Cyberthreats (Chapter 1), there are
increasing reports of teenagers (and sometimes younger children) using these technologies to
post damaging text or images to bully their peers or engage in other aggressive behavior.
There are also increasing reports of teens posting material that raises concerns that they are
considering an act of violence toward others or themselves. This guide provides parents with
insight into these concerns and guidelines to prevent your child from being victimized by or
engaging in online harmful behavior.
         According to the author Richard Doneganin of paper Bullying and Cyberbullying:
History, Statistics, Law, Prevention and Analysis in The Elon Journal of Undergraduate
Research in Communications • Vol. 3, No. 1 • Spring 2012 illustrated the bullying problems
like win-or-die-trying atmosphere, the competitive college acceptance process, and much of
the corporate world, contribute to many of the that we battle toady. The issues of bullying
and Cyberbullying can only be contained in the short term and not eliminated completely due
to how deep-seeded they have become in our competitive society. A successful program
needs to clearly identify the problem, establish recognition, and formulate consistent ways of
dealing with the issue across all platforms. The biggest struggle for Cyberbullying
prevention in the future is matching the fast pace of technological innovation with
effective preventative techniques.
         The issue of Cyberbullying is difficult to fully understand because of how recently
this phenomenon has surfaced. It has become a hot topic for school administrators, parents,
and lawmakers, but the little data that has been collected thus far has mostly provided an
underdeveloped picture of the prevalence of the problem (Hinduja & Patchin, 2008).
Children today are born into a world where a variety of technological tools have been at their
dispersal since their earliest memories. They are being raised in an Internet dominant world
where digital interaction often is the primary means through which they interact with one
another (Hinduja & Patchin, 2009).

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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-
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        Wiseman, Brian, illustrated in Cyberbullying in schools: A research study on
school policies and procedures" (2011)" that Cyberbullying is still a relatively new
phenomenon, but the little data currently in existence indicate that the negative effects of
Cyberbullying are at least similar to those of more traditional forms of bullying (Ybarra &
Mitchell, 2004). Because of this, it is important to take a look at the effects of traditional
bullying in order to gain a better understanding of Cyberbullying. Despite the infancy of
Cyberbullying, traditional bullying has long been a deeply embedded problem in schools
throughout the world (Roland & Isdoe, 2001).
        Cyberbullying and cyberthreats are just two of the concerns related to youth online
behavior. Nancy Willard’s new book, Cyber-Safe Kids, Cyber-Savvy Teens, provides
extensive insight and guidance on all issues related to the safe and responsible use of the
Internet by young people.
    The article on Project Safekids - Cyber Bullying & Cyber Threat Information for Parents
& Educators tilted Cyberbullying and Cyberthreats: Responding to the Challenge of
Online Social Cruelty, Threats, and Distress provides in-depth insight and practical
strategies for school administrators, counselors/psychologists, resource officers, education
technology directors, teachers, and others to prevent and respond to Cyberbullying and cyber
threats and Effective Internet Usage management tips.

   3. Rationale of Cyberbullying

      It is widely known that face-to-face bullying can result in long-term psychological
 harm to targets. This harm includes low self-esteem, depression, anger, school failure and
 avoidance, and, in some cases, school violence or suicide. It is possible that the harm
 caused by Cyberbullying may be greater than harm caused by traditional bullying. The
 reasons behind the Cyberbullying are as:
   - Cyberbullying and Cyberthreats may be related to in-school bullying.
   - Cyberbullying may involve relationships. If a relationship breaks up, one person may
      start to Cyberbullying the other person. Other times, teens may get into online fights
      about relationships.
   - Cyberbullying may be based on hate or bias—bullying others because of race,
      religion, physical appearance (including obesity), or sexual orientation.
   - Teens may think that Cyberbullying is entertaining—a game to hurt other people.
   - Disclosing personal information to others.
   - Addiction of Internet
   - Violent gaming
   - Angry and disconnected youth and many more

   4. Face to face bullying and Cyber Bullying

        Technology’s progression is often equated with the advancement of human societies.
Pivotal innovations, such as the Internet, have forever changed how people interact. Though
these developments have allowed the human race to make great strides in many fields, they
have also allowed forms of transgression to become more rampant and widespread. This is
evident when considering how traditional bullying has evolved into an issue today known as
Cyberbullying. While bullying and Cyberbullying are often similar in terms of form and
technique they also have many differences. Unlike traditional bullying, Cyberbullying allows

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   the offender to mask his or her identity behind a computer. This anonymity makes it easier
   for the offender to strike blows against a victim without having to see the victim’s physical
   response. The distancing effect that technological devices have on today’s youth often leads
   them to say and do crueler things compared to what is typical in a traditional face-to-face
   bullying situation.[9]
   It is widely known that face-to-face bullying can result in long-term psychological harm to
   targets. This harm includes low self-esteem, depression, anger, school failure and avoidance,
   and, in some cases, school violence or suicide. It is possible that the harm caused by cyber
   bullying may be greater than harm caused by traditional bullying because . . .
        • Online communications can be extremely vicious.
        • There is no escape for those who are being cyber bullied—victimization is ongoing,
           24/7.
        • Cyber bullying material can be distributed worldwide and is often irretrievable.
        • Cyber bullies can be anonymous and can solicit the involvement of unknown
           “friends.”
        • Teens may be reluctant to tell adults what is happening online or through their cell
        • phones because they are emotionally traumatized, think it is their fault, fear greater
        • Retribution, or fear online activities or cell phone use will be restricted.

III.   CYBER THREATS IN EDUCATION

           The internet has become an increasingly popular medium among youth .Therefore,
   not only the opportunities, but the dangers of cyberspace apply to youth as well. Youth in
   particular use the internet for communicative purposes and, in addition, research indicates
   that the potential to interact with others in harmful ways while being online exists. One of
   the emerging risks of communication on the internet for youth is Cyberbullying.
           In the age of technology, many children have easy access to technological devices
   such as computers, Skype, cameras, the Internet, and cellular telephones. These technologies
   can be used for productive reasons, but have recently become a means for children to become
   bullies and use the technology to make threats against other children. Cyberbullying has
   become a serious problem, inflicting psychological, emotional, and social harm to many
   victims (Patchin & Hinduja, 2006).
           Cyberbullying and cyberthreats may be related to in-school bullying. Sometimes, the
   student who is victimized at school is also being bullied online. But other times, the person
   who is victimized at school becomes a cyberbully and retaliates online. Still other times, the
   student who is victimized will share his or her anger or depression online as distressing
   material. When school officials respond to a report of Cyberbullying or a cyberthreat, it is
   exceptionally important to take the time to fully investigate the situation—through an
   analysis of online as well as Real World interactions. Students should be held accountable for
   harmful material posted online, but punishing the student who is being victimized at school
   for responding to this victimization online will only increase the potential for additional
   harmful acts. [1]

IV.    FUTURE DIRECTIONS

          The purpose of this study is to review the literature about Cyberbullying and the
   impact it is having on youth. The details about Cyberbullying will be compared to those of

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  6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME

  traditional bullying. Literature about what warning signs adults can look for to recognize
  Cyberbullying and factors that put children at risk is included along with the prevalence and
  ramifications of Cyberbullying.
          Each day school children learn valuable skills and lessons from their teachers as well
  as through interactions with their peers. There are some experiences, such as bullying, that
  may negatively affect and stick with these children for the rest of their lives. The literature
  review talks about the traditional bullying and Cyberbullying along with the reasons behind
  bullying. There is need for an effective Cyberbullying awareness program make awareness
  and alert about the Cyberbullying, Internet usage to parents, schools and students which will
  elaborate the impact of Cyberbullying and their day to day life. The biggest struggle for
  Cyberbullying prevention in the future is matching the fast pace of technological innovation
  with effective preventative techniques. Also the researcher found that there is need to design
  a unified Tool to curb the Cyberbullying & threats to restrict the access of students to the
  websites and effective internet usage management model.

V.    CONCLUSION

         Cyberbullying is an emerging concern which is needed to concentrate more and need
  to be well studied in schools. Therefore the study is important to provide a way ahead for
  emerging concern and find out the solution. From above various articles, report and research
  papers about the cyber threat and the researcher found that it is concentrated on various types
  of cyber threats, merging threats and how to defeat them. The Guidance for school officials
  on the review and response to a report of an incident of Cyberbullying or a cyber threat is
  available for the schools and parents. The issues of bullying and Cyberbullying can only be
  contained in the short term and not eliminated completely due to how deep-seeded they have
  become in our competitive society.

VI.   BIBLIOGRAPHY & REFERENCES

  [1] Educators Guide to Cyberbullying and Cyber threats – Nancy Willard, M.S.J.D.
  http://csriu.org, http://cyberbully.org, and http://cyber-safe-kids.com
  [2] www.researchpress.com - Cyberbullying and Cyber threats :Responding to the challenge
  of online social aggression, Threats and Distress(Research Press)
  [3] http://www.cyberbullying.us. Cyberbullying Research Center – Preventing Cyberbullying
  - Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin , January 2012
  [4] An investigation into cyberbullying, its forms, awareness and impact, and the relationship
  between age and gender in cyberbullying A Report to the Anti-Bullying Alliance by Peter
  Smith, Jess Mahdavi, Manuel Carvalho and Neil Tippett Unit for School and Family Studies,
  Goldsmiths College, University of London
  [5] International Journal of Computer Science & Information Security IJCSIS Vol. 10 No. 11,
  November 2012 ISSN 1947-5500 Paper 31101227: Internet Fraud as one of the cyber threat
  and its impact in India (pp. 38-41) Ashwini Manish Brahme, Assistant Professor, Indira
  Institute of Management(MCA), Pune, University of Pune, Maharashtra, India
  [6] Emerging Cyber Threats Report for 2009 Data, Mobility and Questions of Responsibility
  will Drive Cyber Threats in 2009 and Beyond. The Georgia Tech Information Security
  Center (GTISC)


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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-
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[7]Macro-Economic Cyber Security Models Matt Kiely, Eric Kobe, Amanda MacArthur,
Matt Polk, Eric Rains, Eva Andrijcic, Jonathan Crawford, and Barry Horowitz
[8]http://www.projectsafekids.org/cyber/index.html Project Safekids - Cyber Bullying &
Cyber Threat Information for Parents & Educators
[9]Bullying and Cyberbullying: History, Statistics, Law, Prevention and Analysis
Richard Donegan*Strategic Communication Elon University — The Elon Journal of
Undergraduate Research in Communications • Vol. 3, No. 1 • Spring 2012
[10]Cyber Bullying: Overview and Strategies for School Counsellors, Guidance Officers, and
All School Personnel Christine Suniti Bhat Ohio University, United States of America
Australian Journal of Guidance & Counselling Volume 18 Number 1 2008 ▲ pp. 53–66
[11]Cyber-Safe Kids, Cyber-Savvy Teens: Helping Young People Learn to Use the Internet
Safely and Responsibly (Jossey-Bass)
Cyberbullying and cyberthreats are just two of the concerns related to youth online behavior.
Nancy Willard’s new book, Cyber-Safe Kids, Cyber-Savvy Teens, provides extensive insight
and guidance on all issues related to the safe and responsible use of the Internet by young
people. More information at http://cyber-safe-kids.com.
[12] Wiseman, Brian, "Cyberbullying in schools: A research study on school policies and
procedures" (2011). UNLV Theses/Dissertations/ Professional Papers/Capstones. Paper 911
[13] The EU’s cyber security agency ENISA has published its Cyber Threat Landscape
Analysis of 2012 which puts drive-by-exploits as the top web threat.
http://www.welivesecurity.com/2013/01/11/euro-cyber-security-agency-lists-top-ten-cyber-
threats/
[14] Emerging Cyber Threats Report for 2009 — Georgia Tech Information Security Center
http://securingourecity.org/resources/whitepapers/Securing_eCity_Cybersecurity_May2009.
pdf
[15] Goverdhan Reddy Jidiga and Dr. P Sammulal, “Machine Learning Approach to
Anomaly Detection in Cyber Security with a Case Study of Spamming Attack”, International
Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013,
pp. 113 - 122, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.




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