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					Behaviour Exceptionalities

By: Barb, Cheri, Monika S. & Andrew
           Table of Contents
Chapter 1 (mis)conceptions
Chapter 2 Causes and Assumptions
Chapter 3 Defining Behaviour Exceptionalities
Chapter 4 Psychology of Behaviour Exceptionalities
Chapter 5 The Individual Education Plan
Chapter 6 Case Studies
Chapter 7 Classroom Strategies
Chapter 1 (mis)conceptions
 Chapter 1 (mis)conceptions

You are a teacher in a high school and you have never dealt
with a Behaviour Exceptionality in any of your classes. In
fact, you don’t really know what a Behaviour Exceptionality
is. You have never read an IEP before and you think
Special Education is something that specially trained
teachers do.

Students are referred to an IPRC for their behaviour only if they are

Very often a student with a behaviour exceptionality is bright but

Medication improves academic achievement for students with Attention
Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Aside from those with anxiety or withdrawal symptoms, students with
behaviour disorders act out because they want attention.

A student who is apathetic and spends most of their class time
daydreaming does not meet the criteria for a behaviour disorder.
Chapter 2 Causes and Assumptions
 It is November and your class has a new student named Jason,
 age 17. His OSR has not yet arrived from his previous school.
 He has been disruptive in your class to an extent that you
 have never dealt with before. He swears at you and others,
 gives attitude when treated with respect, refuses to produce
 any work and manipulates vulnerable students in your class.
 He tried to start a fight on his second day, but the students
 broke it up before you could react. The only thing Jason has
 not been doing is skipping your class. As a relatively new
 teacher, you are not sure who to ask for help with this
 challenging student. However, Jason has been talked about
 in the staff room by his other teachers…
“I bet he is so low functioning that he takes it out
aggressively on those around him.”
“He definitely learned this behaviour from home. The boy
just lacks discipline. If only he were in my class, I’d show
him a thing or two.”
“There has been some new research on the effects of diet
and pollution on the behaviour of children. It could have
something to do with that.”
“Bad behaviour comes from bad role models. We should
brace ourselves for more students like this in the coming
“I feel for the kid. Deep down he probably has some good
reasons to be angry at the world.”
       Food For Thought:
“Myths which are believed tend to become true.”

          George Orwell (1903-1950)
          Writer, Author, & Journalist
Chapter 3 Defining Behaviour Exceptionalities
   That night, you look
   up what the Ministry
   of Education says
   about Behaviour
   Disorders. You think
   back to all the
   students you have
   taught and wonder
   how many may have
   fit the criteria.
The Ministry Definition:
    Team Analysis

                           Groups of 4

                        Group definition

                         Share with class

         Revise your definition based on new information

             The team that gets the most criteria wins
The Ministry Definition:
    Team Analysis

    (1) A learning disorder
    (2) Characterized by specific behaviour problems
    (3) Behaviour occurs over a period of time
    (4) Behaviours negatively affect educational performance
    (5) Behaviours may be accompanied by:
        (a) Inability to make/maintain relationships
        (b) Excessive fears/anxieties
        (c) Compulsive reactions
    (6) Learning deficiency can’t be traced to intellectual,
    seonsory or other health factors or combination of
Chapter 4 Psychology of Behaviour Exceptionalities

       The Ministry of Education definition for Behaviour
       Exceptionalities has left you wanting to know more.
       When you get home that night, you research some of
       the psychological disorders that meet the criteria for
       Behaviour Exceptionalities. Overwhelmed by the
       information online, you borrow the textbook from a
       friend who has done their Special Education AQ course.
       Behaviour Exceptionalities fit into 4 broad,
       overlapping categories…
Chapter 4 Psychology of Behaviour Exceptionalities

       Anxiety and Depression

       Conduct Disorder

       Oppositional Defiance Disorder

       Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
  Anxiety and Depression
(Withdrawal vs. Acting Out)
Conduct Disorders: Symptoms

  Aggressive          Anti-social
  Violent             Impulsive
  Disruptive          Distractible
  Attention-seeking   Ill tempered
  Disrespectful       Immature
  Hyperactive         Unpopular
    Conduct Disorders: Issues

Largest identified Behaviour Exceptionality in Canada

6 – 16 % of boys under 18

2 – 9 % of girls under 18

Increased likelihood of substance abuse, bullying and
criminal activity
          Partial Diagnostic Criteria for
         Oppositional Defiance Disorder
A pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behaviour lasting at least 6 months
              during which four or more of the following are present:

    Often loses temper

    Often argues with adults

    Often actively defies or refuses to comply with adult’s requests or rules

    Often deliberately annoys other people

    Often blames others for his/her mistakes/misbehaviour

    Often touchy or easily annoyed by others

    Often angry or resentful

    Often spiteful or resentful
Oppositional Defiance Disorder: Causes

  Chemical & Physiological

  Neurobiochemical (serotonin)


  Irregularities in pre-frontal and frontal regions of the
Oppositional Defiance Disorder: Assessment

  Psychological Assessment, specifically BOSC

  Family History

  Must cause significant impairment to child’s social,
  academic or occupational functioning.
Oppositional Defiance Disorder: Clinical Treatment

     Behavioural Therapy

     Psychopharmacological Therapy
“Lifeguards who watch the water closely don’t
   have to jump in and rescue people very
        Structure & Routine


Check in (1) Choose your battles and

               (2) Problem solve collaboratively.
      Recognize Vapour Lock



Distraction or Humour

“It’s you, not the student, who determines whether this
becomes a meltdown”
“Screw you”
                                                  “I hate you”

“I wish I was dead”

 Translation: My capacity for rational thought is quickly diminishing or is already
 completely gone.
Ross W. Greene video
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder:

1. Unable to maintain attention at age appropriate level

2. Impulsive actions without thinking about

3. Hyperactivity
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder:
1. Advocates for ADHD see it as a neurological medical
   condition caused by faulty regulation by the
   neurotransmitter norepinephrine.
2. Suspected genetic anomalies in some chromosomes
   (dopamine transporter gene on chromosome 5 and
   dopamine receptor D4 gene on chromosome 11)
3. Suspected dopamine deficiency as well as
4. Chemical deficiencies in noradrenaline and seratonin
   also suspected
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder:

 Being diagnosed with increasing frequency

 Debatable if it needs or deserves distinctive status

 Concern it is the “label du jour” – an invention of a
 culture that doesn’t parent its children well and needs
 an excuse
Chapter 5 The Individual Education Plan
Jason's Ontario School Record finally arrives! He has been to 4
secondary schools in 4 years, and only has 8 credits. He has a long
history of low achievement and disruptive behaviour. The principal
has asked you to attend an IPRC Review. Jason’s Individual
Education Plan needs to be updated, you are told.

You consult with your department members on how to
accommodate the learning environment to prevent Jason’s outbursts.
Environmental Accommodations

• form groups of 4 – 5 according to your teachables
• brainstorm and record environmental
accommodations that could benefit Jason’s
behaviour in your class
• make the accommodations specific to your
subject area, where possible
             Chapter 6 Case Studies

The year is finally over and you are not particularly happy with
how it went. The situation with Jason was primarily relieved by
the fact that he stopped showing up for your class. In order to be
more prepared for these situations in the future, you take Special
Education Part 1. After all, it is possible that Jason will be back in
your class next year. During the session on Behaviour
Exceptionalities, you are given scenarios and asked to come up
with accommodations in response to them. They may be for
instruction, environment or assessment.

•Find a partner you have never worked with.
•Pick up a scenario from the teacher.
•On the back of the scenario, write as many accommodations as
you can come up with.
     Chapter 7 Classroom Strategies

Over the course of your career, you have become increasingly
interested in Behaviour Exceptionalities. When possible,
you attend workshops and courses to further your
understanding of the issue. You are now a leader in your
school’s Special Education department. Here are some of
the things you have learned…
   Teach students to self-monitor

Select a target behaviour that is resulting in problems
in school.

Define that behaviour with the student.

Monitor the frequency of only that behaviour in
various settings and times of school day.

Build in rewards for desired behaviours
  Student Self-Monitoring How-to
Tape a small square of paper next to the student.
Tape a similar piece next to the teacher/E.A..
Neutrally describe the behaviour which you want the student to stop e.g.
"When you speak out while someone else is talking no one can really listen to
you. I would like you to wait for your turn."
Ask the student to put a mark on the paper whenever s/he uses that behaviour.
Inform the student you will also make a mark when you notice the behaviour.
At the end of the lesson, compare notes to see if you agree on the number of
times the behaviour had occurred.
This is a non-judgmental, no consequence exercise intended to make the
student aware of the behaviour. The awareness often results in lessening or
extinguishing of the behaviour.
  Collaborative Problem Solving

Belief: Students act out when the demands of their
environment exceed their capabilities to adapt.
Behaviour stems from a developmental delay.

Response: Behaviour challenges are best dealt with by
collaboratively solving the problems that are causing
the challenging behaviour.
            Cooperative Discipline

Prevent             Avert                React
Warm-up             Inclusive Language   Don’t Get Personal
Their Interests     Reinforcement        Community
Behaviour Contract
Restorative Practices

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